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THESE SLAVIC WOMEN FROM A FARMING REGION ARE BOUND, NOT FOR AMERICAN FARMS, BUT FOR COAL MINING TOWNS

leasure are the steamship agents, who pective immigrants in Europe, and they everywhere on that continent. We can old out glowing pictures and false mutter “ New York." Mention Minne- satisfy that craving for land. There is opes, and the more clever of their sota, Iowa, or Illinois, and they take it plenty to be had, and there is also ompatriots, who, having found a pleas- that you are talking about some foreign plenty of work to be had on our farms ng prosperity here, return to their land of which they have never heard. and ranches. This would solve the labor ative land with what to them seem Through our American representa- problem to a large extent on the farms ke all the ear-marks of prosperity, such tives in Europe I believe that special and result in cheaper production, low's modish clothing, plenty of money to literature giving information of the ering the cost of living. 11 appearances, and an air of elegance States where home-making opportuni,

I believe the Government should hich fascinates the gullible.

ties are to be found should be dis- undertake some plan of distributing “Well,” argues the dissatisfied one, tributed among those who plan to come immigration so that it could be placed if Tony or Jake can accomplish all here to make their home. If necessary, to the best possible advantage to this nis, why shouldn't we go to America we could afford actually to help this country. A wise policy of distribution od become rich too ?? Perhaps they class of immigrants. Think of the would prevent congestion, and the o not possess

the business acumen and thousands of abandoned farms in the gathering of too many of one nationreat vitality and vision that their suc- East and South and the millions of ality in a certain community would be essful brothers had who made good acres that lie in the Middle and Far obviated, thereby making their Ameriere, and after a few unhappy years

West for the want of some one to canization the easier. A system of disf living in dark, crowded, noisy tene- work them. What would it not be tribution must be inaugurated and addents, and slaving in even darker and worth to us in dollars and cents to place hered to if we are to protect ourselves nore loathsome sweatshops or factories, all our vacant lands under cultivation ?

all our vacant lands under cultivation? against this onslaught of foreign inneir bitter disillusion determines their The land question in many parts vasion which not only threatens our ffiliation with the Red army. Somehow of Europe to-day is aggravating the peaceful and economic life, but also the r other, they feel that they have been spirit of unrest that is to be found bulwarks of democracy as well. eceived in the promises or vision of ne promised land and turn to anarchy 2 express their contempt for this and ll other forms of government.

This is merely one of the results of ar stupidity in allowing such overcowding in the big cities. Reviewing the situation from every agle, I can reach no other conclusion ian that immigration to this country or the next few years should be confined Imost exclusively to those who would ome here with the intention of going ato the land, either as independent irmers or as helpers. It is my judgvent that this is the only class that can rove a distinct asset to our National ad economic life at the present time.

FRIENDS AND RELATIVES AT BATTERY PARK, NEW YORK, WAITING TO GO TO ELLIS ISLAND Mention America to most of the pros

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(C) Keystone

TO GREET INCOMING ALIENS

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CHE BOOK TABLE: DEVOTED TO BOOKS AND THEIR MAKERS

:

FOUR BOOKS REVIEWED

BY LYMAN ABBOTT

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by insisting that both “the sympathetic portrayal of the inner struggle of a troubled soul” and “the overcoming of this strug gle by a supreme effort of faith to rise superior to it through the concentration of our thought on the larger manifestations of mysterious forces at work in the universe can still find a response.” Whether that response will be as prompt and as complete for those who accept Professor Jastrow's theory of a composite authorship as for those to whom the Book of Job comes as the work of one inspired genius who saw clearly and portrayed frankly the insoluble problem of sin and suffering may well be doubted. Professor Jastrow's view will have to overcome not only traditional prejudice but also strong emotional attachment to the older view. But his volume 4 is one which students of the Bible cannot ignore.

