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66

FREE MARKETS

regulations further require that the same re- food prices by his three new markets under spect shall be observed towards the national air the city's bridges and one at an uptown of other country when it is played as a ferry landing. The attack on the first day compliment to official representatives of such appeared weak and uncertain.

At the ferry countries. At every military post or station only one farmer and a few peddlers were in while the flag is being lowered the band is line, and at the other markets conditions were required to play the" Star-Spangled Banner." not encouraging. General Marks and his

Of late years the flag has become in a new aides did not despair. They felt that the sense the National emblem. It floats over fault lay in the slow mobilization of the rural every school-house on the continent. When forces, and that as soon as the farmers could it appears, heads are always uncovered, and be convinced of the benefits of co-operation when the “ Star-Spangled Banner ” is sung success would be assured. Agents were sent not only members of the army and navy rise out into the country to enlist volunteers, offibut all citizens stand. It is the symbol of cials of other city departments were pressed the history, the spirit, and the aspirations of into service, while housewives were encourthe Nation.

aged to continue their support of the markets. The principal speaker at the centenary in In less than two weeks the situation had Baltimore was Mr. Bryan, the Secretary of completely changed. Reports from the four State. At the close of the formal exercises camps showed marked advances all along the Mr. Edward Berge's heroic statue of Lieu- line of attack. Farm wagons, peddlers, and tenant-Colonel Armistead was unveiled, Gov- push-carts were out in force, well supported ernor Stuart, of Virginia, delivering the address by eager purchasers weighted down with and giving the facts concerning Colonel impedimenta in the shape of market baskets, Armistead's command of Fort McHenry suit-cases, and leather bags. A system of during the bombardment.

communication with the rear was established

by means of delivery wagons which would NEW YORK'S

carry any parcel of any size for ten cents.

One enterprising department store charged “ The high cost of living” is a catch phrase the enemy with rapid-fire packages of four, to the newspapers, but it is a hard reality to butter, sugar, and staple groceries put up in the provider for a family who may not realize small quantities at cost prices. The rivalry all the blessings of peace at home when pay- between the attacking divisions became acute, ing the prices caused by war abroad.

and the “ latest advices from the front would A venture in reducing living expenses by seem to show that the invaders were retiring establishing four free markets in the Borough slowly to more strongly fortified positions of Manhattan is watched with interest not previously selected.” only by New Yorkers but by wide-awake It remains to be seen whether New York's municipal authorities all over the country. free market system is here to stay. So far In many American cities municipal markets the experiment has not cost the taxpayer a are not new. Especially in the South, in penny. The city merely turned over to Mr. Washington, Baltimore, and Charleston, they Marks unoccupied premises, but the Comphave been known and approved for years. troller refused to release any money, and the But as a general rule markets have been con- Mayor and other officials could only promise ducted as much as a source of revenue to hearty encouragement. Private firms have the municipality as a convenience to the con- co-operated generously. Free electric light

The distinguishing point about the ing and free street car advertising have been Manhattan experiment is that the farmer provided, and the newspapers have given the shall be at no expense to bring his produce plan large publicity, which has made itself directly to the purchaser. Free advertising directly felt in the daily increasing number of and free competition, without overhead purchasers. Already other boroughs of the charges and without any commission to mid- city are planning similar ventures. dlemen, are the forces which it is hoped It is believed that a Commission Bureau may bring prices down.

of farmers round about New York can be War between Germany and Russia was established on the lines of the California declared on August 1, and on September 1 Fruit Growers' Association, to be managed by Borough President Marcus M. Marks, of a salaried officer who would sell the goods of Manhattan, opened fire on the high soaring the members and return the commissions.

a

sumer.

1914

THE WEEK

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This would serve to standardize commodities Hartigan, “are often flimflammed or deceived and protect prices from too keen competition. by measures and scales which are constantly Meanwhile the serious question as to winter growing more complicated. We want to quarters has arisen, and a plan is on foot to teach the children not only how to buy withuse the city's recreation piers as market- out being cheated, but also how to buy the places during the winter months.

most nourishing parts of a beeve, for instance; It would be a curious thing if the miseries in other words, how to get in every way and privations that men and women are un- the biggest return for the family money." dergoing on one side of the Atlantic should Through the Mayor's Committee the New be the indirect means of giving more plenti- York Board of Education has become interful food and a fuller life to others in this ested, and a committee of the Board is now country. “ Be thankful for your mercies ” is looking into ways and means of establishing a homely adage many Americans are repeat- lectures and courses in scientific marketing. ing as they scan the horrors in the morning A number of retired butchers and bakers are headlines. Industrial depression and the available as lecturers, and it is planned within shrinking dollar are serious joy-killers for any a few weeks to have lectures with stereopnation. New York's experiment with popu- ticons, accompanied with a course in home lar markets may prove at least a small part reading on marketing for the children. of an argent lining to the heavy cloud over- ents will be admitted to the lectures, and hanging these strifeful days.

