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supported that system. For valuable suggestions regarding the process of reasoning, particular acknowledgments are due to Mr. Herbert Spencer, who, in his · Principles of Psychology,' has given an admirable exposition of the nature of the reasoning process.

The author has no intention to deprecate criticism of any of the doctrines which he has attempted to establish. The only consideration which he wishes to urge upon the critic is that the book has been written with considerable haste, in order to secure its publication within a certain limited time. And, therefore, there are probably many details which would be altered if a somewhat longer time had been allowed before giving the work a final revision previous to publication.

a

Expectation

IV. Imagination in Science and Art

V. Imagination in Ethics and Religion

VI. Peculiarities of Representation

VII. Representation of Abstractions .

161

167

179

183

186

CHAPTER V.

ELABORATION OF KNOWLEDGE.

I. Predication

II. Intuition

III. Dependence of Predication upon Intuition

IV. The Class; the Concept; the Name .

V. Predication again

VI. Reasoning Simulating Inference

VII. Inference

VIII. Determining Ground of Inference

IX. The Form of Inference

X. Evidence; Induction; Deduction

XI. Conclusion

196

200

206

209

221

234

240

251

264

268

283

THE ELEMENTS

OF THE

PSYCHOLOGY OF COGNITION.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

SECTION I.

SOURCES AND ARRANGEMENT.

CHAP. I.
SECT. I.

tion and

§ 1. The Psychology of Cognition forms an important part of the philosophy of the human mind, cognition being one of the three great classes of Classificaphenomena which, according to the generally character

of cogaccepted division, constitute the mind.

The nition. remaining two classes may be designated the Feelings and the Voluntary Activities. These, however, will not come under our special consideration, except in so far as they are involved in the first class of phenomena. Cognition is a general name which we may apply to all those mental states in which there is made known in consciousness either some affection or activity of the mind itself, or some external quality or object. The

B

CHAP. I.
SECT. I.

Psychology of Cognition analyses knowledge into its primary elements, and seeks to ascertain the nature and laws of the processes through which all our

knowledge passes in progressing from its simplest to No actual its most elaborate condition.' It is necessary for separation scientific purposes to classify mental phenomena, phenomena but it must be borne in mind that in actual conpossible.

sciousness there is no possibility of separating the one from the other, and it is frequently difficult to determine to what class a particular phenomenon belongs. In the earliest or simplest stage of knowledge it is perhaps difficult to say whether the phenomenon should be classed as a Feeling or a Cognition; and, consequently, it will be necessary in this treatise to consider all those primary elements, of whatever character, which enter as constituent parts

into our matured knowledge. Sources of § 2. The materials which we shall require in the knowledge regarding systematic exposition of our subject are drawn from

various sources, but especially the following:

a. Examination and analysis of consciousness. This is the power which every individual possesses of becoming aware of the various feelings and other phenomena which are experienced in his mind. It is the only power by which these phenomena can be directly known or studied, and, consequently, in every system of philosophy it must be appealed to as an

authoritative revelation of mental facts. Physical b. The anatomy and physiology of the physical

. organism. organism. Without entering into disputed questions,

it is universally admitted that the powers of the

the mind.

Consciousness.

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