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you cut off their flour from the use of our canal, to be divided into two districts, to be called the jou keep it at home for all that portion of the Eastern and the Western—the State of Ohio also year that the St. Lawrence is closed with ice, to be divided into two Districts in like mannerwhile our canal is open. The British warehous- the two Districts of Kentucky, hereafter to coning system did not apply to this case. Gentlemen stitute the seventh Circuit—the two Districts of did not seem to be aware of the advantage of the Ohio, and the District of Indiana, the Eighth Cirhome consumption. The city of New York alone cuit—the District of Illinois and the District of jid not consume less than 800,000 barrels of flour Missouri, the Ninth Circuit—the two Districts of annually. If Canada flour comes to New York Tennessee and District of Alabama, the Tenth for consumption, so much American is excluded. Circuit—the two Districts of Louisiana and the No matter, says the gentleman from Massachu- District of Mississippi, the Eleventh Circuit—that etts, because so much more American goes abroad. a Circuit Judge of the United States shall be apVery true, if there was a market ready abroad to pointed for each District, to constitute with the receive it; but this is not the case, and therefore District Judge in each, a Circuit Court, &c.it is a dead loss to the American farmer
. Such the compensations of the Judges are left blank, as was the fertility of the Canadian peninsula, be- also are the changes proposed by the bill, of the tween Lakes Erie and Ontario, and so cheap were compensations of some of the existing District the lands sold by the British Government, that the Judges.] settler there could afford to undersell the farmer The bill was twice read and committed. of the United States, whose land costs him ten Mr. W. from the same committee, reported a times as much.
bill to amend an act, entitled 'An act to amend Mr. Webster rejoined, and said that the great an act for the establishment of a Territorial govdifficulty, if there were any, lay in telling what eroment in Florida, and for other purposes;" which would be the effect of the duty if laid. Would it was read twice and committed. prevent the consumption of foreign wheat in New Mr. Rich, of Vermont, from a select committee,
York? Formerly, the price was the same on both to whom was referred a proposition to amend the sides of the lines. Now, on account of the in- rules of the House, reported the same with an creased facility of getting to a market, the price amendment, the principal effect of which would is raised on this side. All that is sought by the be to devote Friday and Saturday in each week Canadian wheat grower is to use this facility: his to the consideration of bills and reports of a priflour comes in only that it may go out; and it vate nature. would be easy to adopt regulations such as all On motion of Mr. Mallary, the report was foreign Governments have done, who encourage ordered to lie for consideration. 1 he transit of goods, to prevent breaking bulk. Mr. VAN RENSSELAER, of New York, from a But, the gentleman asks, shall we give a rival fa- select committee, to whom was referred an inquiry cilities to get cheaper to a market where we go into the expediency of establishing a police for ourselves ? I answer, yes; if he will pay you for the Capitol, &c., reported the following joint reshis more than makes up the difference. This olution : very consideration of transit toll from Canada was
Resolved, &c., That the police regulations of the holden up and largely insisted on, when the great Corporation of the City of Washington be construed canal in New York was proposed. And it must to extend to the public grounds, so far as relates to not be forgotten, that the toll on the canal was not the preservation of the public order. all the Canada flour paid us. It paid the mer- 2. That no spirituous liquors be retailed any where cbant on the lines something; it pays the mer- in the Capitol, or on the public grounds near the same, chant at Albany something; the merchant at with or without licence. New York soinething; and, finally, it employs 3. That the Doorkeeper of the House of Represents our navigation, and pays something to our tars.
atives be charged with the preservation of the floor and The question being loudly called for from all walls of all the apartments of the Capitol, not under quarters, it was taken, accordingly, on the motion the care of the Sergeant-at-Arms of the Senate, under of Mr. P. P. BARBOUR, to strike out the hundred the direction of the Speaker of the House of Repre
sentatives. and eighty-second line of the bill, "on wheat
4. That the Marshal of the District of Columbia be twenty-five cents per bushel," and decided in the negative-ayes 71, noes 113.
empowered and directed to employ a deputy, during And then the Committee rose.
the session of Congress, to preserve order in the passages and apartments within the Capitol, and on the
public grounds surrounding the same, under such SATURDAY, February 28.
rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the pre
siding officers of the two Houses of Congress. Mr. WEBSTER, from the Judiciary Committee, reported a bill, further to amend the Judicial lie on the table.
