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would be the rear of this German Staff and began apologizing for intruding on army.

a person who must be so very busy. “Oh," The announcements of the French and the General replied, “I'm not busy now. English War Offices on the evening of the Everything was prepared beforehand.” It 8th assert that this Allied Army of the Left means that every soldier in the field not only has begun a successful offensive and the has stout shoes, but a bottle of scientifically French Center is repulsing the German at- prepared oil to keep them soft and watertack, and, in some places, advancing.

tight. It means that every regiment has its Unless the Germans break through the own train of automobile trucks—immensely French line somewhere in a very short tinie, expensive and utterly useless in peace, but their western campaign will have failed. Daily ready for der Tag. the over-seas reinforcements are reaching the The French ideal is la levée en masse Allies. Daily the Russian menace grows every able-bodied man snatching up what more threatening.

arms come to hand and rushing to the fronIt is thankless work prophesying about the tier to defend “ La Patrie en danger.It “impending decisive battle.” So far-for was personified by the barefoot Republican reasons they have not disclosed—the Allies armies which rose out of the ground to the have managed to avoid it. They may do so magic of the blazing eloquence of the lawyer again. But it hardly seems possible unless Danton, and defeated greater odds than Gerthey are willing to sacrifice Verdun, as they many is now facing. It means the motor have already sacrificed Lille and Amiens and omnibuses of Paris suddenly transformed into the north of France.

commissary wagons. And, as I wrote last week, the issue, when Lieutenant-Colonel Montaigne in his book it comes, will be decided by the morale of “Vaincre " (To Conquer) has expressed the the opposing armies. 6. Which has the more extreme of this view, and it seems to me stamina ?” is still the most interesting ques- to be typically French as distinct from Gertion. Both sides have endured almost superhuman strain. The realignment is not very He cites endless cases, from Thermopylæ important. Neither side has yet broken the down to modern times, to prove that God other. Which of the two armies has the does not always fight on the side of the more confidence ?

greater number. He only grudgingly admits The only new element of importance in the advisability of keeping one's powder dry. the western campaign is this shadowy army All great world issues, he maintains, have of Cossacks which is rumored to be gathering been decided by moral force—" une force in Ostend.

morale.. He holds that it is more important

to teach the boys in school an ardent patriotTHE CONFLICT OF IDEALS

ism than to teach the young men in barracks It is more than the political destiny of marksmanship and maneuvers.

Above all, Europe which is being fought out on this he argues, the warrior who is to conquer battle-line. It is also a clash between philos- must be inspired by a passionate hatred ophies. The French would say it is la towards the enemies of his country. morale contre le mécanisme." The Ger- “The true spirit of war,” he writes, “ is the mans would call it a conflict between effi- spirit of destruction, of murder. The immeciency and enthusiasm. Whichever is the diate object of a combat is not the victory more just description of the opposing forces, but to kill. You march only to kill, and you the difference in their point of view is very shoot only to kill, and you jump at

the

throat evident. How the mass of civilized folk are of the enemy only to kill, and you go on killgoing to look on life depends very largely on ing till there is nothing more left to kill. the outcome of this war. wa

“ So the passion of war par excellence is The German ideal is an immensely able, the supreme desire to murder—the spirit of highly trained corps of leaders, foreseeing

revenge, of hate." every contingency and never unprepared. It But it is not enough for the entire nation had its first expression in Bismarck and to be inspired by this immense and murderMoltke, who claimed to have prearranged ous hate ; it must have an equal passion for every detail of the campaign of 1870. It is self-immolation. illustrated by the story of an American in “ The essence of war is the spirit of deBerlin who called last week on the Chief of struction, but the essence of victory is the

a

THE STORY OF THE WAR

111

[graphic]

IN REGARD TO

sources.

spirit of sacrifice. Victory goes only to abso- ciency of an arbitrary, centralized governlute devotion."

ment or the diffused enthusiasm of democThis, in spite of its gospel of hate, has. racy, which in the great days of '93 was able been called the moral theory of war. Beside to extemporize victory. any - German military treatise it presents a To be sure, France is very proud of her striking contrast. There is hardly a word in admirable field artillery and her daring it about the " Manual of Arms or - Cavalry cruisers of the air, but when it comes down Tactics.” It gives no instruction in loading to a bitter crisis it is not on such material a rifle nor in aiming a cannon. It deals little excellencies that she relies. with what a soldier should do ; its main preoccupation is how he should feel.

