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meaning, which is not at first sight obvious. I shall endeavour to explain myself.

CHAPTER 2-3.

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In this account of Moses, I think, I see the future history of the Jews very clearly symbolised ; and their practice of idolatry, their expulsion from Judea in consequence, and the final revelation by the Messiah, appear to me to be distinctly typified. When Moses quits Egypt, he marries Zipporah, one of the seven daughters of Reuel, Priest of Midian, by whom he had a son named Gershom. This seems to me to indicate the attachment of the Jews to idolatry, and their banishment from their own country, when they were carried captives to Babylon. Let us attend to the words.

barys Reuel. This is a compound word, and signifies one whom God feeds, or whom God befriends, (see Rumelinus, in voce.) This Reuel, then, I consider as the type of the chosen people. But Reuel is the Priest of Midian. I mean not to deny, that there was a country called Midian, as there was a city called On. I suspect, however, that Midian was also the name of an idol of the Sun. The idol, which the Arabians called ildo Midan, might be a corruption of this name; nor is it impossible that Adon 1778, that well-known solar title, was also called 772 Midian, (see Parkhurst, in voce 17.) Here then is the emblem of the chosen people forsaking their religion for the worship of the Sun. The Priest of Midian had seven daughters, and when we consider that the seven planets were the principal Deities of the Tsabaists, and became those of « alienated Judah,” we shall, perhaps, understand the allusion. One of these is called Zipporah, which signifies the dawn, or day-break, or possibly the planet, which we call Lucifer. Moses is married to Zipporah, and Moses I consider as the type of the Jewish religion thus united with the symbol of idolatry. The child of this marriage was Gershom, which signifies expulsion; and expulsion was the result of the apostacy of the Jews, who sacrificed to strange Gods, as well as to Jehovah. In process of time the cry of the children of Israel, by reason of their bondage, (of their service to idols,) came up unto God. They were, in fact, condemned on account of this service to weep in captivity and

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exile at Babylon, and the words in the text are clearly a type of this. Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father-in-law. Here the name of Reuel, the befriended of God, who had, however, become the Priest of the Sun, is changed into that of Jethro ; and this was required by the type, and cannot, I think, be easily explained without the type be considered. Jethro (see the Onomasticon) signifies the remnant ; and it was only a remnant of the people that returned from Babylon to inhabit their ancient possessions. All Samaria was repeopled by strangers, and the original inhabitants were dispersed over other regions. But Moses came to the Mountain of God-to Horeb. God afterwards established his service there, but the service of idols had been mingled with his. Horeb signifies desolation. When the Jews, on account of their idolatry, were led away captives to Babylon, then was the reason clear why the Mountain of God was called Horeb, that is, desolation. If all this be not typical, I shall be happy to be corrected.

We now come to the appearance of Jehovah in the burning bush. In the first instance the revelation is made to Moses by Jehovah, as the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; and the promised land is announced with the extirpation of the Canaanites, &c. Now without presuming to deny that there were such people as those enumerated here, I cannot help thinking, that by the words employed, we have an indication, that after the return from the captivity, the various sects of Tsabaists and idolators should cease to exist among the Jews : the worship of Jehovah should be restored, as God of Abraham, without alloy, previous to the coming of the Messiah ; and this we know to have been the case. Let us now examine the proper names, and judge, whether there be not a typical meaning here, as well as in the succeeding books, where these names recur. Perhaps this examination may throw light on some of the historical details given us concerning the extirpation of the Canaanites. Most certainly if it be found, that this extirpation was decreed against systems of idolatry, rather than against nations, it will be more easy to reconcile the vengeance of Heaven, with the notions which our limited minds are capable of forming concerning the justice and mercy of the Deity.

The first mentioned are "Jyon, the Canaanites, whom the Rabbins, Commentators, and Lexicographers, will have to be a nation of merchants. yo signifies to put down, and when a merchant sells his goods, he puts them down before you. It is, therefore, obvious, that a putter down is synonymous with a merchant. But in spite of this ingenious derivation, I am inclined to think, that the word had a very different origin, and a very different meaning. Besides, it is not obvious why a nation of merchants should be denounced by Heaven. It was idolatry, and not commerce, which it was the object of the Divine interference to destroy. The God of time, or the planet Saturn, of which the orbit was supposed to bound the solar system, was one of the idols of the Tsabaists; but as

; the planets were always considered with reference to the Sun, the object of heathen worship, the names of the planets are occasionally confounded with solar titles, Saturn, the God of time, was adored by the Egyptians, the idolatrous Jews, and the Syrians, under the name of Chon, Chiun, and Chaon. These names are clearly taken from no, to fix, or constitute, or establish,--or, if you will, to direct. 1-3, or without the vau W-3, Canaan, is a word that indicates the establishment, or direction of time. By the Canaanites, therefore, I think, allusion may have been made to the worshippers of Moloch and Chiun ; and to that system of astrology, which was the parent of Tsabaism, and which was taught by the calendars. I shall have much to say on this subject in another place.