The resolution was twice read and ordered to system of the United States." [This bili proposes an important change in the
OHIO AND MISSISSIPPI RIVERS. organization of the Courts of the United States, Mr. Henry, of Kentucky, from the Committee the main features of which are as follows: The on Roads and Canals, to whom was referred the sessions of the Supreme Court to be held, hereaf- Message of the President of the United States, ter, on the 4th Monday of January, instead of transmitting a report of the Board of Engineers, February in each year--the State of Kentucky is on the navigation of the Mississippi, made a re
port, accompanied by a bill “to improve the navi- In addition to the impediments above described, gation of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.” there is another of a different kind, which deserves to
[This bill proposes to authorize the President be mentioned, viz: On the right side of the river, (beto cause dykes and sluices to be constructed, for low the mouth of Deer creek,) about fifteen yards the purpose of navigation at the lowest stage of from the bank, there is a rock fifty feet long, parallel the water, upon certain bars in the Ohio river, to feet above the surface of the water, at its lowest stage.
with the shore, fifteen feet broad, and rising fifteen remove planters, sawyers, and snags, from the In times of flood, this rock, covered by a few feet of bed of the Mississsippi river. The bill was twice water, is very dangerous, and can only be avoided by read and committed. The report is as follows: accident or by skilful pilotage.
It is known that the great rivers Ohio and Missis- The most eligible means of producing the uniform sippi are the principal commercial outlets of the vast depth of three feet over the bars above mentioned, is and fertile regions west of the Alleghany mountains; recommended in the report of the Engineer Corps, aland it must be obvious that whatever tends to obstruct ready referred to, viz: the construction of dykes, or endanger the navigation of those streams cannot which, by confining the current to a particular chan: be regarded with indifference by that portion of our nel, will necessarily swell the volume, and increase people whose interests are thus seriously and vitally the depth of the water. These dykes are ordinarily affected. Your committee have, therefore, faithfully formed by rows of piles, driven with force into the bed endeavored to ascertain the causes and actual condi- of the stream, and strongly wattled together; the tion of the obstacles, whether temporary or permanent, spaces between the rows being filled with such rough which now, at certain seasons of the year, prevent all and flat paving stones as the neighborhood can supnavigation upon one of those rivers; and, at all seasons ply. The piles, being elevated a little above low of the year, impair the security of navigating the water, the rises of the river, whether partial or gen. other. For this purpose they have availed themselves eral, pass over them without injury. As the dykes of every source of information in their power; and must extend, with the exception of the sluice, quite have carefully examined the “Report on the Ohio across the river, the length of the whole, when added and Mississippi rivers," made by General Bernard and together, may be estimated at about four miles and a Major Totten of the Engineer Corps, which is printed half. The expense of this improvement will be very in the third volume of Executive papers, transmitted inconsiderable, when compared with the permanent by the President during the second session of the Sev- benefits which must flow from it to the industrious enteenth Congress.
and adventurous people who inhabit the shores of this In relation to the Ohio, your committee have ascer- great river, and its tributary streams, and have no tained that there are, between the falls and the mouth, other vent for the bulky productions of their industry. . twenty-one bars crossing its channel, which render it The danger arising from the rock below the mouti impassable by steamboats, during six months of the of Deer Creek, should, in our opinion, be averted, by year; and that six of these bars, at the lowest stages, the erection of a beacon upon it, of sufficient elevapreclude the passage of all vessels drawing three feet tion to be always visible above the highest foods. of water. To the bars last mentioned, our attention We now turn our attention to the difficulties which has been particularly directed; believing it to be the embarrass the navigation of the Mississippi. These better policy, to leave the falls, at Louisville, and the arise from the impetuosity of its current, and the almajority of the bars, to be comprehended in some more most entire absence of rock on its shores, from St. extensive scheme of internal improvement.
