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THE WEEK

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THE PRESIDENT

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war.

war it recognizes a great duty and a great she is bound by the most sacred obligations to opportunity.

defend Belgium, obligations which France undertook to observe. We have been grieved to

the heart to see in the successive acts of GerBRITISH THEOLOGIANS ON THE WAR

man policy a disregard of the liberties of

states, small or great, which is the very negaOne of the most extraordinary incidents in

tion of civilization. It is not our country that connection with the war has been the sending has incurred the odium of being a traitor to of a letter from a group of British theolo- civilization or to the conscience of humanity. gians to the German theologian Professor Harnack. Not long after the war broke

Though they recognize the fact that Proout, Professor Harnack made a speech in

fessor Harnack may think them mistaken, which he was reported to have described

they assure him, as fellow-Christians and Great Britain as acting in the present war as

fellow-theologians, that their motives are not a traitor to civilization. A group of men

open to the charge that has been made. who acknowledge their debt to German

The signers of this striking letter include Dr. scholarship, and in particular to Professor

Selbie, the Principal of Mansfield College, Harnack as a leader among scholars, have

Oxford ; Dr. Forsyth, of Aberdeen Univeraddressed to him a letter, dated August 26,

sity ; and F. Herbert Stead, Warden of the in which they try to explain to him the mo

Robert Browning Settlement of London. tives of Britain in the war. They acknowledge that in matters of the spirit their sympathies are so largely German that only the INTERVENES IN THE strongest reasons could ever lead them to COLORADO LABOR WAR contemplate the possibility of hostile rela

When the President of the United States tions between Great Britain and Germany. recognizes the need of a truce,” it is eviThey say that they have borne resolute wit- dent that he believes that there is a state of ness against the endeavor made by foes of

President Wilson has thus officially Germany to foment anti-German suspicion made it evident that war has existed in Coloand ill will. But they declare that all hopes rado, for he has transmitted to officials of of settled peace depend upon maintaining mining companies in Colorado and officers inviolate the sanctity of treaty obligations

of the miners' union the draft for a tentative the more stringently binding in the case of

basis for a truce. This plan for a temporary guaranteed neutrality. They believe that the cessation of the labor war was prepared by extension of neutralization appeared to be two commissioners of conciliation who were one of the surest ways of eliminating war. sent to Colorado several months ago by the 'These considerations they regard as

President. These commissioners say that imperatively cogent when the treaty rights of " there should be established a three-year a small people are threatened by a great truce," subject to the understanding that the world power. They quote the acknowledg- mining and labor laws of the State be enment by the Imperial Chancellor of Germany forced ; that law-abiding strikers be given that the protests of Belgium and Luxemburg employment; that intimidation be prohibited; were just, and that in acting from “neces- that regulations and the current scale of wages sity” Germany

Germany “was doing wrong' and be posted; and that grievances be first acting contrary to the dictates of inter- taken up with the proper officer of the national law.!They call attention also to company, then, in case of failure, through the disregard of the sovereign rights of a grievance committee to be formed at greater states shown in the demand of Ger- each mine by the employees of that mine, many that Russia should demobilize her married men to be in the majority on each troops. " It was quite open to Germany,” committee, and, in the case of continued they say, "to have answered Russia's mobili- failure of adjustment, to a commission of zation with a counter-mobilization without three men to be appointed by the President resorting to war.” They express the belief that of the United States, which shall be repreGreat Britain in this conflict is fighting " for sentative of each side, with a third member conscience, justice, Europe, humanity, and last- to act as umpire. Furthermore, “ during the ing peace.” And as they conclude, they say :

life of the truce " it is understood that cerGreat Britain is not bound by any treaty

tain conditions should be recognized : the rights to defend either Servia or Russia. But waiving of legally enforceable contracts be

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MEXICO AND THE
UNITED STATES

will 6

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tween employers and employees, without the should be possible for any American to hold denial of voluntary agreements; the discon- that in such a case the President must appeal tinuance of mine guards, though not of watch- for peace by request, not compel it by men ; the needlessness of the presence of authority. Federal or State troops; no picketing, parading, colonizing, or mass campaigning that will interfere with the working operation of the mine; acceptance by both the employers The question is often asked, When will the and the employees of the decisions of the United States withdraw its troops from commission as binding ; no suspension of Vera Cruz ? Light is thrown upon this work pending investigation; the allowing of point and on the attitude of our Administrathe suspension of the operation of the mine tion toward the present status in Mexico by for a cause satisfactory to the commission ; what claims to be a trustworthy though unthe acceptance of penalties imposed by the official statement of the President's position commission.