THE NEW BOOKS

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R. BERGSON's best-known book indi- not believe that by this method a stable or cates by its title, “ Creative Evolu- desirable form of communism can be estab

tion,” the quality which has caused lished.” Yet throughout the book 3 Bolshim to be eagerly welcomed by religious evism is' treated as a fanaticism, and hinkers. Creative is a word of theology ; “fanatics are seldom genuinely humane, volution is a word of science. The and those who sincerely dread cruelty will ombination of the two indicates a man be slow to accept a fanatical creed.” Thus ho is both a theologian and a scientist ; it is really the spirit of Bolshevism not its -ho is familiar both with the facts con- method that Mr. Russell condemns, and erning the material world which scientific he substitutes method for spirit without bservation has given to us and with knowing that he has done so. The chief ne life of the spirit of man as it has value of this book lies in the fact that it is een studied and interpreted by prophetic linds. He sees with unusual clearness both ne outer and the inner world, the world of atter and the world of the spirit, and beeves that there is no real conflict between hem, though they are quite different and must be investigated by different methods. he student who lacks either the time or ne training to study Mr. Bergson's larger nd more difficult work will find in this olume of essays ? clues not difficult to unerstand and profitable to follow. Proessor Bergson has convictions and the ourage of them, as witness this sentence nken from the first paragraph of his Idress on accepting the

presidency of the ociety for Psychical Research : “Still ore than the ingenuity and the penetraon, still more than the unwearying perseerance with which you have continued our course, I admire the courage which it as required, especially during the first ears, to struggle against the prejudices of

HENRI BERGSON great part of the scientific world and to rave the mockery which strikes fear into

a condemnation of the spirit of Bolshene boldest breast.” This is to challenge

vism by one whose prejudices for its

avowed principles would naturally make ne scorn of that considerable school of nscientific scientists who scoff at the in

him its apologist if not its defender. estigation of psychic phenomena because

The Book of Job is regarded by most inwestigate them is to deny the unscien

modern scholars as a drama, an interprefic assumption that such phenomena can

tation embodied for English readers in ot exist.

Professor Genung's volume entitled "An The four Gospels are not biographies ;

Epic of the Inner Life.' This view Proey are memorabilia. In them very little

fessor Jastrow rejects. The Biblical books, tention is paid to chronology. This vol

he says, are not to be regarded as literary me 2 is a connected and continuous biogra

units composed by some individual at y. The author assumes the truth of the

some specific time. “ As a matter of fact, iraculous birth and the bodily resurrec

with the possible single exception of the on and all the intermediate miracles. He

Book of Esther, which is a propagandist pes not discuss, he interprets. If he solves

romance that may not be earlier than

100 B.C., there is not a book of the Old questions, he raises none. His narrative

Testament that can be assigned to any inplain, simple, understandable, but not arked by either remarkable scholarship

dividual author, as none represents in its - remarkable insight. It will add nothing present form a genuine literary unity.

The composition of Job, dating in its earthe scholar's knowledge of either the fe or the character of Christ, but will be

liest forin from the period before the conrofitable to the reader because it puts the

tact with Greek culture, was produced

under the time-honored method, prevalent miliar narrative in a new dress. The lustrations are original and striking.

throughout the ancient East, of anonymous and composite authorship." He regards the

a symposium, not a drama," and Bertrand Russell is not a clear thinker.

offers a new translation in which the sepor example, in his preface he says: "I elieve that communism is necessary to

arate poems of which it is a composite

are indicated. Job has been classed by e world, and I believe that the heroism

modern critics with such world dramas Russia has fired men's hopes in a way as the “ Prometheus Bound” of Æschyhich was essential to the realization of

lus, the “Faust” of Goethe, and the mmunism in the future.” But he thinks

“Hamlet” of Shakespeare. We do not at the method of Bolshevism is bad: “I do

easily consent to the loss of so great a draMind-Energy. By Henri Bergson. Translated

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HISTORY AND POLITICAL ECONOMY Pilgrim (The). Vol. I, No. 1. A Review of Chris

tian Politics and Religion. Edited by William Temple. Longmans, Green & Co., New York. Published in this Tercentenary of the landing of the Pilgrims, the reader not unnaturally expects to find in this new view” an exposition of the theology of the Pilgrim Fathers. What he does find is an exposition of the theology from which they escaped. It promises to furnish to the student a modern and able interpretation and advocacy of the theological and ecclesiastical views which characterized the Oxford movement of the last century. It is, however, difficult to judge of a periodical by the first number, and future issues may correct a first impression. Short History of Belgium (A). By Leon van

der Essen, Ph.D., LL.D. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. No nation played a prouder part in the war and no nation has come back more nobly to the demands of peace than has Belgium. All readers, young and old, will want to be informed about that country, and this book admirably fills such a need.

POETRY Anthology of Magazine Verse ,for 1920

and Year-Book of American Poetry. Edited by William Stanley Braithwaite. Small, Maynard & Co., Boston. Mr. Braithwaite in this year's “ Anthology” continues the steady improvement which has gone on year after year in his annual compilations of the work of American poets. He has rendered a real service to American poetry by his conscientious research within this field and by his devoted labor as a critic and student of American verse.