Louis to New Orleans. Hence, its constant effort to Ths six bars which, in our opinion, fall within the change its course; and hence the frequent subme. range of our present policy, are indicated by the fol- sion of whole acres of land, covered with trees of tag lowing descriptions, viz:
most gigantic growth. Of the trees which are thus 1st. A mile and a quarter below Flint Island, the precipitated into the river, some are borne off by the river is obstructed by a sand bar, of about 1,200 yards stream; some lodge upon the shores in great masses, in length; for the distance of 360 yards there are where they form what are called “rafts ;” others huthree and a half feet of water; for 240 yards, but two come fixed, at one end, in the bed of the stren., feet; and for the remaining distance of 600 yards, whilst the other end inclines towards the surface; three and a half feet. The shoalest part is also the sometimes appearing above it, sometimes concealed narrowest, the breadth being aboat 180 yards. below it. When they are so fixed as to preserve an
2d. Two miles above French Island, there is a sand immoveable position, they are called "planters;" bu: bar of about 200 yards in length, and on which only when they play up and down with restless vibration: from 20 inches to two feet of water are to be found. now yielding to the pressure of the stream, and again
3d. The bar below Henderson is fifty yards long; rebounding from beneath it, they are called “ the channel fifty yards wide; and the least depth of yers." water two and a half feet.
These terrible obstacles have been the causes et 4th. The bar below Straight Island consists of two much calamity to the people of the West. To s'y parts, one of compact, and the other of moving sand. nothing of the awful occasion which consigned, in The length of the bar is 150 yards; the breadth of the the brief space of five minutes, a large number of bu. channel about 40 yards; and the least depth of water man beings, on board the steamboat Tennessee, 10 a is two and a half feet.
watery grave; to say nothing of a thousand similar 5th. Below Willow Island (in the Mississippi Bend) accidents, differing only in the degree of horror, the is a sand bank, on which the depth of water is two annual loss of property is variously estimated at froia' and a half feet; the length of the bar is 100 yards; five to ten per cent. upon the whole amount which is,, and the breadth of the channel about 50 yards. hazarded upon the river. But can these difficulties te
6th. Opposite to Lower Smithland, and below Cum- removed ? of this we have no doubt. Between berland Island, there is a bar of moving sand; its Natchez and Baton Rouge, there are now fewer rafts, length is 80 yards, and the depth over it, two feet. planters, and sawyers, than formerly; and between
The Tarif Bill.
H. OF R.
Baton Rouge and New Orleans, they are rarely to be munity who must feel the pressure of this new
Below Baton Rouge the forest has been suc- burden, the ship-builder must suffer most. The ceeded by cultivated fields, and the disposition of the average tonnage of the United States, since the river to encroach upon its shores, is counteracted by year 1810, is, probably, in round numbers, at least artificial embankments. This description of dyke, we one million three hundred thousand tons; of which are aware, will never be attempted for commercial at least, one-tenth, by some estimates one-seventh, purposes alone. To a combination of the future pro is the annual diminution by marine losses or deprietors of the shores, for their own security and ad. cay; consequently, this amount must be annually vantage, we are to look for the consummation of this replaced by the ship-builders. Four tons of iron desirable improvement, by its extension to the mouth in every hundred tons, one tenth, to take the of the Missouri. In the mean time, it is entirely smallest amount, of shipping necessary to replace practicable, at the lowest stage of the water, by the aid of suitable machinery, to raise the trees which the annual consumption, amounts to five thousand now obstruct the channel, and to saw them off at a two hundred tons of iron annually employed in proper depth. The labor may be great, in the first ship-building, upon which the proposed duty instance, to remove the wreck of centuries; and it amounts to $116,500, which is more than the may be necessary, from time to time, to prostrate all present duty by $38,833, a very great addition to similar impediments which may intervene. But when a burden already as much as can be sustained. the forests shall be entirely