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of Orenburg, declared that peasants in his food-distributing agencies and fed one hundiocese who had eaten the last of their food dred and twenty thousand starving peasants, were applying to their priests to give them at a cost of five hundred thousand rubles. the last sacraments, in view of impending This


it is not allowed to do famine-relief death.

work of any kind. Newspapers in all parts

of the Empire have been forbidden to solicit In this famine, as in the public subscriptions for the relief of the desfamines of 1891 and 1906, titute people, and if they venture to criticise

the relief measures of the the famine-relief policy of the administration Government have failed in timeliness and their editors are fined or imprisoned. It adequacy. Public works have been organ- would seem to a foreign observer that a ized in a number of the famine-stricken prov- Government must be very insecure or very inces, and $60,000,000 has been appro- cowardly when it dares not trust such organipriated for the purchase of food and seed; zations as the Free Economic Society, the but under bureaucratic management the Piragof Medical Society, and the Society for public works have failed to give employment the Preservation of the Public Health to disto millions who need it, and the famine relief tribute food or employ additional physicians fund is not half large enough to meet the in provinces where the people are dying of urgent needs of the starving population. It starvation, scurvy, and hunger-typhus. would be supposed that in such a crisis the Government would give every possible encouragement and assistance to societies

Following his announceand private individuals who are willing to

ment at the Durbar, George co-operate in the work of famine relief; but

V, King of England and the Council of Ministers is so much afraid of Emperor of India, has now laid the first a possible revolutionary propaganda in the stones of the new capital city of Indiaguise of relief work that will not allow the Delhi. NoImperial announcement, we believe, public at large to furnish aid, to distribute food, has ever appealed more to the imagination or even to solicit subscriptions for the benefit of the people of India—to the imagination of of the starving people. In this respect the Hindu and Mohammedan alike. For Delhi Ministry of Kokovtsef is more despotic and is intimately associated in the Hindu mind reactionary than even that of Stolypin. In with sacred legends which go back to the reply to an interpellation in the Duma, in 1906, dawn of history. To the Mohammedins there Premier Stolypin said: “Local organizations is the prospect of the restoration of the and private individuals will not be obstructed ancient capital of the Mogul Emperors. The in famine-relief work. On the contrary, they secret of the proposed change had been well will have the fullest sympathy and support.' kept, though the King-Emperor was careful Premier Kokovtsef, however, takes a different to state that his action- _6We have decided view of the situation. When representatives upon the transfer of the seat of the Governof twenty-two benevolent societies in St. ment of India from Calcutta to the ancient Petersburg called upon him, a few weeks ago, capital, Delhi ”—had been taken “ on the and asked permission to organize famine- advice of our Ministers.” The opposition relief work, they were informed that the leaders in Parliament have announced their Council of Ministers had decided not to allow commendable decision not to comment upon societies or private individuals to carry on the action before the King's return to Eng. such work independently of the Government. land. The only serious criticisms which In the famine of 1906 the Piragof Medical have as yet been made come, as might be Society, which has branches in all parts of the expected, from two sources: first, from Empire, raised a fund of a million rubles and Calcutta, a city which seems to care quite as fed for months more than one hundred much for the effect of the change on her thousand people, in twenty-three provinces. commercial interests as on her political presThis year it is forbidden to organize such tige; and, second, from economists who relief, and its funds in the province of Perm deplore the inevitable costliness of the have been confiscated by the local authorities. change. At all events, the Government In 1906 the Free Economic Society of has shown a sense of poetic justice in the St. Petersburg—the oldest scientific organi- appeal to Indian sentiment by the dramatic zation in Russia—maintained twelve hundred announcement that the Indian capital shall

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ounceGeorge ed and ne first indiabelieve, gination ation of or Delhi u mind

henceforth be no merely commercial city, that Madero, now in power, wishes to become like Bombay or Calcutta, but one which, as a dictator and a ruler of the Diaz type inthe London “ Times” says, “ embodies for the stead of carrying out his promises and putIndian people the traditional conception of a ting his broad theories of reform into operatruly Imperial city hallowed by great memo- tion. These radicals are numerous, but they ries.” If the historical claims of Delhi to the are rash in assuming the truth of the reports primacy among the cities of India cannot be against Madero. The new President has only disputed, it is, as the “ Times” adds, from lately entered upon office, and how he will the political point of view that the transfer of conduct himself is still a matter of conjecture. the seat of government offers the most To the honest radicals who are afraid of desstriking advantages:

potism are joined the bandits and desperaOne of the great difficulties of an alien Gov

does who are always eagerly awaiting a ernment in a country . . . such as India is that

chance for violence and robbery. Accordingly of keeping in touch with all the different sections outbreaks are reported from time to time at of a huge population. . . . For that purpose the

distant points, and will doubtless continue to capital could hardly have been more unfortu

take place. nately located than at Calcutta. ... At Delhi the

There is no evidence, however, Government of India will not merely occupy a

that a large and concerted military movement much more central position geographically, but is in progress against Madero's authority. it will be in immediate contact with much more varied types of Indian society. The Punjab itself is the meeting-point of many different creeds and races-Sikhs, Hindus, and Moham