published in the New York “ Times.” In transmitting this proposed basis for a According to this, the President is willing to truce to the officers of the mining corpora- withdraw our soldiers if General Carranza tions and the miners' union involved, the resign from his present office

and President said : “ I recommend it to you for allow some other leading Mexican to succeed your most serious consideration. I hope you him ; or he will recognize Carranza as Prowill consider it as if you were acting for the visional President and withdraw the troops if whole country, and I beg that you will regard Carranza will pledge himself not to be a canit as urged upon your acceptance by myself didate at the election for President; or, if with very deep earnestness. This is a time, Carranza does not now assume the title of

sure you will feel, when everything Provisional President, our Administration should be done that is possible for men to will recognize his military command, will do, to see that all untoward and threatening agree that he should be a candidate at the circumstances of every sort are taken out of election, will recognize as President whoever the life of the people of the United States." is elected, and will then withdraw the troops.

In thus intervening in this Colorado strike If it is true, as Mexican despatches have President Wilson is following the precedent stated, that Carranza has systematically set by President Roosevelt in the great anthra- called himself First Chief and not Procite strike of 1902. There are, however, visional President, and has exercised execusome notable differences. In the case of the tive power solely as a victorious military anthracite strike the commission appointed commander, these proposals seem, partly at by the President was finally formed and least, superfluous; the third state of things accepted by the parties to the strike within actually exists, it is believed, and the plan of about six months of the beginning of the the third proposal is likely to be carried out. strike, while the strike still continuing in The whole situation hinges on the fact that Colorado has been in existence already for the Constitution of Mexico provides that a some eleven months. In the case of the person who holds the office of Provisional anthracite strike the commission was ap- President at the time of a general election pointed before there was any need of the shall not be a candidate in that election to use of Federal troops; but in the case of the succeed himself as President. Colorado strike, although Federal troops have It is right that the United States should been for several months employed in the insist on the observing of every legal requirestrike field, and although they have been ment in the establishing of a new Governunable to prevent what the President's ap- ment in Mexico. It is also right that it should pointees consider a state of war, there has look not only to the letter but to the spirit not yet been any commission appointed. of the law. We should not abandon our watch

We hope that both the corporations and over Mexico's affairs until it is clear that the the miners will accept the good offices of the new Government is not only legal, technically President and accede to the truce on the speaking, but that it stands for fair dealing basis which he has proposed. But it is a and is not a mere dictatorship under another disgrace to the Nation that it should be possi

Otherwise the whole question may ble for war conditions to remain in any part have to be taken up afresh. of the country for so long a time, and that it General Villa's position remains more or

name.

THE WEEK

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less of a mystery. In the only definite state born not quite sixty years ago at Pegli, on ment that he has made he declares :

the shores of the Mediterranean near Genoa, This country [Mexico] should not again be

of a family of the Italian nobility. His rise under military government. The armies by

in the Roman Church has been dramatic. our Constitution are secondary to the consti- He was ordained a priest in 1878, served as tuted Government, and it is now time that the an ecclesiastical official in Spain until 1887, country should be governed by the people, for became Secretary to Cardinal Rampolla in the people, and not, as heretofore, governed by 1887, became Archbishop of Bologna in 1907, a military clique whose only object is personal and a Cardinal in May, 1914. Cardinal welfare and not the welfare of the masses. Rampolla was Papal Secretary of State for

Leo XIII, and would perhaps have been FEDERAL CONTROL OF THE

elected Pope to succeed Leo if Austria had MISSISSIPPI RIVER

not exercised the veto, which she then posIn the course of a speech recently delivered

sessed, but which was abolished by Pius X. before a great audience in New Orleans in

The new Pope has been so short a time a behalf of the Progressive party, Mr. Roose

cardinal that very little is known either of his velt touched upon one subject that has been

personality or of his policy, outside of the too much neglected in spite of the fact that hierarchy of the Italian Church. His long it is of National concern. To the people of and intimate association with Cardinal RamLouisiana Mr. Roosevelt said that the Missis

polla, however, indicates that he has been sippi River, the Father of Waters, was at

trained in diplomatic statesmanship of a high once their most valuable asset and their most

order, as well as in dogmatic theology of a dangerous liability. Mr. Roosevelt pointed

conservative type.

An estimate of the effect out that the control of this river was abso

of his election upon the Roman Catholic lutely beyond the power or resources of any Church, written by an ecclesiastic of that one State.

Church, will be found elsewhere in this issue. “Merely to build levees in the lower course of the river,” he said, “ will not avail.

