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artificial respiration to prevent death by less than it is reasonably worth in gold. If drowning

cotton is not reasonably worth a great deal As to inflation, it is probable that those more than 5.40 cents a pound, or about fiftywho use the word are not, in most cases, able six per cent of the generally admitted cost of to define it. Assuming a gold standard of production, then all the postulates of ecothe present weight and fineness, there can be nomics misleading, and the entire no inflation when currency is issued against machinery of credit rests upon a basis that property actually hypothecated upon a basis is false.

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THE SPECTATOR

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N the of a high hill in cer ral original stanza between the orchestral inter-
Vermont commanding a view of dis- ludes, then all joined in the final :
tant blue peaks of the White Moun-

“We join our voices now in song; tains, with the Connecticut River in the

Our hearts beat high with joy that lives foreground, the Spectator joined the crowd

And thrills, inspires and makes us strongand waited. It was the entrance to the

The joy that only nature gives. Thetford Pageant Grounds, and a new kind We love the woods, the birds and flowers, of pageant was about to be presented.

The thirsting sun and quenching rain; Up the steep slope the girl campers came, We'll count with pleasure all the hours in well-formed lines, each line singing the Till with joy our camps may meet again.” songs of its own camp-girls in blue, girls in brown, girls in green and white, all arrayed

Now the spiral wound out, and all were

seated in a circle on the grass. The heads in the bloomer-and-jumper costume of the girls' camp.

of all the camps then came to the center.

The meaning of the Inter-Camp Pageant Soon the procession reached across the wide fields to the top of the hill, where they

and the celebration of Inter-Camp Day was

made clear to the Spectator, as each camp formed in single file and entered a wood path. The Spectator turned to the right

for ten minutes occupied the center of the and entered the pine woods through a by

stage. path and reached the grassy stage before the procession. In the center of the grassy Camp Hanoum, the hostess, came first. circle was a huge totem-pole, the symbol of It was her part to tell her sister campers the union of eight sister camps in their inter- and their friends the meaning of the symbols camp celebration. This was surmounted by on the eight divisions of the totem-pole, a banner bearing the inter-camp dragon. An which her own craft workers had constructed orchestra, consisting of players from all the for the occasion. The pole was made in camps, was grouped about the pole. The eight parts, each part representing one of edge of the circle was lined with waiting the eight camps uniting for Inter-Camp Day. friends, while the grand stand- —a rustic plat- The divisions were graded according to the form of different levels-was thronged with size of the camps, from the base to the apex. spectators from the countryside.

Upon one side, reaching from the base to the top, was the inter-camp dragon, sym

bolizing sun and nature, and binding all the Opposite the stand was the entrance from camps together. The dragon was formed the wood path. At the opening strains of of symbols representing the activities of each the festival music the first line entered from camp. Each division, bordered by a band of this path-a stately line of Indian maidens camp girls represented by the Indian symbol issuing from the primitive forest. Singing for woman, was complete in itself. Placed one original words to the festival music, they above the other, the eight divisions formed marched in a spiral around the symbolic the complete dragon. Another side of the pole. The sister camps followed the host- totem bore the same symbols in enlarged esses of the day. Each in turn sang an

form. On the third side were the thunder

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THE SPECTATOR

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bird (the Indian symbol for July), the day of Then Grecian maidens from Ken-Jocketee, the month, and the symbol of the camp con- the camp with the horse and rider symbols, ducting the celebration. On the fourth was glided in and out between the light and the name of each camp.

shade in a dance. Camp Hanoum's own symbol was the pine To the name Aloha, the Hawaiian word of tree (for work, health, and love), surrounded welcome, two camps in green and white reby the tents of the campers, alight with the sponded. These two camps formed the base three-sided fires of work, health, and love ; of the totem. One of these, Aloha Club, a frog, indicating the lake, also strength, had the symbol of the craft beast, made of agility, and humor ; and a circle, meaning saws and files, hammers and scissors, with nature, surrounding the camp, with a path- paint-brushes for legs and feet ; the rainbow way open to infinity.

for color ; the three elements used in the The banner surmounting all, upon which crafts—fire, water, and rock; and the flower the dragon was repeated, Hanoum offered of beauty. Through the picture of real camp to the camp, thus presenting in the allotted life presented by Aloha Club the Spectator ten minutes the entertainment most appro- felt himself initiated into the mysteries of the priate to the occasion.

girls' camp. Here one was brought into

intimate relation with a day's activities in a Camp Quinibeck was introduced.