A good name is better than medans. . . . As distances go in India, the

riches. This is true of towns Supreme Government at Delhi will be within

as well as individuals. Newark, equally easy reach of Central India and of the

Ohio, has learned that fact. A correspondent Northwest frontier, and as accessible from the Bombay Presidency as from Bengal. If . informs us that that city is doing its best to the future of India lies in decentralization, Delhi re-establish its good reputation. A year and is far better placed than, say, either Washington

a half ago there was a peculiarly disgraceful or Ottawa, to play the part of a federal capital detached from the narrow interests of any single

lynching there. What was disgraceful about province, and keeping watch at the same time it was not only the lynching itself, but the over all.

state of public opinion, and particularly the

state of public morals as represented in The

that General the city government, which made the lynchTHE SURRENDER

Reyes had surrendered ing and its attendant circumstances possible.

himself to the Mexican Excuses have been offered for that occurGovernment was a great surprise to all who

It is said that the whole body of have followed the course of Mexican affairs. citizens of Newark cannot be justly held culGeneral Reyes frankly admits that his effort pable for this horrible crime, because fiveto incite a revolution against President sixths of the citizens were not aware of what Madero was a total failure. General Reyes was happening; because many of the other has made a declaration in which he states sixth, even if they could have foreseen what that in order to bring about a counter- the excited crowd might do, had a right to revolution he issued a call to the discontented rely upon the Mayor and police and Sheriff revolutionists, the army, and the people, and to keep peace and protect life; because the he adds, "Not one answered my

Mayor and the police could have quelled the summons." The first impulse is to draw mob if they had acted together; and because from this an inference which is not entirely the people of the city had no idea that the justifiable. General Reyes's surrender does mob would attempt to attack a jail and not necessarily mean that Madero is to have seize the man who, in the performance of smooth sailing. There are two directions his duty, had roused the anger of the disfrom which armed opposition to the newly orderly element. Of course these excuses established Government may come ; Reyes are only excuses. They constitute no derepresented only one of these, namely, the fense for the people of Newark, inasmuch reactionary element, which has no sympathy as the people of Newark were responsible whatever with projects of reform and of for putting into power a city government establishing a truly representative form of which was incompetent and openly comgovernment. The other source of opposi- mitted to a policy of non-enforcement of law. tion is that of the extreme radicals, who think Americans, whether of Newark, Ohio, or of


to the ans there

of the ors. The ceen well s careful e decided - Governe ancient on the opposition ced their hent upon n to Eng

ms which

might be rst, from re quite as ge on her

itical pres

mists who ss of the Government stice in the ne dramatic capital shall

any other community, are intelligent enough cific charge of manslaughter as regards one generally to understand that they are respon- person, Margaret Schwartz, in that they sible for their own government, and it is knowingly kept the doors of the factory locked poor business for them to try to lay the contrary to law—which, the Judge charged, blame for misgovernment upon others than would have constituted manslaughter in the themselves. Fortunately, however, the peo- first degree; or, that they had been culpably ple of Newark have not been content to negligent and had omitted reasonable preoffer excuses. They have evidently been cautions as regards safety from fire of aroused to the necessity of repairing the employees—which would constitute mandamage they have done to the good name of slaughter in the second degree. The trial their own city. The correspondent whom we turned chiefly on the question whether Marhave already mentioned refers, in support of garet Schwartz's life was lost because a this statement, to the following series of particular door was locked by the order or occurrences: first, charges were promptly with the knowledge of Blanck and Harris. lodged with the Governor, asking for the On this point several witnesses on either removal of the Mayor and the Sheriff, who side flatly contradicted one another. That both resigned; second, a special grand jury perjury was committed seems certain, even found indictments against over forty of the allowing for the excitement and terror of mob, charging most of them with murder in the scene and for the fact that witnesses the first degree, and the rest of them with rarely agree as to exactly what happens in a rioting and assault and battery; third, another panic. But the jury was unwilling to reject grand jury indicted four more members of a large body of testimony as wholesale perthe mob; fourth, thirty-five of the indicted jury, and, this being so, had no alternative men have been tried and have been con- but to acquit. It is entirely within the power victed of manslaughter, or have pleaded of the District Attorney to begin other guilty of manslaughter, and have been sen- prosecutions if he thinks he has a good tenced-one, convicted of murder in the case, and there are other forms of prosecusecond degree, to imprisonment for life, tion possible than that for manslaughter. others to imprisonment ranging from fifteen Morally, at least, the people of New York months to twenty years; one of the mob are convinced that these men-in common, was acquitted, four were not prosecuted, it is true, with scores of other factory-owners others at the time our correspondent wrote —were guilty of carrying on their work were awaiting trial or were out on bail; fifth, (whether through greed or indifference) in the Mayor, who was responsible for the par- such a way that their employees' lives were ticipation of the city as a city in this relapse in constant danger. That they should be into savagery and brutality, has sought "vin- punished, if this can be shown, is the deep dication as a candidate for nomination, and conviction not only of those who know the has been defeated. We wish to call especial horrors of that day of hideous torture and attention to our correspondent's account of the days of pitiful suffering which followed, the efforts of Newark to undo the evil that but the conviction also of those who feel that was done by that lynching. According to law must be respected and lawbreakers this account, that city has done at least con- dealt with if the city's safety and honor are siderable to show that its repentance is the to be preserved. And it should not be foronly kind that is worth having—the repent- gotten that the people of the whole city are ance that expresses itself in deeds.