thus the lesson of economy driven home, it Certainly it would be a sorry story if, is hoped, to every household. This project when peace comes at last, the citizen of New has about it all the ear-marks of that comYork should return to his old troubles with mon-sense spirit of public service which has middlemen and lose the advance in intelligent characterized so many of the measures of control of food distribution which he won this city administration, which was installed because of murder and destruction abroad. by the Fusion movement of 1913, and The

Outlook hopes that it will soon be found to SCIENTIFJC MARKETING

be so practicable that other American cities A NEW BRANCH OF EDUCATION

will begin to teach their housewives how to The Committee appointed by Mayor avoid unnecessary expense in buying. Mitchel, of New York, to investigate the sudden rise in the prices of foodstuffs following STREETS FOR PLAY the outbreak of war in Europe has already “If you can't get what you want, make reported a number of findings which have the best of what you have,” seems to be the more than local interest. By no means the sensible motto of the Parks and Playgrounds least interesting, however, is the finding that Associatio of New York City. Unable to ignorance and carelessness on the part of get a sufficient number of playgrounds to the consumer in making purchases is an im- accommodate all the youngsters of the portant cause of the high price of living in metropolis, the Association, in co-operation cities. As a result of this report of the with the Police Department, has made temCommittee it is now proposed to introduce in porary playgrounds out of a number of the public schools of New York courses in streets in the city. It is nothing new for marketing in order to teach children, and children to play in crowded city streets, but their parents too, how to compute weights it is quite novel for boys and girls to be and prices instead of taking the word of the turned loose in streets from which all traffic butcher and baker on these important points. has been diverted, and to be able to play

Commissioner Hartigan, of the Bureau of ball and hop-scotch without fear of horses' Weights and Measures, who has done much hoofs and the wheels of auto-trucks. That already to expose the frauds of merchants is the privilege that some of the children of who

cheat the public with false-bottomed New York have now, thanks to the Parks and measures and scales that have been “ doc- Playgrounds Association and a Police Comtored,” and who was one of the Committee missioner whose heart is in the right place. on Food Investigation, estimates for The The late Mayor Gaynor once said : "If I Outlook that in more than sixty per cent of had my way, I would close up every other the families of New York City the purchas- street and turn it into a playground for the ing of supplies is done by children.

boys and girls." If he were alive to-day, he 6. These children,"

says Commissioner would be pleased to see that a start has been made in the right direction. Parts of seven information here which many intelligent Manhattan streets are now set aside for chil- American citizens would like to have whether dren; at three o'clock every afternoon a they are going to visit the National parks or policeman appears and ropes off the sacred not. area, into which no vehicle of any sort may Why cannot the Government Printing come until the ropes are removed at six Office send monthly to every post-office in o'clock and traffic resumed again.

the United States, to be posted there for the To each “play street” one or more in- information of the public, a list of the publistructors have been assigned who preside cations of the various Government departover the three-hour sessions of handball, ments which may be obtained gratis, or on dancing, and other approved pastimes of payment of a small sum, if the applicant will childhood. From three hundred to six hun- give his name and address to the postmaster ? dred children crowd into each of these recre- This is the suggestion which The Outlook ation blocks every afternoon, and so popular made several years ago, and which it hopes

, and successful has this experiment in applied to keep on making until some Postmastersociology proved that it is planned to open General or Secretary of the Interior becomes other streets soon. The streets chosen for interested enough in it to carry it out. The play centers are in crowded residential dis- American Government wants its citizens to tricts, and are not, of course, streets where know what it is doing. Our Cabinet officers much traffic is demanded by business inter- have not infrequently complained that the ests. They are, in short, streets that might people at large are not aware of what their well be permanently consecrated to the uses public servants are accomplishing for the genof childhood. Mayor Gaynor was right; the eral benefit. Why does the Government not modern city is conducted with entirely too make use of the post-office in this way? If it much regard for the uses of haggling age can be successfully used for savings banks, and with entirely too little for the interests it can be successfully used for the disseminaof rollicking youth.

tion of non-political Government information.