THE YALE SCHOOL The leyees must be built. But in certain great crises they will always prove useless

In “ Commencement Notes" two by themselves. The water flows from State

months ago mention was made of the fact to State, now as the most potent aid to life that the Yale Divinity School has been reand well-being, and again as fraught with

named the Yale School of Religion. The fact the most terrible menace of destruction and

is of more than transient interest. What it inof death. In the upper part of its course

volves needs to be adequately understood. In there is need to use the waters for irrigation. making the changes that required the change In the lower part there is need to prevent

of name the Faculty of the School and the their ruining the land by flood. In all parts Corporation of the University felt that they the water needs to be harnessed for use in

were not making a new departure, but rather our industrial development." Therefore, Mr. Roosevelt concluded, the

were "returning on a higher plane and with

wider sweep to the ideal of the founders” of control of the Mississippi River is a matter

Yale in 1701, to train men 66 for Publick for National action. He suggested that the

employment both in Church & Civil State." twenty-five million dollars which it is pro

This broad conception of Christian obligaposed to pay to Colombia the National

tion has in our times discovered new fields of Government could put to better use by de

service, in which a thorough study of religion on voting it to the improvement of this great

its theoretical side must advance hand in hand river together with “ the plant of the Panama

with the widest study of it on its practical Canal, and as many scores of millions extra

side. Provision must be made for the thoras are necessary, in precisely the same way

ough training of a Christian ministry for servas it used this money to construct the

ice in all these new fields, as well as for the Panama Canal.”

pastorate of churches. Twenty years ago

provision for these new demands made a THE NEW POPE

beginning which has been steadily followed The successor of Pius X was elected by up along with the expansion of philanthropic the Conclave of Cardinals at Rome last week. social work at home and foreign missionary His name is Giacomo della Chiesa. He was work abroad. Such was the demonstration

OF RELIGION

our

a

a

of unexpected capacities for service, and such he went up to tell the New York Compensathe enthusiasm, faith, and growth of student tion Commission just how the heavy stone volunteer activity therein, that in 1909 the had fallen and hurt his back. Maddalena ultimate step was taken which made the said he had been sick six weeks and they Divinity School virtually, if not in name, needed the money, for she was the oldest of

University School of Theoretical and seven, and, yes, that was her mother nursing Applied Religion.”

the baby over there. They were all so The plan then adopted actually instituted anxious that they had coine along to see if five schools (for convenience called de- Giuseppe would surely get his money. partments) under the one name, Divinity No, they had no lawyer. The Commission School-a school for the training of pastors is a court without lawyers. Perhaps that is and preachers; a school for that of the for- why the cases are passed upon so rapidly. eign missionary, whether layman or ordained Sixteen in twenty minutes is the rate at minister ; a school for that of the teacher of which they were handled the other day. If religion, apart from the preaching office, in these sixteen claims had been tried at law, church or college ; a school for the training each case would have taken more than a year of social workers; and a school of research to decide, sometimes far more. Twenty years' in the history and philosophy of religion. It work done in twenty minutes! As a laborthen went on record that the school thus saving device the State Workmen's Compenreorganized "may now not inappropriately sation Commission ought to win the approval be termed the Yale School of Religion and of even an efficiency engineer. Christian Science.” The plan thus outlined In the issue of August 8 The Outlook pubwas put at once into operation. Besides the lished a short summary of the New York Workcourses given in these departments there is men's Compensation Law and pointed out some large use of those given in other depart- of the obstacles in the path of the five Commisments of the University. In the Depart- sioners. Since then the public hearings have ment of Missions its own courses were thus been of daily occurrence in New York City, supplemented in the current year by more and a short interview with one of the Comthan one hundred others given by more than missioners, Mr. John Mitchell, leader of the thirty professors.

anthracite strike, has brought forward several What those best qualified to judge think interesting by-products, as it were, of the

, of this scheme was expressed in 1909 by new law's application. Dr. John R. Mott, President of the World's The most obvious is the increased willingStudent Christian Federation, in a letter to ness of employers to install safety devices in President Hadley: “Your plan is literally

“ Your plan is literally their factories. The fact that insurance pregreat. It is most timely as well as prophetic. miums are reduced in direct proportion to It is adapted to meet the requirements of the the precautions taken to safeguard employees modern world as no scheme which I have is a powerful argument for the safety first"

in operation on either side of the idea. Atlantic."

