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2014 probable they will facrifice an expensive education to an em
ployment that is attended with finall advantages. And if some
persons have zeal enough to engage in the ministry without a élka respect to the rewards of it, yet common prudence ought to
put us upon such methods as are most likely to excite men of the best parts and ability to undertake the sacred function; that the best cause may have the best management, and the purest religion the ablest defenders. It is also necessary that their maintenance should bear some proportion to the dignity
of their character, and should raise them above the contempt Ti of those who are too apt to be influenced by outward appea
rances : for though wisdom is better than strength, never-
as wellas the rest of mankind, but to be examples to their flock le in charity and in doing good, as well as in all other parts of from their office and duty. And ark The wisdom of our christian fore-fathers thought these Etie considerations of such force, that the government 21 has appointed for the maintenance of our ministers,
manner. or the house and glebe*, and the oblations, which were many
the voluntary offerings of the faithful, very considerable in the primitive times ; so that the necessities of the church were li
berally supplied from the great bounty of the people ; and, Lol when upon the spreading of christianity, a more fixedand fet
tled maintenance was required, yet somewhat of the antient sa custom was retained in voluntaryoblations. t Besides, tithes,
* These were the original endowment of a church, without which it cannot be supplied ; and without which it could not be consecrated ; and upon which was founded the original right of a patronage. For it appears from the Lord Coke, that the first king of the realm had all the lands of England in demeine, âir Les Grand Manours and Les Royalties they reserved to themselves; and with the remnant they enfeoffed the barons of the realm for the defence thereof, with such jurisdiction as the court baron now hath ; and abou: this time it was, when all the lands of England were the kings demesne, tha: Etheju ulí, almoit nine hundred years since, conferred the titnes of all the kingdom upon the church by his royal charter ; which is extant in abbot Ingulf, and in Matthew of Weftmiriter. + We do not read of uithes paid the apostles, because the zeal of christians in their
which are the main lawful support of the parish minister ; the reason of their payment is founded on the law of God, and their settlement among us hath been by the antient and undoubted laws of this nation. Therefore
Such as refuse to pay tithes, or defraud the clerIt is a fin to wrong them. gy of their maintenance, are guilty of that grievous
sin of facrilege, by taking what is fet apart for the clergy's subsistence, to employ it in other uses, or to their own particular profit ; which is a robbing of God, as the prophet informs us : will a man rob God ? yet ye have robbed me ; but ye say, wherein have we robbed thee? in tithes and offerings; because of such sacred things God is the true and proper owner. And accordingly we read in scripture of severe punishments inflicted on those that were guilty of this fin of facrilege. See also the duty of the people to their pastors hereafter.
IX. As God expects a part of our goods for the
so he requires us to honour and express our reve-
of times was so great, that as many as were possessors of lands or houses, sold them, and laid the price of them at the apostles feet ; and the devotion of the following ages, even to the latter end of the fourth century, was so remarkable for the libe. rality of their offerings and oblations, that their bounty to the evangelical priesthood exceeded what the tenth would have been, if they had paid it ; so that there
was no reason to demand tithes, when men gave a greater proportion of what they * pofleffed ; though even during those ages, there want not testimonies from the fa. chers of those times, that tithes were due under the gospel, as well as before and under the law; and that they were paid is plain from the apostolical canons, which provide for the disposal of them.
I We have shewn upon good authority in the preceding note tithes granted by the bounty and munificence of the first monarchs of this realm to the clergy, out of all the lands in the kingdom, and the perpetual payment thereof laid as a rent-charge for the charch on the fame, before any part thereof was demised to others : fc here let it be also observed, that if perhaps some of the great men of the realm, had then estates in absolute property, as it is certain there were very few, if any, that had, they charged the same with tithes by their own confent, before they did transmit them to the hands of the gentry, or any who now claim from them. So that the land being thus charged with the payment of tithes, came with this clog unto the lords and great men of the realm, and hath been so transmitted and passed over from one hand to another, until they came into the poffeffion of the present owners, who must have paid more for the purchase of them, and required larger rents from their tenants, if they had not been thus charged. And whatever right they may have to the other nine parts, either of fee-simple, lease or copy; have certainly none at all in the tithe or tenth, which is no more theirs, than the other nine parts are the clergy's.