Her typical camp. symbols were those of sports—water, tennis, and baseball. In a series of tableaux she Two young women in traveling dress were showed the development of woman in rela- arriving from the city'. Discontent was writtion to outdoor life. A beautiful mounted ten on their faces. A young woman dressed herald rode into the center and read from in green bloomers and white jumper, her hair a scroll the greetings from her camp. Down in braids, and her face beaming, came out to through the centuries was traced in verse, greet them. She discovered that homesickness through various periods of outdoor life and was the cause of their discontent. They saw seclusion, the development of the present- “ nothing to do.” Aloha Club then proceeded day “camp idea.” At her summons suc- to show the new campers

" what we do at cessive bands of maidens appeared from camp.” The horseback riders were behind the woodland scenes. First the swist moned first. Unmounted riders they were, and agile Grecians, in dancing games; then but they trotted, cantered, and walked in the the warlike Norse women, marching to battle ; best of form and with high spirits around the the lady and knight of the days of chivalry; center. Paddlers came next, and swimmers, stately maids of colonial days, treading the keeping the motions in time to their song. figures of the minuet; the woman pioneer, Then the craft workers, seated in the circle, sharing the hardships of the Western jour- with saws, files, hammers, wood blocks, and ney; and the woman of the later day of other implements and materials, proceeded to luxury—“ something fragile, put away.” show how fascinating it is to the camper to Then, after an expectant pause, a band of weave baskets, to fashion silver rings and present-day campers rode swiftly to the plat- bracelets, to build a table of wood, as well as form and gave the camp cheer.

to embroider and sew.

The dancers came The dancing symbols were for Camp Far- next, the spirit of the camp in their steps. well. At her signal a group of dancers, ar- Tennis girls and golf girls appeared on the rayed in the dress of Spanish gypsies, entered scene with an air that suggested wide fields the circle, and, in a fascinating dance, ex- and inviting courts. Then a camp councilor pressed the spirit of the out-of-doors in —a college girl who, the Spectator was behalf of their camp.

told, is the “big sister ” of the camper-apThe late afternoon sunlight filtered through peared with a large book. As she strolled the trees upon the dancers from Wynona, along, she looked, now at the book, now at the camp by the lake, whose symbols were the trees and the sky. With her was the the wave, the tadpole, and the canoe, as they nature study group. Notes of song- birds brought their greetings to the united camps were heard overhead. Now the homesick in a sun-dance.

girls (and the Spectator as well) were thorHokomoko, the crown the totem-pole, oughly interested. At this point the scene illustrated her symbol—the fame, or speak- changed, and half a dozen young campers of ing tongue—in a verse of greeting.

the vigorous type came bounding forward,

sum

singing songs of mountain climbs. At the name Moosilauke the city girls begged to be allowed to stay, and were thereupon welcomed into camp.

Aloha Club retired, and Camp Aloha took the stage. All the charm of the out-of-doors was in the movements of the Fire Spirit, the Water Spirit, and the Wood Spirit as they hovered over two sleeping sisters from the city. Having sought in vain for stimulating occupation at the average summer resort, they had fallen asleep from sheer ennui,

song---blues, greens, and browns mingling in a solid mass, without distinction of camp. Friend greeted friend from rival camp with a warmth of greeting which revealed a strong and commendable spirit of inter-camp friendship.

At the top of the hill the camp in brown paused to sing their farewells. Suddenly, at a signal from their leader, they rushed swiftly down and were mingled with the crowd on the plain.

The north-bound train bore away the last delegation, and Inter-Camp Day was overa day whose influence will be a contribution to the future development of American womanhood.

The programme ended, all the campers rushed from the circle to the center for a final

THE NEW BOOKS

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RUSSIA AS IT IS

language as well as in French, German, and

English; has had the assistance of able Since the publication, more than twenty Russian advisers and collaborators; and has years ago, of Leroy-Beaulieu's monumental

devoted more than seven years to his task. work on

The Empire of the Tsars and the The result is a book which is a credit to Russians,” nothing has appeared, in any

Canadian scholarship, as well as a contribuwest-European language, that can be com

tion of first-class importance to the world's pared in point of fullness, accuracy, and knowledge of Russian affairs. He has called scholarly treatment with Professor James

his great work “ An Economic History of Mavor's “ Economic History of Russia.” 1

Russia,” but its contents, which fill twelve We have recently had, it is true, a revised hundred large octavo pages, more than make and rearranged edition of Sir Donald Mac

good the promise of its title. It is an kenzie Wallace's Russia,” which first

nomic history ; but it is also a history of the appeared in 1877; but neither in its original whole Russian revolutionary movement, from nor in its revised form does it compare favor- the rebellion of the Cossack Rugachef, in ably with the two massive volumes of Pro- 1773, to the end of the fight for the overfessor Mayor. Sir Donald did not try to throw of the autocracy in 1907. Every phase cover so wide a field as that included in Pro

of the long-continued struggle between the fessor Mavor's survey, nor did he draw to people of Russia and their rulers—the Decemanything like the same extent upon Russian brist conspiracy, the plots of Petrashevsky sources of information. His review of the

and Nechaiev, the movement“ to the people,' causes of economic distress and revolutionary the campaign of the Terrorists, the era of activity in Russia was comparatively sketchy

colossal political strikes, the resort to the and inadequate, and he seemed disposed to

wager of battle, and the final overthrow of treat de haut en bas all forms of popular the revolutionists after the desperate barricade protest and resistance.