The present Secretary of the Interior, who THE SALE OF GOVERNMENT

was once a newspaper man, who has written DOCUMENTS

the best thing that has been said in recent An interesting leaflet which we have re- times about the American flag, and who cently received from the Secretary of the

knows the value of the right kind of publicity, Interior makes The Outlook hopeful that it is the very man to put this educational and may see one of its own proposals carried out informative use of the post-office into action. by the Government. The proposal, made long ago, was that Government publications might

PEACE-OR JUSTICE? easily and profitably be sold at every post-office in the United States. The leaflet to which When peace comes at the end of this war, is we refer is a list of pamphlets on the various it to be a lasting peace or merely an armistice ? National parks, most of them illustrated, This is the question which should concern which can be obtained for cash or post-office the world. No negotiations for peace will money order from the Superintendent of be of service that will tend to emphasize Documents, Government Printing Office, compromise and to submerge justice. Washington, D. C. They range in price It is reported that an inquiry has been from five to twenty-five cents, and include sent from this country to the German Empanoramic views of the Yosemite and of the peror as to whether he would be willing to Glacier National Parks. The same notifica- discuss terms of peace.

A similar inquiry, it tion from the Secretary of the Interior is also reported, has been made of the British announces that various circulars about the Government. It is hardly necessary to cauYellowstone, Yosemite, the Mount Rainier, tion our readers with regard to reports of this the Glacier National Park, and other parks sort. It is as futile to conduct diplomatic maintained by the Government may be negotiations by newspaper reports as it is to obtained from his office free of charge. try a suit at law by newspaper editorials. In These circulars contain data regarding hotel the one case, as in the other, it is easy for the accommodations, principal points of interest, reader to jump at wrong conclusions through and lists of books and magazine articles on inadequate knowledge of the facts. the various regions. There is unquestionably Such reports, moreover, do considerable 1914

THE COUNSEL FOR THE DEFENSE

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damage by awakening false hopes. With hooves the United States to be wise as well every day of this war it is natural that desire as humane. for its end should grow. What is more im- Let us be sure that the peace we seek is portant, however, than a speedy conclusion is the peace of justice. a just conclusion. It is not as important that peace should come soon as that when it comes it should not prove to be a sham

THE COUNSEL FOR THE peace. The neutral nations of the earth can in

DEFENSE flict on Europe no injury comparable to The admirers of Professor Eucken read that which would result in bringing an end with astonishment his defense of Germany's merely to armed hostilities without bringing action in violating her guarantee of Belgium's an end to the cause of those hostilities.

neutrality. It is as follows: Horrible as the present carnage is, there is

She [England] was watching only for a favorone thing that would be still more horrible

able opportunity when she could break out a renewal of the carnage on a greater scale. suddenly against Germany, and she therefore An armistice, under the guise of peace, promptly seized on the invasion of Belgium, so without a settlement of the issues that necessary to Germany, in order that she might caused the war would invite a renewal of the cover with a small cloak of decency her brutal carnage as soon as either side could renew national egoism. Or is there in the whole wide its strength.

world any one so simple as to believe that This war is a conflict between two irrec

England would have declared war on France

also if the latter had invaded Belgium ? In that oncilable ideals. In that respect it is like

event she would have wept hypocritical tears our own Civil War. If through the inter

over the unavoidable violation of international vention of some neutral foreign power terms

law; but as for the rest she would have laughed of peace had been agreed upon between in her sleeve with great satisfaction. This North and South before the questions of hypocritical Pharisaism is the most repugnant slavery and secession had been settled, feature of the whole matter; it deserves nothing another Civil War could not have been but contempt. averted. So, if through the intervention of In this defense are two defenses : some neutral power terms of peace should I. Germany violated her solemn word be agreed upon between Germany and the because it was necessary to her success. Allies before the question whether militarism The Hebrew Psalmist describes a righteous can tear up treaties and trample upon small man as one who sweareth to his own hurt neutral nations and remain unscathed is set- and changeth not. According to Professor tled, then militarism will raise its head again Eucken, if a nation sweareth to its own hurt and submerge Europe in another bloody it may change without reproach, if the change deluge.

is necessary to its success. A curious variaIf German militarism is the only defense tion of this defense is the statement that a against the barbarism of semi-Asiatic Russia, guarantee of neutrality is of no moral force as the Germans believe, then the world had in time of war. Neutrality for a state can better learn that fact now, and not wait until exist only in time of war. So that this defense another war enforces the lesson. If, on the may be tersely put thus: A strong nation other hand, militarism, as we believe, is a may pledge itself to defend the neutrality of greater danger than barbarism (because it a weaker nation in case of war, with the mencannot be educated, while barbarism can), tal reservation that in case of war it will not then those who are fighting against militarism defend that neutrality if it does not choose. should have their full chance to show its II. England would have violated its pledge weakness, and its futility.