As a book of reference the volume suffers somewhat from the fact that several well-known magazines are not represented in the attached bibliography. The absence of these magazines is not to be laid at Mr. Braithwaite's door. We wish that American editors generally would co-operate more fully with Mr. Braithwaite than they have done in the past by sending him such issues of their magazines as contain poetry. Poetry lovers might help by send

matic poem ; but Professor Jastrow enH. Wildon Carr. 'Henry Holt & Co., New York. deavors to reconcile the reader to this loss 2 The Life of Christ. By the Rev. G. Robinson es, B.A. Illustrated. Dodd, Mead & Co., New 3 Bolshevism; Practice and Theory. By Bertrand ork.

Russell. Harcourt, Brace & Howe, New York.

4 The Book of Job. By Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D., LL.D. The J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.

book as

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ing Mr. Braithwaite individual poems Few of us knew at the time that the naval devoted to details of practical interest which appeal to their judgment, and poets forces protecting the English Channel were to the most technically minded fisherthemselves would contribute to the value meager. The whole account shows the man. Both the expert and the tyro will of Mr. Braithwaite's volume as a reference author as a very human character and a find good fishing in these attractive book if they would send to its compiler typical British sea dog.

pages. copies of their poems as they appear.

Mr.

Average Americans. By Theodore Roosevelt. Braithwaite's volume is so useful that we

MISCELLANEOUS Illustrated. G. P. Putnaru's Sons, New York. dislike to see it fall short of its complete

Abandoned Farmers (The). By Irvin

One of the best records of individual Cobb. The George H. Doran Company, Net opportunity.

experience in the w is this book from York.
POETRY
the pen of the son of the late ex-President.

“ The Abandoned Farmers” represents Book of Humorous Verse (The). Compiled by

It is human, readable, and contains the Mr. Cobb at his happiest. It is the story Carolyn Wells. The George H. Doran Com- record of a most unusual experience. of an attempt to build a country home apa pany, New York. Fifty Years in the Royal Navy. By Admiral

an abandoned farm-a problem doubtless An extensive anthology of poems of Sir Percy Scott, Bt. Illustrations. The George familiar to the contemporaries of Cato and humor, English and American, classified H. Doran Company, New York.

Varro, but a “tale that is always new" to under such titles as Cynicism, Banter, The This work will be prized by every stu- those who are confronted with the task of Eternal Feminine, Parody, Nonsense, and dent of naval history. The recent devel- establishing a home beyond the city walls 80 on. It contains many scores of familiar opment of the British navy covers a An agriculturist has been defined as a man poems, from “Sally in Our Alley” down period from the time when warships were who makes his money in the city and to “ The Purple Cow.” There are also a under sail to the present time when we spends it in the country, while a farmer large number of fun-provoking efforts talk of superdreadnoughts and submarines. has been defined as the reverse of an agrilittle known, many of them by our old It has been, coincidentally, a period of strug- culturist. Mr. Cobb belongs decidedly to friend Anonymous. Carolyn Wells was gle against conservative Admiralty offi. the former class. Fortunately for hin, le just the right person to make this collec

cialism, and some of the struggle has been is a man who is able to coin any experience tion, and she has done the work well. waged by men happily still living, like into literary material. Doubtless this book Contemporary Verse Anthology. Favorite

Lords Fisher and Jellicoe, Admirals Scott will go down in history as the most sur Poems Selected from the Magazine “Contem- and Bacon. Especially has this been true cessful crop which he ever raised on his porary Verse” 1916–1920. Introduction by of Sir Percy Scott, a foremost advocate of

farm. Charles Wharton Stork. E. P. Dutton & Co., York. gunnery reform. He was finally able to

Great Adventure of Panama (The). By The poems in this volume are selected

equip the ships of the British with

navy

Philippe Bunau-Varilla. Doubleday, Page & his Director Firing" invention, an equip- Co., Garden City. from issues of " Contemporary Verse," the

ment which, it is believed, saved the Grand The Germans have apparently played a poetry magazine edited by Charles Whar

Fleet at the battle of Jutland. So much ton Stork. Contemporary Verse” has

larger part than we realize with the openseemed to us a magazine of very uneven

for the past. What of the future? The ing of a canal between the Atlantic and quality. The selections from it which ap

battleship is more alive than ever," say Pacific. Not only France but also Gerpear in this volume, however, are, in the

“She is dead,” say others, like Sir many wanted to possess a great channel of main, chosen with discrimination and taste.