fighting in Moscow—every one of these great Mr. Mavor, who is Professor of Political historical episodes is treated clearly, imparEconomy in the University of Toronto, has tially, and almost exhaustively. made a careful and profound study of his One might read everything that is availsubject; has availed himself of every acces- able in English, from the first edition of sible source of information, in the Russian Wallace's “ Russia " to the articles on Russia I An Economic History of Russia. By James Mavor,

in the eleventh edition of the “ Encyclopædia Ph.D., Professor of Political Economy in the University Britannica,” without finding anything so acof Toronto. 2 volumes. E. P. Dutton & Co., New York. $10, net.

curate, comprehensive, and illuminating as

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THE NEW BOOKS

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Professor Mavor's chapters on The Influ- etors as a result of the agrarian riots, the ence of Socialism in Russia,' The Move- weak support given to the popular movement to the People," “ The Party of the ment by the revolutionary element in the People's Will," "The Social Democratic army, and the absence of competent leaderMovement, " Police Socialism," The ship. The last of these reasons by itself is Counter-Revolution,” “The Jewish Pogroms,” sufficient to account for the abortive nature and “ Russia in the Far East.”'

of the outcome. As the famous Russian Few things in recent Russian history are basso Shaliapin said, " What sort of performmore obscure, not to say unintelligible, to the ance of grand opera could you expect—even average reader than the extraordinary career from an all-star cast—if the orchestra and and mysterious death of the famous priest, singers had never had a rehearsal and were Father Gapon, and the double role of the without a conductor ?!! A single great popuequally famous Terrorist and agent provoca- lar leader—a man like General Skobelef, for teur, Yevno Azef. These problematical char- example would have made all the difference acters are treated by Professor Mavor, for between success and failure. the first time, in such a way as to make them Professor Mavor deals with Russian life at least conceivable. They still remain, and on its economic side even more carefully and perhaps will always remain, peculiar products exhaustively than with the same life on its of abnormal social and governmental condi- revolutionary side. Nowhere else in English tions; but they are no longer the unrealizable historical literature is to be found

fuller or apparitions of a wild political nightmare. more lucid account of the establishment and

In discussing the great popular uprising of abolition of serfdom ; the condition of the 1904–5 and its causes Professor Mavor ex- agricultural peasants before and after emanpresses the opinion that “the revolutionary cipation; the present agrarian situation ; state of mind among the Russian peasants peasant character and customs; Russian arose, not merely from the political disabilities industrial progress; the growth of cotton to which they were subject, nor merely from manufactures ; and the rise and developthe economical pressure of high rents and ment of the modern factory system. The low wages, nor merely from famine and its only suggestion which the most captious results, nor merely from the propaganda of critic could make, in reviewing this part of enthusiasts, but from all of these together.” the work, is that it might have been better, This is undoubtedly true; but the author perhaps, to curtail a little of the history of might well have included among his causes the emancipation of the serfs, and give the the pressure of martial law, the failure of the space thus saved to a consideration of tariffs Government to provide adequate educational and taxation in their bearing on national facilities for peasants who thirsted for knowl- well-being; the results of the Government edge, the arbitrary repression by local offi- liquor monopoly ; the press censorship in its cials of all popular attempts at self-culture, relation to intellectual and material progress ; the ruinous influence of the vodka monopoly, and the ruinous influence of arbitrary bureauand the harsh and often brutal treatment of cratic action based on martial law. “politicals," especially enlightened peasants, In his account of the Russian revolutionary in the Russian prisons. There were many

movement Professor Mavor reproduces, in other causes, but these are a few of the full or in part, a number of interesting hisimportant ones to which no reference is torical documents; but, strange to say, he made.

does not include among them the Freedom Professor Mavor attributes the failure of Manifesto of October 30, 1905, although the revolutionary movement of 190+-5 to that great state paper afterward gave rise to “the divergence of opinion and of interest one of the most powerful of Russian pobetween the peasants and the artisans, the litical parties—the Octobrists—and has been simultaneous forcing of the social and politi- utilized for the last eight years as the basis cal revolutions, and the absence of construct- for all liberal agitation. Among the most ive ideas at the critical juncture.” This interesting of the documents translated from again is perfectly true so far as it goes; but the Russian and reproduced in Vol. II is equally important reasons for the failure a letter written to the Czar by Father Gapon were the terrifying influence of more than a soon after the famous massacre of “Bloody hundred counter-revolutionary pogroms, the Sunday" in January, 1905. The letter, alienation of the nobles and landed propri- which follows, is perhaps the most extraor

dinary communication ever addressed to an autocratic ruler by a priest :