cleared, whether for the And here it may be proper to remark that, while purpose of cultivation, for supplies of fuel to steam- the burden of the new duty is co-extensive with boats, or for the immense, and still augmenting, con- the United States, the benefit intended to result sumption of New Orleans, these frightful and formi- from it will be confined to only one or two, at dable enemies of Western enterprise will gradually most to three, of the States; far the greater part disappear, until it will be as rare to see “ a sawyer, a will be confined to the State of Pennsylvania planter, or a raft,” above Baton Rouge, as it is now alone. Most sincerely do I wish, said Mr. F., to find one below it. The committee have had access to no data which have all they expect, and more, if it could be ac
that the citizens of that respectable State could could enable them to determine, with accuracy, the corded to them without this immense sacrifice by probable expense of the improvements above sug- l the citizens of the other States. It is true, there gested. Indeed, the very nature of the proposed undertaking forbids the application of any ordinary rule are iron manufactories in other States, but we of calculation. Your committee would, however, have lately. heard, from the honorable Speaker, suggest the expediency of dividing those rivers into that those in the Western States need no protecprecincts, and that the President of the United States tion; and those in the Northern States are satisbe authorized to employ supervisors for each precinct, fied, as far as I am informed, with the present binding each by contract to perfd the services duty. which may be assigned to him ; and that, for the pur- Permit me to say that it seems unreasonable to pose of carrying into effect the improvements before- increase the duty from another consideration. In mentioned, the sum of dollars be appropriated, 1816, when the whole tariff underwent a complete to be paid out of any money in the Treasury, not revision, the duty on iron was fixed at nine dolotberwise appropriated
lars a ton. In 1818, the manufacturers complained Which is respectfully submitted.
that the duty was too low to enable them to conTHE TARIFF BILL.
tend in the market against foreign iron, and they
prevailed upon Congress to increase it to fifteen The House having resolved itself into a Com-dollars, with which, it was understood, they were mittee of the Whole on the bill for a revision of then satisfied. Notwithstanding this great conthe tariff of duties on imports-
cession, they have, for four years past, been urgMr. FULLER, of Massachusetts, opened the dis- ing the imposition of a still higher duty, and seem cussion to-day by a motion to strike out from the hardly contented even with that now proposed. first section so much as imposes a duty of one dol- Should the duty now required be imposed, the lar and twelve cents per cwt. on iron, in bars or numerous consumers of iron have not the consobolts, not manufactured by rolling.
lation of hoping to realize any reduction of price, In support of this motion, Mr. Fuller observed even after the iron manufacturers shall have been that iron was an article of far more general im- in possession of the “home market,” so often portance than cotton bagging or wheat, which spoken of in discussing the tariff, for any series of had recently occupied so much attention.' Every years. In this respect, the manufacture of iron is man in the United States, of whatever occupation, more unfavorable in its nature than that of cotton was more or less interested in obtaining the best has proved to be. The greatest part of the exquality, and at the lowest price. In every village pense is for labor; no improved machinery can be a blacksmith was an artisan indispensable alike a substitute for labor; and, for a century to come, to the farmer and the mechanic; and in the manu- the population of our country cannot reach such facturing establishments of cotton and wool, a a state of redundancy as maierially to reduce the large consumption of iron, in machinery, was an- rate of wages. While, therefore, the price of nually necessary. To every farmer and mechanic, labor is as high as at present, the price of iron, therefore, said Mr. F., this increased duty will the product almost of labor alone, cannot be macause a corresponding increase of price for their terially reduced. In Russia and Sweden, beimplements of husbandry, and of their respective sides a redundant population, the manufacture of vechanic arts. But of all the classes of the com-liron is greatly promoted by the circumstance that