ATROCITIES Alfred Capus, the talented Academician, For weeks we have been hearing charges had an editorial in a recent issue of “ Figaro of inhuman cruelties committed by the Gerwhen the threat of a siege hung over Paris- man troops—from French

and Belgian Ce qu'il faut :'

The newspapers from Germany " What is now necessary—in fact, it is the which reach us two weeks or more late are one condition of national safety—is an inex- full of circumstantial accounts of atrocities haustible reserve of moral force. . . . practiced by the Belgians, and of French

“Let me repeat. The one condition is that murder and rape in Alsace. the army and its chiefs shall feel back of them The utility of such stories to a retreating a country ready for all sacrifices, with souls army is evident. If the advancing troops can undaunted, unwavering wills, and a clear-cut, be made to seem terrible enough, the peasantry coherent government.

will flee before them. And it is harder to “A weakening of the will, a feebleness of subsist an army if the country is uninhabited. soul, would be as detestable as desertion. The manufacture of such stories is part of To lack sang-froid to-day is to desert before the routine of a retreat, just like the blowIt is betrayal.

ing up of bridges. There has been much We all have our duty—the Government, exaggeration-cold-blooded, intentional exthe press, public opinion. This duty, in a aggeration—on both sides. single word, is firmness—which implies Now comes a signed statement by some accord, calm, stoic acceptance of events, well-known American newspaper men who ardent confidence in the destiny of our coun- have been to the front with the German try.

army, and who state that they have seen no - At certain critical hours a cry of anger evidence of especially inhuman cruelly. is a blasphemy, a doubt may be a crime. This does not mean that the prisoners of The victory is hard to win, but certain. Let war and non-combatants have been having a the entire nation deserve it. Each to his pleasant time. They never do in a war. post! Let us take for ourselves the sim- The strongest indictment which the peace ple and sublime words of the great English- advocates can bring against war is the way it man : France expects every man to do his warps out of shape all accustomed moral duty.”

standards. One would scarcely find such an editorial The European troops of all nations when in the Berlin papers. A more typical Ger- they marched to the relief of the Legations in man utterance in this time of stress is the Peking during the Boxer Rebellion committed Kaiser's speech in which he bade his people frightful atrocities. French soldiers have

* Be of good cheer. I will lead you to vic- more than once got out of hand in Morocco. tory."

Officers of the Belgian army made a hideous Of course neither nation has followed out scandal of the Congo Free State. The its ideal to the exclusion of its rival's. There Italians forgot all about civilization in the are more than machines in the German army, vengeance they wreaked on rebellious Tripoli. there are several million passionate patriots. Our own American army officers, far away And no disciple of Lieutenant-Colonel Mon- from home, in the great heat and unfamiliar taigne has ever been Minister of War in surroundings of the Philippines, were charged France and neglected the equipment from with practicing the “water cure." principle. But still the contrast holds good, If you give men brutal work to do and and when this war is over we shall know which send them away from all the accustomed recarries a nation further—the scientific effi- straints of civilized life, they will become

Frutes long as we have war we will lave atroci ies.

But the officers of civilized armies are expected to keep their heads even in the heat

he official and admitted destrucuun oi Louvain is a much more serious matter than the allegations of atrocities.

Turkey has nothing to gain by fighting unless she can recapture some of her European “ lost provinces ” from the Greeks and Bulgars.

But with Rumania and Bulgaria lining up with the Slavs there is small chance of this.

of war

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THE EASTERN CAMPAIGN

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DIPLOMACY Russia, France, and England have signed a formal declaration at London that they will act as a unit in alf negotiations. It is the formal ratification of previously expressed intentions. Germany may have hoped to make terms separately with each of her enemies. The Allies have publicly given their word to see it through to the bitter end together. That it foreshadows a continued effort and a long war is probably its greatest significance. And as a fighting programme it is much more definite than the existing ententes.

Like all diplomatic documents, the future of this new alliance is uncertain. Once upon a time Germany and Austria and Italy had a similar alliance. And during the First Balkan War the Allies signed an almost identical paper.

But the withdrawal of the French Government to Bordeaux is also a

diplomatic” move in the same direction. It is a graphic statement to the world that France will go on fighting even if her ancient capital is destroyed.

Italy and Turkey are—as The Outlook goes to press—still neutrals. How long they can keep it up is decidedly uncertain. The antiAustrian feeling in north Italy is very strong, while the southern Italians do not care a rap for the unredeemed of Trieste and the Trentino. They cannot understand each other's dialects, and they have not been under the same flag since the Roman Empire broke up. The very active revolutionary movement in Italy, which is passionately opposed to war, also has a sobering influence on the Government. But the army is mobilized and may break the leash of prudence at any moment.

