Obrázky na stránke
PDF
ePub
[graphic]

THE STORY OF THE WAR

147*

a

out of the fighting line instead of one. It is In the Austro-Russian campaign we know a gruesome farce to talk about the humane a few moves with more definiteness. First, niceties of war.

an Austrian force invaded Poland ; it was

certainly more than one hundred thousand THE EASTERN CAMPAIGN

men, perhaps a quarter of a million. They Every week that passes makes the Russian met little or no resistance, and penetrated as army more important.

far as Lublin, where they stopped or were But the despatches from the Eastern stopped. theater of war most unsatisfactory. A few days after they had commenced the On the 15th both Germany and Russia invasion a Russian advance developed in force claimed notable victories in East Prussia. from the direction of Odessa. The Russian And when the reports are not flatly contra- progress into Galicia was at first unopposed. dictory they are distressingly vague. The But near the river Bug they met and overcame Russian frontier is so long that it is hopeless a stiff resistance. A little farther on they to try to get any coherent idea of the various defeated an Austrian army before Lemberg campaigns. We had, for instance, reports and entered that city. Advance-guards from that the Germans had advanced into Russian this army pursued the Austrians towards Poland to Lodz. There was no news for Przemysl, on the river San.

Some reports several days, and then a despatch of the 15th claim that the investment of this fortress announced that the Germans were fortifying has begun, others seem to contradict this. Kalisz—thirty miles nearer their own frontier. The Russians also reported that their cavalry Have they been driven out of Lodz by the had seized some of the passes of the CarRussians ? And what bearing has this Ger- pathians. These actions involved what we man withdrawal on the other operations on may call the Austrian Right. the frontier ?

The Austrian Center between Kawaruska The first move of the Russians was into and the frontier was already engaged with East Prussia in the north. It is probable an army from Kiev; the victorious Russians that, like the French advance into Alsace, it turned north from Lemberg and caught this was little more than a raid. This is a low- Austrian Center on the flank. Another heavy lying country, full of lakes and swamps, engagement is reported at Tomaszow, just utterly unfitted for the movements of large over the border. The Vienna despatches forces. The first line of German defenses is admit severe loss and the Russians claim an the row of forts on the Vistula. It is prob- immense victory. The remnant of this Ausable that the Russians intended to drive back trian Center is reported to have retreated the advance-guards in this territory. They towards Jaroslav, on the San, hotly pursued would scarcely need 50,000 men for this pur- by the Russians. pose. The “great victories” at first re- The Austrian Left, which we last heard of ported could not have been important. Some at Lublin, may have retired, and so have been of the Germans were driven into the fortress involved in the battle at Tomaszow. Even of Königsberg, and the Russians swept on if it has escaped defeat, it must be completely to the Vistula. The Germans then attacked isolated and surrounded by overwhelming in force. The Russians admit a reverse at forces of the Russians.

Its fate seems Allenstein. But this campaign can hardly be sealed. Cablegrams of the 16th report that decisive.

the Russians have successfully crossed the The short direct route for a Russian army San and are approaching Cracow. The river to Berlin is via Poland ; but of this territory San offers a strong natural defense position we have even less news. I have not been for the Austrians, and the fact that they did able to find any report of the number of Rus- not defend it indicates that their rout has sians operating from Warsaw; but it is prob- been complete and overwhelming. ably greater than their force in East Prussia. The despatches from Petrograd claim that The first move in this district came from the in this campaign in Galicia about twice as Germans and Austrians. Their object was many Austrians have been killed or captured undoubtedly to block this short direct route. as could by any chance have been on the

Of the German advance we know nothing firing line. from Russian sources, and only the statements But, in spite of evident exaggeration, the from Berlin, first, that they had occupied Russians seem to have gained by far the Lodz, and now are preparing to defend Kalisz. most tangible victory of the war. The Aus

route."

trians, their main army broken to pieces by the Russians and having suffered humiliating defeats in the Servian campaign, are practically eliminated as a factor in the military situation, The capture of Semlin by the Serbs must have done even more to shatter the prestige of the Austrian military caste than the loss of the Crown Prince's army in Galicia.

A German diplomat is reported to have said that the Kaiser was going into this war carrying a corpse.

Austria has lived up to his expectation.

If Russia can now clear the Germans out of Poland, she will be free to begin an advance into central Germany by the “ short

Posen is the only strong fortress between her Polish frontier and the river Oder. She will not have to worry about East Prussia. With a few hundred thousand men there she can keep the German forces in their fortifications.

All reports to the contrary, it is extremely improbable that the Germans have as yet weakened their armies in the west to withstand the Russians. But unless her offensive in France very quickly succeeds—and all the present indications are that it has failed—she will have to adopt defensive tactics on both frontiers.