of our time to his immediate service. Remember, says he,
upon the worship of God, and defeat those ends for which the day was separated from ordinary purposes. For,
We must not only rest from the works of our calling, but our time must beemployed in all such religious exercises as tend to the glory of God, and the salvation of our own souls. We must regularly frequent In publick. the worship of God in the publick assemblies, from which nothing but sickness or absolute neceflity should detain us ; and there * we are not to talk or gaze about us, but tơ join in the prayers of the church, hear his most holy word, receive the blessed facrament, when administred, and contribute to the relief of the poor, if there be any collection for their support: That we may thereby openly profess ourselves christians, which is one great end of publick assemblies in the service of God. We ought in private, to enlarge
In private. our ordinary devotions, and to make the subject of them chiefly to consist in thanksgivings, for the works of creation and redemption, recollecting all those mercies we have received from the bounty of heaven, through the course of our lives : To improve our knowledge by reading and medi
tating upon divine subjects; to instruct our children and faE milies ; to visit the sick and the poor, comforting them by
some seasonable affistance: and if we converse with our friends or neighbours, to season our discourse with prudent and profitable hints for the advancement of piety; and to take care that no fourness or moroseness mingle with our serious frame of mind.
From whence we may collect the great advantages of a religious observation of the Lord's day; it keepeth
. up the folemn and publick worship of God; which of what ad. might be neglected, if left to depend upon
of the christian religion in the world; when, notwithstand
great differences there are among christians in other, matters, they yet all agree in observing this day in memory of our Saviour's resurrection. And considering, how much time is taken up by the greatest part of mankind, in providing for the necessaries of life; and how negligent and careless they are in the concerns of their souls, who flow in plenty and abundance; this stated season is highly useful to instruct the ignorant by preaching and catechising, and to put those in mind of their duty, who in their prosperity are apt to forget God. Moreover by spending this day in religious exercise, we acquire new strength and resolution to perform God's will in our several stations for the future.
X. Besides this weekly fabbath of the Lord, In observing there are other particular times or days set apart by the church. the church, either for the remembrance of fome
special mercies of God, such as the birth and refur- en rection of Christ, the coming down of the Holy Ghost from * heaven, &c. or in memory of the blessed apostles, and other faints; who were the happy instruments of conveying to us the knowledge of Christ Jesus, by preaching his gospel through the world, and most of them attesting the truth of it with their blood : which ought to be observed in such a manner as
may answer the ends for which they were appoint-
be glorified by an humble and grateful acknowledgment of his mercies; and that the salvation of our souls may be advanced, by believing the mysteries of our redemption ; and imitating the examples of those primitive patterns of piety that are set before us. There- deod fore on these days we should be so far from looking upon them as common days, or make them instruments of vice and vanity, or spend them in luxuryand debauchery; intemperance, excess and sensuality, as the manner of some is, who look upon an holiday as designed for a loose to their passions and unbounded pleasures ; that our greatest care should be to improve our time in the knowledge and love of God, and of his fon Jesus Christ our Lord, by constantly attending the publick worship, and partaking of the blessed facrament, if it be administred. In private by enlarging our devotions, and with
d drawing ourselves as much as possible from the affairs of the
world, particularly expressing our rejoycing by love and charity to our poor neighbour.
If we call to mind any mystery of our redemption, or article of our faith, we ought to confirm our belief of it, by considering all those reasons upon which it is built; that we may be able to give a good account of the hope that is in us. We should from our hearts offer to God the sacrifice of thanksgiving, and resolve to perform all those duties, which arise from the belief of such an article. If we commemorate any faint, we should consider the virtues for which he was most distinguished, and by what steps he arrived at so great perfestion ; and then examine ourselves how far we are wanting in our duty, and earnestly beg God's pardon for our past failings, and his grace to enable us to conform our lives to those adınirable examples which they have left for our imitation.
XI. As we are thus to express our thankfulness to God for mercies received, and the good examples set before us for our imitation; we are with the same view In observing of honouring God, by acts of humiliation and re- the church. pentance, to keep holy those fast days set apart by the church, or by civil authority, or by our own appointment, to humble ourselves before God, in punishing our bodies, and afflicting our souls, in order to a real repentance. By outward tokens testifying our grief for fins past, and by using them as means to secure us from returning to those sins, for which we express so great a detestation. And this must be done, not only by interrupting and abridging the care of our body, but by carefully enquiring into the state of our souls; charging ourselves with all those transgressions we have committed against God's laws, humbly confefling them with shame and confusion of face, with hearty contrition and sorrow for them ; praying that God will not suffer his whole displeasure to arise, and begging him to turn away his anger from us: By interceding with him for such spiritual and temporal blessings upon ourselves, and others as are needful and convenient: By improving our knowledge in all the particulars of our duty: By relieving the
the fasts of
In what manner.