Good news arrived on the 8th from Bucharest to the effect that Bulgaria and Rumania have signed an agreement to act together against Turkey in case she declares war on Russia. This, if it is true, will put a damper on the war party in Constantinople. For

The shortest military route from Russia to Berlin starts from Warsaw. The Czar's share of the ancient Kingdom of Poland stretches out in a promontory towards the heart of central Europe, but it is bounded on the north by German East Prussia and on the south by Austrian Galicia. No army could advance towards Berlin from Warsaw without exposing its flanks until these borders were cleared. So it is not surprising that Russia's first advances were by way of East Prussia and Galicia instead of Poland, although these frontiers are more than twice as far from Berlin.

Germany and Austria, fearing an aggressive movement from Poland, both made raids towards Warsaw, the Germans from the northwest, the Austrians from the southwest. The Germans claim to have pierced Poland as far as Lodz, and we have no further news from that point. And in East Prussia to the north, while they were at first pushed back, they seem to have checked the Russians at their fortresses along the Vistula.

The Austrians began bravely, pushing their raid into Russian Poland to Lublin. But the Russians held them there, and, bringing up forces from south Russia, have pushed into Galicia well beyond Lemberg and are investing the fortresses of Przemysl. If they capture this place and rout the Austrians at Lublin, as their latest despatches claim, and if they can hold the German army of the Vistula in its forts, they will be free to advance towards Berlin by way of Poland. If so, they will soon make their influence felt in the western campaign.

Austria has proved almost as weak an ally for the Kaiser as Italy. Despatches from Servia say that Belgrade is still being bombarded. The failure of the Austrians to capture this exposed place, hardly a stone's throw from their military base at Semlin, is almost incredible.

ARTHUR BULLARD. New York, September 9, 1914.

[graphic]

THE WEEK

on.

THE PROPOSED

minority should be taxed at the behest of a WAR TAX

large majority who are exempt from taxation. There is before Congress a bill to levy a The increase of the surtax would fall natuwar tax upon Americans. Why should the rally upon those who get their incomes not American people, who are not engaged in from service rendered but from property, war, have to pay a war tax? The answer and, as The Outlook has often said, the is given in the record of our customs receipts. ownership of property is a reasonable object Since the 1st of August, when the European of taxation. war broke out, up to the 1st of September, It is proposed to revive the stamp taxes the loss of Governmental receipts from the which became familiar to the people in this tariff on imported goods has amounted generation at the time of the Spanish War. to ten million dollars, in round numbers. Such a stamp tax can be levied on a great If this average is sustained throughout variety of objects—on checks and on rethe year, it means the loss of an annual ceipts ; on tickets to places of amusement, revenue of something like a hundred million on Pullman tickets, and so The addollars. In some way this deficit has to be vantage of such a stamp tax is that it is very met,

simple of collection, as simple as the collecThe President, in an address to Con- tion of the revenues of the Post-Office. It is gress, has called for the levying of new paid in advance, inasmuch as people will taxes. The two alternatives he mentions have to have stamps on hand to apply to he rejects at once—namely, the use of their checks or bills or tickets. Another the Treasury balance now on deposit in Na- advantage of a stamp tax is that it is one tional banks, and the issuing of bonds. To which everybody feels, and when the taxcall upon the deposits in the banks would payer feels the tax he is much more likely to cause inconvenience and even distress and watch the expenditure of the public moneys. confusion, he declares, and the borrowing of Another source of revenue would be a tax money by the issuance of bonds would put on beer, wines, and liquors, and tobacco in its an unnecessary strain upon the money market. various forms. Of course there is a tax

The only suggestion as to the form of levied on these objects already, but it is a taxation which he makes is that it be such simple matter to increase that tax. as will begin to yield “at once" and with The most important action that Congress “ certain and constant flow."

can take in this emergency is not, however, Many subjects of taxation have been pro- the levying of new taxes, but the practice of posed. The most obvious and simplest way economy. Individuals and business to raise the needed revenue in whole or in cerns are cutting down their expenditures for part is by increasing the income tax.

That
non-essentials. Let Congress do likewise.