New York, September 16, 1914

THE WEEK

DEMOCRATS WIN

lican party is still under the control of the IN MAINE

same forces which dominated it two years The State of Maine holds its fall election

ago, and the revolt against those forces connearly two months in advance of the other

tinues. The Democratic party, on the other States of the Union. The result of the

hand, although it has not acquired a great Maine election has therefore come to be

deal of popular confidence for itself, is still regarded as an indication of the way public

under the leadership of President Wilson. sentiment is running, and of the probable re

Moreover, the war in Europe has tended to sults in the November elections. Last week

make Americans stand together, and has the voters of Maine cast their ballots for

thus brought support to the Administration Governor and for Members of Congress as

which it might otherwise not have received. well as for the Legislature and for local

There has been some revulsion of feeling offices. The result was the election of

against the Democratic party; whether just the Democratic candidate for Governor,

or unjust, on account of hard times; but the Mr. Oakley Curtis, by a plurality over Mr. international crisis has done something to Haines, the Republican candidate, and Mr.

nullify this revulsion of feeling. Political Gardner, the Progressive candidate. The

sentiment changes rapidly in this country, vote on the Governorship shows that the

but the Maine election is one of many indicaDemocrats are still in the minority in the

tions that the Wilson Administration is in a State, for the Republican and Progressive

strong political position. vote combined exceeded the Democratic vote by several thousands. It is estimated that

SHOULD COLLEGES the Progressive vote in the State will aggre- BE TAXED? gate from 18,000 to 20,000, which is about Every State in the Union except one one-third the size of the Democratic vote exempts from taxation property used by polled for Mr. Curtis.

colleges for educational purposes. Maine sends four Representatives to Con- exception is the progressive State of California. gress. Of the present incumbents three are That State proposes now to end the practice Republicans and one is a Democrat. All four of taxing college property in the United were re-elected. The lower house of the State States by adopting a constitutional amendLegislature has become Democratic, and the ment which will make such property exempt. Democrats control the Legislature on joint This amendment has been adopted by the ballot.

Legislature with but one dissenting vote. It It ought to be no surprise that the tradi- is now before the voters of the State, who tionally Republican State of Maine should will pass upon it in November. In accordhave elected a Democrat to succeed a Re- ance with the California practice, an opporpublican in the Governorship. The Repub- tunity is allowed to present the arguments

The one

[graphic]

THE WEEK

149*

summon

for and against this amendment. It is inter- no longer exist. It is generally understood esting to know that no opposing argument that Carranza is to remain at the head of a has been made.

purely military government, that he is to Taxes are levied because those who are

a National Mexican Convention, making a profit from property or industry which will select a Provisional President other are supposed to be under an obligation to than Carranza himself, and that an election share in supporting the Government. There for President and members of Congress will is a difference of opinion as to what should follow under the provisions of the Mexican be the proper basis for taxation ; but all Constitution. theories of taxation assume that the income There were really three reasons for occuof the State should in some way be derived pying Vera Cruz: one was to exact reparafrom profits—that is, from the natural in- tion for an indignity. to the American flagcrement of wealth. Colleges, churches, and with the fall of Huerta this is no longer a charitable institutions are not engaged in necessity; the second was to prevent arms profitable business; they are engaged in from reaching Huerta's forces, and, though some kind of social service. Taxation of unavowed, this was part of our Administrathem means, not the taking of the State's tion's view that the elimination of Huerta share of the people's increment in wealth, was the first step toward good relations with but rather the impairment of that social Mexico—this purpose was not of avail, and service.

certainly it is now of no consequence; the It will be California's duty to sacrifice the third was to impress Mexico with the fact taxes now derived from such institutions, that the United States would not tolerate even if that means the renunciation of a anarchy and misgovernment in Mexico—it is large sum of money. As a matter of fact, still open to question whether conditions in however, the sacrifice which California is Mexico are such as to make it wise to withcalled upon to make is ridiculously small- draw before a government is established amounting in 1912-13 to less than $21,000. which the United States can accept as legal The amendment is drawn so that only insti

and just. tutions of collegiate grade are exempted, and Naturally, the Constitutionalists and Mexno institution even of that grade will be ico at large are impatient for the withexempt if it is conducted for profit. If the drawal of foreign troops from their terriincome from the students exceeds the insti- tory. Apparently President Wilson has, or tution's expenses, then the institution will thinks he has, satisfactory assurance that not be exempt. Moreover, the property that conditions are ripe for taking the step. At is exempt from taxation is limited to that least, it is a pleasure to record that in the which is used exclusively for the purpose of occupation and government of Vera Cruz education ; and no such institution can hold the United States has given a valuable lesson exempt from taxation land exceeding one to Mexico in municipal order, in sanitation, hundred acres.

and in disinterested control of a city to the It is not often that an entire State popula

benefit of its people. tion can be unanimous in a vote, but we see no reason why this amendment should not pass unanimously.