Percy Scott. Hear him as he speaks in his world communication by constructing a “Fifty Years in the Royal Navy:"

trans-isthmian canal across either Panama TRAVEL AND DESCRIPTION

Before the war I regarded the superbattleship or Nicaragua. In this volume M. BunauAmerican Towns and People. By Harrison

as dead, and I think it more dead now, if that Varilla contends that this ambition on the Rhodes. Illustrated. Robert M. McBride &

is possible. . . . She is vulnerable to aircraft Co., New York.

and to submarines.

part of Germany may be traced to BisThe future is with the airship.

marck and his aggressive Prussian polies The unusually discriminating comment Probably we shall also have submersible

of gradual conquest. It had been shown of this book is matched by exceptionally battleships.

in the wars with Denmark, Austria, and good pictures. People who live in the What chance will the surface battleship

have ?

France. He even blames it for Napoleon « towns” described will not always relish

III's action in Mexico; that action did the characterizations, but they will always

From Serbia to Jugoslavia. By Gordon
Gordon-Smith. Preface by Dr. Slavko

much to determine the result of the Francobe interested in them.

Grouitch. G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. Prussian War of 1870, and, as Napoleon's Chance and Change in China. By A. S. The collapse of the Serbian

army

before policy in Mexico had adversely affected Roe. lllustrated. The George H. Doran Com- the German and Bulgarian invasion in French morale, Prussian victory was thos pany, New York.

1915 is vividly set forth in these China the Mysterious and Marvelous. By

pages.

In the more easily won. Up to the beginning Victor Murdock. Illustrated. The Fleming

the author's opinion, Allied policy played of the present century Americans had been H. Revell Company, New York.

a poor part in the Balkans. He declares obsessed by the advantages of the NicaTwo books have appeared on changing that if the Allies had sent an early expe- raguan route. As to the Panaman, the GerChina. The first is no political or eco- ditionary force to Serbia both Greece and mans foresaw that the concessions from nomic review. It is a book about every

Rumania would have taken up arms against Colombia to the French would lapse through day existence as lived there. It shows the Central Powers. Certainly Serbia can- non-fulfillment. Thus Germany's turn that millions of Chinese are only super- not be blamed for the débâcle of 1915. would come. So it might have come but ficially touched by the profound political The book is of absorbing interest.

for one man, who by forceful argument in changes of years. We have a description Germany After the Armistice. By Maurice influential quarters turned American prejuof ancient customs into which but slight Berger. Preface by Baron Beyens. Translated dice from Nicaragua to Panama, formed a change has crept and about old ideas, espe

by William L. McPherson. G. P. Putnam's

new Panama company, and so molded con

Sons, New York. cially those concerning women, which are

ditions that when Panama appealed to

This volume is the narrative of a Belnow, we hope, becoming somewhat modi

America “to be protected against Colom; fied. The second book, by the well-known gian engineer based on the personal testi

bia's tyranny and greed” it was natural

M. ex-Congressman, now Chairman of the mony of representative Germans.

for our President to say, "I took Panama Federal Trade Commission, is also graphic Berger was the first Allied military man

because Bunau-Varilla brought it to me on in description. The volume is, like the

sent to Berlin after the signing of the a silver platter.” It was appropriate that

armistice. In this book he sets down his other, picturesque and instructive, and

the real creator of Panama should be later indicates with the breezy conversational

interesting discoveries gained from per- Ambassador of the new Republic to the style of a Kansan how, after resisting sonal interviews with many former Ger

United States and that John · Hay should change for forty centuries, China is at last

man war lords. The work is of value to changing the students of the strategy of war.

negotiate and sign the treaty guaranteeing our rights of construction and control of

the Canal. Mr. Hay said to him: “It is Dover Patrol (The). 1915-1917. By Ad- Idyl of the Split Bamboo (The). By George

not often given to any man to render such miral Sir Reginald Bacon. 2 vols. Illustrated. Parker Holden, M.D., F.A.C.S. Illustrated, a service to two countries and to the cirThe George H. Doran Company, New York. The Stewart & Kidd Company, Cincinnati. ilized world as you have done.” Certainly These bulky volumes smack of the sea. This is not merely or mainly a panegyric his is a name we think of first when we They constitute a worthy memorial to the about the angler's joys, as the title might think of the Panama Canal, and hence any Dover Patrol. For two years Admiral seem to imply. Though the book strongly thing he has to say on that subject

, as jm Bacon was in command of it

. The patrol appeals to the fisherman of literary and this volume, is sure to command mile was a monument to British naval genius. artistic tastes, its chapters are largely attention.