007, The Hittites. The Lexicographers, (Rumel. Onom. &c.) make this word signify Consternations. What nation ever called itself by so strange a name? I believe the Hittites signified the worshippers of fire. See Parkhurst, in voce Ann, and consult Bryant concerning the radical aith.

387, The Amorites. This name, whether we trace it to the Hebrew, or to the Chaldaic, must signify either the Speakers, or the Branches, or the Lambs, any one of which appellations appears very strange, when applied to a people. But when we recollect the symbols of Tsabaism, we shall, perhaps, detect the latent meaning. The celestial hosts were typified by branches of trees; and this I have very amply proved in another place. Hence wherever Tsabaism spread, from India to Britain, groves and trees were held sacred by the worshippers of the stars; and hence the frequent allusions to these symbols ' in scripture. But the Amorites may have more particularly indicated the worshippers of Ammon, or of the Sun in Aries. This sign was called hox Amor, the Lamb, by the Chaldeans.

1791, The Perizites. These are said to have been inhabitants of villages. But this was no crime. Could it then be on

. this account, that they were to be driven out and extirpated ? I strongly suspect, that this word has been misunderstood. In Chaldaic, Ethiopian, and Egyptian, in signifies cabbala, mystery, &c. The word, then, may have come from Egypt, , and being preceded by the Egyptian article », might not have been understood. If I be right, the Perizites were Cabbalists, whose mummery was all originally founded on the idolatry of the Tsabaists. Razael, or Rizael, literally the Cabbala of God, was feigned to have been an angel, under whose protection Adam was placed by these mysterious triflers.

1977,7, The Hivites. It is said in the Onomasticon, that the Hivites were so called, because they dwelt in caves like serpents. But this is no reason for their being exterminated. I rather think, that the Hivites were worshippers of the serpent, who are known more generally by the name of Ophites. The idolatry of these Ophites was extremely ancient. The great

,הוא or ,חוה constellation which we call Hydra) was named

by the Chaldeans.

*013), Jebusites. According to Rumelin, the Jebusites signified Conculcationes. The Jebusites are said (in Chron. b. i. c. 11.) to have been the inhabitants of Jerusalem, then called Jebus, when David took the castle of Zion, (see also Joshua, c. xv. v. 63.) But whence is the name? Let us observe, that the people who bore it were not Hebrews, and that, therefore, the samech may have been easily pronounced for the shin. We should then read the name in Hebrew Wa', Jebushites; for it is really difficult to believe, that any people were called Jebusites, Conculcationes. Now the Jebushites may have been so called

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,בסת or ,בשת from the worship of an idol of the Moon, called

by the Hebrews and Chaldeans. This was no other than the Busta of the Egyptians, called Bubastis by the Greeks. The name of this idol may be traced to wa, and the indecency of the emblem may be inferred from the word, to which the name is referred. But consult Jablonski, 1. 2. Kircher, Ed. 1. and Parkhurst and Castelli, in voce Via.

It appears then to me, that by Israel's taking the place of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Perizites, Hivites, and Jebusites, is typified the establishment of the true religion, on the ruins of the various systems of idolatry, which then prevailed in the world.

I am, Sir,
Your humble Servant,

W. DRUMMOND.

April 24th, 1811.

POEMA PREMIO DIGNATUM.

Χείρων

δικαιότατος Κενταύρων.

Qui

vi sævos inter comites probitatis et æqui
Assiduus fautor, sub quo præcepta magistro
Hausere heroës, sua qui mitescere sæcla
Edocuit, carum Graiis Chirona poetis
Sit mihi fas etiam tenui celebrare Camoena.

Hospitii immemorem, malè dignum Ixiona cælo,
Quum falsâ illusit Junonis imagine nubes,
Progenuisse novo Centauros fertur amore,
Durum immane genus : quos

inter
magna

refulsit
Saturni et Philyræ tanto splendore propago,
Quanto alias terræ glebas supereminet aurum.
Corpore semifero natus, sed mente animoque
Concipiens divum numen; neque nomine solùm,
Nec genitore viget, sed stirpe perennius omni
Ipse sui factis monumentum condit honoris.

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