LETTER TO NICHOLAS ROMANOF, FORMERLY
CZAR AND AT PRESENT SOUL DESTROYER

OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

With naïve belief in thee as father of thy people, I was going peacefully to thee with the children of these very people. Thou must have known, thou didst know, this. The innocent blood of workers, their wives and children, lies forever between thee, O soul destroyer, and the Russian people. Moral connection between thee and them may never be any more. The mighty river during its overflowing thou art already unable to stem by any half-measures, even by a Zemsky Sobor [Popular Assembly). Bombs and dynamite, the terror by individuals and by masses, against thy breed and against the robbers of rightless people—all this must be and shall absolutely be. A sea of bloodunexampled—will be shed. Because of thee, because of thy whole family, Russia may perish.

Once for all, understand this and remember, better soon with all thy family abdicate the throne of Russia and give thyself up to the Russian people for trial. Pity thy children and the Russian lands, O thou offerer of peace for other countries and blood drunkard for thine own! Otherwise let all blood which has to be shed fall upon thee, Hangman, and thy kindred. February 7, 1905.

GEORGE GApox. In view of the momentous struggle recently begun in Europe, and the part that Russia must inevitably play in it, Professor Mavor's book has an importance that it might not have perhaps in time of peace ; but in any circumstances and under any conditions it is likely to stand for many years as the best economic and political history of the Russian Empire that is accessible to English readers. The work has an admirable index of fortyeight octavo pages, which covers every name, every proper noun, and every item of information in the two massive volumes.

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Perch of the Devil. By Gertrude Atherton. and in the fighting in Nicaragua the sergeant The Frederick A. Stokes Company, New York. $1.35.

gets his revenge by exposing that cowardice The singular title is the name of a copper and saving his company and the day. Of course mine in Montana, and the “ leading man,” as all this is not typical of real army conditions, one would say of a play, is the mine owner, who

and, so far as the story is meant to oppose illfights the copper trust and becomes a million

treatment of privates by officers, it does not aire. Mrs. Atherton has made herself an adept

make a case. Plot and incident are spirited, in mining lore, and, what is more, she makes

but much of the talk is weak and commonplace. this expert knowledge into good fiction-stuff. She has studied to purpose, also, social condi- Silver Sand. By S. R. Crockett. The F. H. tions in Montana. The miner's wife, Ida, is a Revell Company, New York. $1.25. strongly drawn character-always sharp and In the last few years of Mr. Crockett's life quick; originally a slangy, gum-chewing, raw there was a revivifying, if one may so term it, and wild Western product, she gets a chance in his power of romantic and dramatic storyafter marriage to acquire manners and tact. telling In other words, of the enormous numIda is not only amusing but forceful, and among ber of stories put forth by this too-industrious all the scandal and divorce of the book she writer the last three or four are decidedly refuses to let go of her man, not for moral superior to the average. This is especially true reasons so much as from a healthful instinct and of his “ Sandy,” of which we have heretofore an irrepressible desire to hold that which is spoken, and of “ Silver Sand,” his last novel. hers.

This is a tale of Scotland in the Covenanters' The novel is a strong piece of work, a little day; but its main interest lies in the adventures too verbose in places, but free from the exu- and love of a gypsy “king who is an eduberance of the author's early writing ; the cated and refined gentleman-a nobleman, ininterest is fully sustained, and there are to be deed, of a sort—but who still on occasion rules found in it both entertainment and careful char- his people and helps them. Mr. Crockett's acter depiction.

gypsies are not real, like George Borrow's, but Wall Between (The). By Ralph D. Paine.

they are consistently drawn. The tale has spirit Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.35.

and lively movement, and is an excellent examThis is an army story in which a cultivated, ple of its class of fiction. honest, sober, college-bred man, having enlisted

Days in the Open. By Lathan A. Crandall. as a private under stress of trouble, attains the The F. H. Revell Company, New York. $1.50. grade of quartermaster-sergeant, the highest Agreeable papers of out of doors, illustrated rank an enlisted man can reach without a com- with line drawings as well as reproduced photomission. He is oppressed and persecuted by graphs. The double-page picture “Reflection a second lieutenant whose commission comes on Lake McDermott” is charming Mr. Cranfrom political “ pull.” This officer is a coward, dall's titles are happy and indicate the con

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