guilty also of future manslaughter unless they insistently demand that laws are enacted

and enforced to safeguard life to the last Does the acquittal last week limit of possibility. of Max Blanck and Isaac Harris mean that they were

A notable collection of French not blameworthy for the

painting and sculpture was deaths of the one hundred and forty-six

lately seen at the Albright Art persons who perished in the Asch Building Gallery in Buffalo, whence it goes to the fire in New York City last March? Neither Chicago Art Institute, and later to the City morally nor even legally can it be so inter- Art Museum of St. Louis. The Société preted. These men, partners in the Trian- Nouvelle of Paris (or, as it at present styles gle Waist Company, were tried on the spe- itself, the “Société des Peintres et Sculp

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A half-empty, highly hospitable gallery may do wonders toward the art education of a city.



teurs "), with Auguste Rodin as its President, has hitherto consistently declined to exhibit as a society outside of France. It is to the relentless persistence, not to say importunity, of a woman that America. owes the present opportunity of studying a considerable body of the work of these modern Frenchmen, said to constitute the strongest and most homogeneous of the numerous societies exhibiting in Paris. Miss Cornelia Sage, Director of the Albright Art Gallery, wanted that collection. One by one she overcame the objections of artists and dealers against sending priceless work so far into the interior of darkest America. She persuaded them of the security of the marble gallery in Buffalo against the attacks of those roving herds of bison which hovered menacingly in the Frenchmen's minds. In the end she won a representative collection of the work of the entire Society, including four pictures loaned by the Luxembourg—an unheard-of conces

Supplemented by loans from American collectors and dealers, the exhibition includes one hundred and sixty numbers, the work of thirty artists—such men as Besnard, Cottet, Aman-Jean, Lucien Simon, Ménard, the late Eugène Carrière, La Touche, Jacques-Émile Blanche, Rodin, and Prince Paul Troubetzkoy. The fact that such a collection as this remains for more than thirty days in a city like Buffalo argues strongly in favor of the foresight of Mr. Albright in providing a superb art museum for a city possessed of no more than a modest collection of pictures. The marble gallery, set in the open country on the edge of Delaware Park, insures loaned treasures against fire risk. Its not too crowded rooms afford magnificent architectural setting for the loan collections with which it is kept almost constantly filled. Buffalo sees pictures. If one excepts small dealers' exhibits, Buffalo sees

more representative American pictures in a year than does, for example, Boston. And many a foreign exhibition, like that of the bronzes of Princ Paul Troubetzkoy, delights Buffalonians while it skips the Hub. Foreign artists, like Sorolla ar.d the Russian sculptor just named, are welcomed at dignified public receptions at the Albright Art Gallery, which makes their personality as well as their work familiar to the art lovers of the city. First possessicns, and then a gallery to put them in—it is undoubtedly the way of logic. But there is certainly something to be said for Mr. Albright's method of putting the cart before the horse.

The American Academy in Rome, which

is now housed in the capacious and beautifully situated Villa Aurelia, on Mount Janiculum, was the subject last week of an interesting discussion between Senator Root and Senator Bailey. The Academy, as readers of The Outlook will remember, was one of the many, important results of the World's Fair at Chicago. A group of architects and sculptors who had worked together on that vision of a city of the future which caught the imagination of the entire country, and gave impulse both to sculpture and to architecture of the highest importance, realized for the first time what could be accomplished by co-operation. They had done a great National work, and they were reluctant, as were all people who saw their work, to have that achievement go into the past without some permanent memorial. After the consideration of many plans, in 1894 the architects organized the American School of Architecture in Rome, sending over for a time one student a year and giving him such accommodations as it could command. The value of the school broadened the interest in it; and the American Academy finally grew out of it and was housed in the Villa Mirafiore, with its attractive gardens, for a number of years; and there a small group of young men—students in architecture, sculpture, and painting-found a delightful home and facilities for advanced work. During the summers they went to various sections and made original studies in art and architecture. Academy resembled the famous French Academy, housed in the beautiful Villa Medici, where the happy winners of the Prix de Rome receive advanced instruction in the different departments of art; but the American school has been freer in its methods, and endeavors to give suggestion and aid rather than formal instruction. It was recently united with the American School of Architecture, and both are now housed in the Villa Aurelia, the gift of a generous woman who for many years took a great interest in their work.

