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fortnightly during the winter season, and are numerously attended. The Society's Honorary Secretary is Samuel Simpson, esq.
THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.
THIS Society has its collection of paintings and drawings on the Castle hill. It was instituted for the encouragement of art and artists, who are allowed to copy the Society's paintings. The gallery contains the works of some of the best English masters.
THE ASSEMBLY ROOM,
In King street, is devoted to subscription balls, concerts, &c. The public balls of Lancaster used to be attended by the old county families for miles round, and some of our sexagenarians yet speak with rapture of the galaxy of beauty then assembled in the county town. The subscription balls are now only thinly attended. On one occasion however, during the year, the Assembly Room presents a brilliant appearance worthy of the Lancashire Witches and of its best days, viz. on the anniversary meeting of the John o'Gaunt's Archers' Club, the members of which give a ball and supper. The Assembly Room is then graced by the beauty and fashion of the neighbourhood. Lord Stanley and other members of Parliament connected with the county are not unfrequently the guests of the Archers on these occasions.
Is built on the Moor, and is approached by a steep ascent at the end of Moor lane. It was built in 1787, but has been greatly enlarged since the new Poor Law came into operation in this district. Formerly the workhouse of the poor of the township, it is now occupied by the paupers generally of the Lancaster Union. The building occupies a healthful, open, and commanding situation: and from this point, as we have before described, one of the best views of the surrounding scenery will be found. The master of the poor-house is Mr. Hughes. The following is the dietary of the house:
2 pints of Oatmeal Porridge and 1 pint of Milk.
1 pint and a half of Oatmeal Porridge and of a pint of Milk.
3 ounces of Bacon, 1tb and a half of Cooked Potatoes, and 4 ounces of Bread.
2 pints of Hough Soup and 8 ounces of Bread. TUESDAYS 1 Herring and 1b and a half of Cooked Potatoes. WEDNESDAYS 2 pints of Rice Milk and 4 ounces of Bread. THURSDAYS.. 2 pints of Hough Soup and 8 ounces of Bread. FRIDAYS 2 tbs. of Beef Scouse and 4 ounces of Bread. SATURDAYS.. 2 pints of Pea Soup and 8 ounces of Bread.
SUNDAYS.... 3 ounces of Bacon 1tb of Cooked Potatoes, and 4 ounces of Bread.
MONDAYS 1 pint and a half of Hough Soup and 6 ounces of Bread.
TUESDAYS.. 1 Herring and 1b and a half of Cooked Potatoes. WEDNESDAYS 1 pint and a half of Rice Milk and 3 ounces of Bread. THURSDAYS 1 pint and a half of Hough Soup and 6 ounces of
FRIDAYS.... 1b and a half of Beef Scouse and 3 ounces of Bread. SATURDAYS 1 pint and a half of Pea Soup and 6 ounces of Bread.
2 pints of Milk Porridge and 8 ounces of Bread. SUNDAYS, 3 ounces of Cheese, 1 pint of Milk, and 8 ounces of Bread.
1 pint and a half of Milk Porridge and 6 ounces of Bread. SUNDAYS, 3 ounces of Cheese, of a pint of Milk, and 6 ounces of Bread.
THE COUNTY LUNATIC ASYLUM.
THE same road which leads to the Poor-house will bring the visitor to the Lancaster Moor, upon which the County Lunatic Asylum is built, in a low and sheltered situation at the foot of the hill. The road to the left of the Poorhouse must be followed to bring the stranger to the entrance of that building, and by pursuing this road he will obtain the fine view of which we have before spoken, and will be brought to the Lunatic Asylum. This is a noble pile of building, with a handsome and stately stone front, ornamented with pillars of the Doric order. The Asylum was commenced in 1811, from a design by Mr. Standen, an architect of Lancaster, and was opened July 28, 1816, for the reception of pauper lunatics throughout the county. For the last few years patients have so much increased in number, partly in consequence of the rapid growth of population and in part owing to a recent act of Parliament forbidding the detention of pauper lunatics in workhouses, that the building became insufficient to accommodate the patients. Within the last three or four years, two new wings have been added to the building (under the direction of Edmund Sharpe, esq., M.A., architect), a more
abundant supply of water has been obtained for the uses of the establishment, and other important improvements have greatly increased the efficiency of the Asylum as a place of cure. The building, gardens, and airing grounds occupy several acres of land, but the visiting magistrates have long been sensible of the necessity of an extension of the space devoted to the industrial pursuits and recreation of the inmates. An act of Parliament has been therefore brought in, of the nature of a Waste-Lands Inclosure act, under the provisions of which several acres of the adjoining moor land will be appropriated to the use of the County Lunatic Asylum.
The question is often asked why the pauper Lunatic Asylum, for the whole county of Lancaster, does not occupy a more central situation, or one more easy of access to those districts which supply the greatest number of patients. These considerations appear to have had so much weight with the county justices that the site originally fixed upon for the Asylum was Bootle, near Liverpool, where ground was purchased, and the materials accumulated for building. Fulwood Moor, in the neighbourhood of Preston, was next selected. It was, however, contended in behalf of Lancaster that it was an advantage to remove the patients from the scene of their malady to some situation not too easy of approach to their friends and former associates, whose visits are often found prejudicial. It was also represented that peculiar facilities of inspection would be given to the county magistrates, when discharging their duties as grand jurors at the Lancaster Assizes. The scale was turned in
favour of Lancaster by the enlightened liberality of the Corporation of that day, who offered the site gratuitously.
Diarrhoea formerly prevailed in the Asylum to a great
The Visiting Justices, at the recommendation of Dr. Probyn, formerly superintendent, made a change in the dietary to a more generous living: since which period the Asylum has maintained a high character for health. Great improvements have been made in the treatment of patients since the appointment of Dr. De Vitrè, and Mr. Gaskell the Superintendent Surgeon. The old methods of restraint are abolished, and none but the most violent madmen are found to require it. Humanity is substituted for terror; the patients are treated by the officers with sympathy and kindness; the disordered mind is soothed by congenial employment and recreation; and the offices of religion are called in to shed a peaceful balm over the troubled soul. Music is cultivated by the patients with no small degree of success, and with the best effect upon their recovery. There are long galleries in which they walk when the weather is unfavourable, but the male patients are employed as much as possible in digging and other out-of-door occupation conducive to health. They have bowls, draughts, and other games. The number of patients at present in the building (July, 1843) is 663; 319 of whom are males, and 344 females. The officers of the Institution are:Physician.-Dr. De Vitrè.
Superintendent Surgeon.-S. Gaskell, esq.
Treasurer.-Mr. John Walker.