if it had been necessary for her success. At such a time as this a neutral nation like “You're another” is sometimes used by the United States has an enormous responsi- boys in defending themselves against critibility. It cannot discharge that responsibil- cism, but all honorable boys scorn that deity if, by its offers of mediation at an inop- fense. But Professor Eucken's defense of portune time, it should place either side in Germany does not rise even to the dignity of the position of declining peace when accept- you're another.” It is only “We guess you ance of peace would be the acceptance of would have done what we did if you

had been injustice. In the interest of humanity it be- tempted." There is no ground for thinking

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that this is true, but if it were true it would are the only two great events which would constitute no defense.

suggest change in the exposition of PanWe can more easily understand the action Germanism if the book had been written of Germany in violating her solemn treaty after the outbreak of war. Add to this that than we can understand this defense of such the author is not writing to attack Panviolation by a professor of ethics. Perhaps Germanism but to explain it, and that he the explanation is the tendency of teachers lays full stress upon Germany's need of exof ethics to forget morals, and of the teach- pansion, lack of opportunity for colonization, ers of theology to forget religion. The one and dangers from the aggression of other deal with theories of right and wrong and peoples, and add further that the author has forget conduct, the other deal with theories no illusions as to the ethical standards of any of the divine law and forget life. Academic of the Great Powers (he puts on his titletheories taught in the schools and theological page Madame de Staël's cynical remark, theories taught in the pulpit are worse than “The patriotism of nations ought to be useless if they are not usable and used in selfish ”), and it will be seen that he is not a every-day transactions. Professor Eucken prejudiced or fanatical witness. has forgotten his own noble characterization What, then, is the essence of Pan-Gerof Christianity : “What existed merely in manism as Professor Usher sees it, of that thought has become deed; what was an aim impulse or purpose which he predicted a and an ideal has become living reality.” year ago might “at any moment result in a In morals thoughts which are not translated war whose consequences would be felt alike into deeds, aims and ideals which are not by the farmers in North Dakota, the operaconverted into living realities, deceive both tors in Lancashire cotton-mills, and the savteacher and pupil and hinder the develop- ages in the heart of Africa ”—a prediction ment which they are supposed to promote. that has been fulfilled to the letter? It is “a

defensive movement for self-preservation,"

but it also aims “to create an empire as little PAN-GERMANISM

vulnerable politically, economically, or strate

gically as the world has yet seen.” In short, It might be a question for debate whether “ the Germans aim at nothing less than the or not in the present war Germany is merely domination of Europe and of the world by forestalling a predetermined attack upon her the Germanic race.” And again : "Panby Russia and France, and is therefore fight- Germanism aims at obtaining for Germany ing for protection and not for aggression, and her allies control of the world and at were it not for the evidence of a long- their retention of that control for at least a pondered plan for world domination. The generation.” It has grown from ideas of Outlook summarized lately the volume writ- colonial and commercial expansion into a ten by General Bernhardi three years ago, "determinedly aggressive scheme for the in which this Prussian military officer argued actual forcible conquest of the world.” To that the issue for Germany was "world the same purport Dr. Ernst Richard, a Gerpower or downfall," and urged the need of man, said in The Outlook not long since : striking first. Another confirmation is found “ The Germans are determined to win at in Roland G. Usher's “ Pan-Germanism" any cost, and after their victory to leave (Houghton Mifflin Company), published over their enemies in such shape that they will a year ago. Mr. Usher is Associate Professor never be able to disturb the peace again.” of History in the Washington University at St. The mere existence of such a scheme of Louis. He writes not as a partisan, but as world dominion brings into play forces tenda close analyst of forces and causes. The ing to its defeat. The German war party, supbook is extraordinary not only for its clarity ported by militarism and resting on the will but for its wide view of the international of an Emperor of extraordinary personality, situation. For an incisive and readable ac- has been able to make the plan seem feasible. count of the European situation which pre- But Professor Usher says, " That Pan-Gerceded the war it may be cordially recom- manism, resting upon such a basis, can long mended to The Outlook's readers. Since withstand the assault of its internal and exthe book was written the second Balkan War ternal enemies seems utterly improbable.” and its consequences and the refusal of Italy Socialism and the stirring of democratic ideals to abide by her allies in the Triple Alliance in the German Empire itself, resentment in

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