There are three contests every year in this country for the Rome scholarships. Students from every part of the country submit their work in com:



a way the



petition ; and the prize-winners are sent to of mankind, in order that Americans will not be Rome for three years at the expense of the

confined in obtaining their knowledge and edu

tion in art at second hand, but may be enabled Academy, with an annual allowance of a thou

to go to the fountain source from which the art sand dollars a year each for their expenses, of the world is so greatly drawn. and also with an allowance for all legitimate

Senator Root recalled the educational influtraveling expenses. The Academy is a fine

ence of the great Court of Honor at the Chirepresentative in Rome of the American

cago Fair, the pleasure which it gave and the spirit and the American people, is thor

impulse to the creation of beauty, which is a ougly democratic in its character, and is an

part of the need of human beings; declaring extension of educational opportunity, for the

that, in his belief, after men had eaten and most gifted young men, of the highest im

drunken all they can, worn all the clothes they portance to the country.

need, and satisfied their material wants, there

is great happiness to be obtained from the Six years ago, by special stat

cultivation of taste. The founders of the ute of Congress, the American

Republic, he said, had no academy at Rome, Academy in Rome was incorpo

but they had Thomas Jefferson in Europe, rated as a Federal corporation, no grant being cultivating his tastes, and bringing home a asked of Congress, but an endowment of one

strong artistic impulse of which the beautiful million dollars being raised by private sub

design of the University of Virginia is one of scription. Among the contributors to this

the fruits. In answer to Senator Bailey's endowment were Mr. Morgan, Mr. Walter,

declaration that that University had been Mr. William K. Vanderbilt, and others, and

organized without an art department, Mr. among the organizers were Mr. Hay and Mr.

Root replied that Jefferson also designed Root. A bill has been before Congress for

Monticello, that he added his share to the some time making certain changes in the

creation of the Capitol and the White House, incorporation of the Academy under the laws

and that he took a large part in the developof the District of Columbia, in order that it

ment of Colonial architecture, the most demight receive the benefits of a bequest given

lightful architectural creation of the New by the generous woman who had previously

World. Whether or not the discussion illumileft her beautiful villa as its home. Senator

nated the mind of the Senator from Texas, it Root introduced the bill, and no opposition

evidently converted the Senate ; for the bill was expected; but Senator Bailey appeared

was passed without the formality of a rollon the scene with the declaration that he

call. It would be a great injustice to treat was opposed to encouraging institutions for

Senator Bailey's pictorial oratory as an exAmerican students abroad “until every hill

pression of his convictions; he was undoubtin America is crowned with a public school

edly speaking to those larger galleries which house,” adding that the Government ought

include the constituents of every. Senator to give its attention to the millions “who struggle far beneath the point of desiring speak, not to the Senate, but to the men

whose conception of his office enables him to instruction in art.” Said the eloquent orator :

who elected him and who are to decide If, forgetting the youth of our land, many of whether he shall stay or return home. whom are denied the priceless blessing of even a common-school education, they choose to de. vote their fortune to the higher education of special classes, that is their concern, not mine.

The discovery that a numBut when Congress is asked to give its sanction

ber of classical writers in a way which I think is beyond its power,

who, because they have ungracious as it may seem, I feel constrained to

long been classics, have been accepted as protest.

truth-tellers, were, as a matter of fact, mere Mr. Root's reply gave him the opportunity gossips, and malicious gossips at that, has of stating briefly the object of the Academy :

led to the rehabilitation of several damaged It is a corporation of the District of Columbia

reputations. Tiberius, for instance, long rewhich maintains in the city of Rome a school for the benefit of American youth, selected by garded as a dissolute tyrant, spending a competition from all parts of the United States,

shameful old


in his palace at Capri, in order that not the city of Rome may be bene- appears to have spent his time largely with fited, but in order that the people of the United

Greek philosophers and in studious pursuits. States may have for their own sons and daugh ters an advancement in taste and in the knowl.

In 1910 a gallant Frenchman came to the edge of those arts that promote the happiness rescue of Phryne, arguing that no evidence



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