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WAR BOOKS

SPORT AND ATHLETICS

DERAMPTON read

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Courtesy of the White Company

TRUCK AT WORK AT ROAD BUILDING IN OHIO

CONTRIBUTORS' THE NATION'S INDUSTRIAL PROGRESS GALLERY

Believing that the advance of business is a subject of vital interest and importance, The Outlook will

present under the above heading frequent discussions of subjects of industrial and commercial interest. C.

This department will include paragraphs of timely interest and articles of educational value dealing with

the industrial upbuilding of the Nation. Comment and suggestions are invited.
in The Outlook for
December 1 the
controversy, “Is the
Athlete an Ass?"
dropped everything
else, hunted up Mr.
Pulsifer and Mr.

Fuessle, and began to how the one where he was too easy on he easy chair and the other where even iis argument for violent exercise might e strengthened. In his own contribuion to the controversy he writes, not as in excited amateur, but as a knowing professional. He was formerly Director of Physical Education, Athletics, and dygiene of the Department of Educaion, New York City ; Secretary of the Public Schools Athletic League; and President of the National Society of Normal Schools of Physical Education. He is widely known as an investigator of blood pressure and measurement of INCREASING TRAFFIC DEMANDS MORE HIGHWAYS physical condition, growth, and adolescence. He was for two years Director of VERYBODY knows that good roads nearly 8,000,000 automobiles and trucks in Physical Exercise at the Battle Creek

cost money.

What is not so well the United States. Motor trucks have inSanitarium. At the Olympic Games known, though equally true, is that it also creased in number by 300,000 within the of 1914 he was awarded the gold medal costs money not to build good roads. To for scientific research in exercise.

hasten to the point, it has been estimated If highway transportation is to assume

—and conservatively, too—that a waste of the position which recent developments NEWTON FUESSLE, the author of S500,000,000 annually can be directly at$

indicate it will, more miles of improved Sunset,” is the same Fuessle that tributed to unimproved roads in America. highways are imperative. To this fact started the athletic controversy. He is

Money spent in building good roads there are signs of an awakening appreciagreatly impressed with New York. He

comes back in earnings from the com- tion. Approximately $1,000,000,000 is now

pleted roads, but money lost because of available for good roads building in the once lived in Chicago. Readers are warned that The Outlook is not re

unimproved roads is forever gone. United States. Serious proposals have been

The subject of improving the highways made to add another billion to this amount, sponsible for their inference.

is of growing importance. For instance, making a grand total of virtually $2,000,

against 259,000 miles of railway available 000,000 available for the building of good LAWRENCE F. ABBOTT is President of The Outlook Company.

for transportation and 15,000 miles of in- roads in the United States within the next land waterways, there are 2,753,000 miles five

years. of highways in this country representing AROLD KNUTSON, of Minnesota,

This gigantic sum, it is estimated, will HA the transportation mileage available for

pay for more than 66,000 miles of the who is the Majority Whip in the the motor car. And recently motor trans- finest hard roads yet built on this side of House of Representatives, recently vis- ports have taken a tremendous jump in the Atlantic—a mileage equal to ited Europe for the purpose of studying importance as carriers of freight. Motor- fourth of the total railway mileage of the conditions rising out of the war, and vehicle registration figures show an in- entire country, exceeding the total mileage the Exclusion Bill reported to the

crease of more than a million and one-half of the eight largest railway systems in the House on the opening day of Congress

cars since July 1, 1919. There are now United States, and one-half again as large is largely based on information gathered by himself and other members of the Immigration Committee during the summer recess of Congress.

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M
RS. MARGARET

SHIRLEY, who
writes from Rheims,
lives in Brooklyn,
where her father was a
well-known entomolo-
gist. Mrs.

Shirley, while on a visit to her daughter, Dr. Alice

Flood (a graduate of Michigan University and once attached to Bellevue Hospital), house physician at the American Memorial Hospital, gathered the data contained in this arti cle. Her stay of two months, in daily contact with the hospital staff, gave her exceptional opportunity of becoming acquainted with the work inside and outside the hospital.

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Courtesy of the White Company

ROAD CONSTRUCTION' IN ONONDAGA COUNTY, NEW YORK

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