Also you can see that the new law will The large increase—$1,500,000—of the tend to bring employer and employee autoSchool's endowment required for the fully matically into closer relations,” said Mr. developed operation of such a scheme is now Mitchell, "since by its provisions the old cusproceeding at an encouraging rate. The tom in many industries of hiring men by sought-for organizer and head of such a number is done away with. Now the laborSchool of Religion took office in 1912, when er's name and weekly wage must be kept in Dr. Charles Reynolds Brown, of Oakland, writing. It is likely to give one a different California, became its Dean.

feeling to learn that James Smith, who received $9.60 per week, has lost his right arm in the company's service, instead of the old

report that Laborer No. 11,729 has been “ Your case was passed already.

injured. home and they'll mail you your money.” " Besides, in seventy-five per cent of the The court attendant's words brought a look cases,” Mr. Mitchell went on,

"the company of puzzled relief to the anxious face of thir- is just as anxious that James should get his teen-year-old Maddalena. She had gone along compensation for injury as he is himself. It as interpreter for Giuseppe, her father, when does not make the insurance cost any more

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THE COMPENSATION LAW
IN ACTION

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FOR WHAT SHALL WE PRAY?

119

if James is paid, and it creates a far better the awards are made. It might be a good feeling among the workers. In the old days, idea for the Bar Association's Committee on even if the employer wanted to pay a fair Reform of Legal Procedure to look in occacompensation, his insurance company made sionally and take a few notes. Besides him fight the case, and a lawsuit goes further despatch, there is shown a generous spirit of than most things to stir up strife between kindness and fair play. The relations between capital and labor."

the Commission and the representatives of

the insurance companies seem amicable. But A DEMOCRATIC TRIBUNAL

it is the treatment of the workmen and the It is not for nothing that this is named workmen's families that is so amazing to any the Workmen's Commission. With no desire one familiar with the court of a city magisto be hard on capital in its struggle for trate. existence, the Commissioners seem

to feel

" The most democratic tribunal ever conthat they have been appointed chiefly to see ceived” is the way one lawyer described it. that labor receives that redress which the It is to be hoped that the march of time and courts cannot give. The whole tone of the familiarity with misfortune may not tighten hearings shows this spirit. As the chief at- the broad sympathies of the Commission or tendant expressed it, pointing to a bench full make rigid the administration of its justice. of anxious claimants : “ They don't need to be afraid of us. We're for them. If it wasn't for this here Commission, they wouldn't

FOR WHAT SHALL WE PRAY? get a cent.”

Sometimes the worker himself makes it We print on another page the President's difficult to win his case. At one of the hear- proclamation requesting Americans to meet ings recently a big, eager longshoreman in their various places of worship on October gave the Commissioners a lot of trouble by 4 for special prayer on account of the war insisting that he had hunted for work at in Europe. This proclamation, beautiful least a week earlier than the limit of the alike in its spirit and in its form, will appeal period for which he was declared incapaci- to all Americans, whether Roman Catholics, tated. The man wanted to show that he Protestants, Jews, or Agnostics. Even those needed employment and wasn't lazy, and he who doubt the value of prayer may well join nearly wrecked any endeavors to give him in this common expression of deep desire for compensation for the time he was disabled. the speedy recovery of Europe from this Finally the whole Commission broke into epidemic of war. laughter at his obtuseness, while the repre- For what shall we pray ? sentative of the insurance company smilingly In the time of William of Orange, those agreed to make no objection to payment for prayed well who prayed for religious libertythe full time of unemployment.

the right of every man to worship God acThere is one class of citizen to whom the cording to the dictates of his own conscience. new law has proved disastrous. It has liter- In the time of the American Revolution, ally taken the bread from the mouth of the those prayed well who prayed that the Coloshyster lawyer known " ambulance nies might be emancipated and that a new chaser.” The cutthroat methods by which nation might be born, "conceived in liberty, he was used, on the one hand, to hold up the and dedicated to the proposition that all men companies for large damages, and, on the are created equal." other, retained seventy-five per cent of the In the Civil War, those prayed well who money collected for his fees and costs, are prayed that the slave might be emancipated impossible now. An injured employee has and the Union preserved on the basis of still the right to take his case into court, and justice and liberty. a defeat at law will not prejudice him in To-day those will pray well who pray that applying to the Commission later ; but there military despotism may be destroyed, the are not many workingmen who will give up reign of the sword may be ended, and the their immediate relief from the State for the reign of the conscience and the reason may tedious uncertainty of legal redress.

begin. It is a pity that some of our judges through- Righteousness and judgment are said by a out the country could not visit the hearings Hebrew poet to be the habitation of God's and mark the celerity and brevity with which throne. Enduring peace—the peace of

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