. can be done by the passage of the simplest Now is a propitious time to take the “ pork" kind of an act, changing the present percent- out of the “ pork barrel," to cut out from age of the tax to a larger figure or lowering such a bill as the River and Harbor Bill the line of exemption so that there will be those items of expenditure that are inserted more incomes to be taxed, or both. It has for political effect. been suggested also that the surtax (that is, the additional tax upon large incomes) be increased. There is something to be said for each one of these proposals with regard to Last week the President issued a proclamathe income tax. We believe that to lower tion requesting the 'American people to obthe line of exemption so that smaller incomes serve Sunday, October 4, as a special day of may be taxed than are now taxed would have prayer for peace. The language of deep some wholesome effects, principally in in- feeling in which the proclamation is expressed creasing the number of people who would indicates not only the President's profound be directly interested in the income tax, and desire for peace, but his belief that the wartherefore making it more likely that its de- ring nation can be brought to a state of fects will have a wider popular attention. mind in which they will be willing to consider Moreover, it is not wholesome that a small the possibility of settling the conflict by the

con

A DAY OF PRAYER
FOR PEACE

process of mediation and mutual agreement. liner called the Hamburg) from New York Influential Protestant and Roman Catholic last week. It was found that some of the ecclesiastics have already taken steps for a crew were of foreign nationality, and it was universal observance of this day in all held that on a neutral vessel setting out to churches of the United States. The follow- relieve suffering without distinction as to race ing is the text of the proclamation:

or nation every precaution should be taken By the President of the United States of

to prevent the raising of any question relating America.

to neutrality. The Red Cross, therefore, is A PROCLAMATION

to be manned entirely by American officers Whereas, Great nations of the world have and men; all the surgeons and their assisttaken up arms against one another and war now ants (about 30) and the nurses (about 120) draws millions of men into battle whom the are also Americans. counsel of statesmen has not been able to save This ship of mercy, as it has been called, from the terrible sacrifice; and

is fitted out by the American National Red Whereas, In this, as in all things, it is our Cross, of which the President of the United privilege and duty to seek counsel and succor

States is head. The ship has been painted of Almighty God, humbling ourselves before

in white and red after the Red Cross colors, him, confessing our weakness and our lack of any wisdom equal to these things; and

and displays a great electric red cross. Whereas, It is the especial wish and longing

The efficient work in preparing the Red of the people of the United States, in prayer

Cross is to be credited largely to its untiring and counsel and all friendliness, to serve the and resourceful Secretary, Miss Mabel cause of peace;

Boardman. Therefore, I, Woodrow Wilson, President of The money for the Red Cross is contributed the United States of America, do designate by citizens, and while $185,000 had been subSunday, the fourth day of October next, a day

scribed up to September 7, very much more of prayer and supplication, and do request all

is needed if our American Red Cross Society God-fearing persons to repair on that day to

is to carry out its plans. So far there seems their places of Worship, there to unite their

to have been only a moderate response to petitions to Almighty God that, overruling the

the need. counsel of men, setting straight the things they

When Americans fully understand cannot govern or alter, taking pity on the na- how urgent that demand is, it is certain that tions now in the throes of conflict, in his mercy

their contributions will be forthcoming in and goodness showing a way where men can large amounts. We hope that the present see none, he vouchsafe his children healing mention of Red Cross activity will lead to peace again and restore once more that concord

the mailing of manf checks, large and small, among men and nations without which there

to the American National Red Cross at can be neither happiness nor true friendship

Washington. nor any wholesome fruit of toil and thought in

The several Red Cross Societies of the the world ; praying also to this end that he forgive us our sins, our ignorance of his holy will,

nations are mutually helpful, follow the same our willfulness and many errors, and lead us in

rules and methods, and have a loose interthe paths of obedience to places of vision and

national organization and regular international to thoughts and counsels that purge and make meetings. Practically, however, each works wise.

by itself but not for itself. Anything in the In witness whereof I have hereunto set my least partisan is abhorrent to the Red Cross hand and caused the seal of the United States idea. A German Red Cross nurse will succor to be affixed.

a Frenchman as quickly as a German; AmeriDone at the city of Washington, this eighth

can Red Cross nurses and doctors go to the aid day of September, in the year of our Lord one

of all the sick and wounded, of whatever Aag. thousand nine hundred and fourteen, and of the independence of the United States of America

The force on the Red Cross steamship is to the one hundred and thirty-ninth.

be divided equally among five Great Powers, WOODROW WILSON.

and a reserve will be held for emergency. By the President:

The ship is loaded with supplies—for instance, William Jennings Bryan,

300,000 pounds of absorbent cotton and Secretary of State.

2,000 cans of chloroform—and these, too,

will be divided and placed where they are THE RED CROSS SHIP

needed. A singular incident delayed the sailing of The American Red Cross has a splendid the Red Cross (the vessel once the German record for its past service. In the present

W

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