BELGIAN RELIEF FUND

Never before have people been so willing THE WITHDRAWAL

as in these days to help one another; and FROM VERA CRUZ

never before has there been such a demand Mexico celebrates September 16 as its upon the human impulse to help as during Independence Day, and on that date last this present war. week President Wilson announced his pur- There are two ways of helping. One is pose to withdraw United States troops from to send money for the relief of suffering, no Vera Cruz as soon as proper arrangements matter who the sufferers may be; the other can be made for turning over custom-house, way is to send money for the relief of some finances, and municipal control to the Mexi- special group of sufferers. For the relief of can authorities. It is known that General suffering without distinction of nationality or Carranza has urgently requested this with- race there is one great organization—the drawal, and President Wilson holds that the Red Cross. For the relief of special groups circumstances which justified the occupation or classes there are special committees or

THE RED CROSS AND THE

organizations. Americans who have affilia- country in a moment of great peril, but tions with one or another of the belligerent also of the beginning of a hundred years of nations and who wish to contribute specifically peace between Great Britain and the United to the relief of some one of them will have States. 'Many eloquent tributes were paid their own means of knowing how to do so. to Commodore MacDonough and the brave We should advise any one who wishes to : men of the American fleet who successfully contribute to the cause of ameliorating human resisted the gallant Downie, commanding the suffering wherever it may be found to send British fleet; but beneath and behind all a contribution to the American Red Cross, these tributes and every form of visible comWashington, D. C., or to the local branch of memoration was the gladness of heart that the Red Cross in the community in which for a hundred years two great nations had the contributor lives.

been at peace and that there stretched beThere is one group of sufferers, however, tween them more than three thousand miles who have a special claim upon the sympathy of boundary absolutely unfortified on either of the world. They are not belligerents, but side. The battle was small, measured by the they are suffering from the war as much as if number of ships, men, and guns employed ; they were participants in it. These are the it. was great by reason of the superb courage non-combatant refugees from Belgium. Their which it evoked and the decisive character country was not involved in the diplomatic of its result. In the Revolution General issues that preceded the war.

It had no

Burgoyne attempted to divide the colonies quarrel with any of the belligerent nations, by precisely the same route which the British but it was in their way. Without having forces took in.1814; this skillful strategic plan, given any offense, it was invaded, many of its which, if successful, would have imperiled the villages burned, many of its inhabitants made independence of the country, was defeated homeless. Its army was called upon to at Saratoga by Arnold and Schuyler, on Lake defend its soil against the invader, and in this Champlain by MacDonough. way it became a belligerent; but in relation The exercises began on Sunday, Septemto the issưes involved in the war Belgium is ber 6, with services in the church and at the as neutral as the United States. Circum- Catholic Summer School at Cliffhaven; on stances, however, have made Belgium suffer Labor Day there was a parade by labor out of all proportion. No other nation organizations and addresses by Mr. Gompers, involved has been so prostrated. Thousands Mr. Mitchell, and others; on Tuesday the of its inhabitants have now taken refuge in interest centered at Vergennes, Vermont, Great Britain, for there is no place for them where MacDonough's fleet was hastily built. in their own land. Others have fled to One of the most touching and impressive France.

events of the celebration was in Riverside There is therefore special reason why the Cemetery, where Sir Charles P. Davidson, plight of these Belgians should make an Chief Justice of the Superior Court of the Provappeal to Americans. For the relief of these ince of Quebec, made an eloquent address and Belgian refugees there has been formed in placed a wreath on the graves of the AmeriNew York a Belgian Relief Committee. The can sailors who fell in the battle, while Mr. firm of J. P. Morgan & Co. is the depository Hamilton W. Mabie spoke of Commander of the Belgian Relief Fund, and contributions Downie, and placed a wreath on the grave of should be sent to the care of that firm at 15 this gallant sailor, who was buried with honor Broad Street, New York City. Checks should by the people of Plattsburgh after the battle. be made to the order of “ J. P. Morgan & On Friday, Centennial Day, addresses were Co., for Belgian Relief Fund.'

made to great audiences by Mr. Daniels,

Secretary of the Navy, and by Governor THE PLATTSBURGH

Martin H. Glynn, and a very interesting CENTENARY

and effective historical address by President Rarely, if ever, in the history of the coun- Thomas, of Middlebury College. Mr. Percy try has there been a more significant or beau- MacKaye read with his customary fire a tiful historical commemoration than the cen- poem descriptive of the battle. The exercises tennial of the Battle of Plattsburgh, New closed with a dinner at the Hotel Champlain York, September 6-11. The nt had a that evening. Mr. Francis Lynde Stetson double significance. It was a recognition presided, and eloquent and moving addresses not only of the successful defense of the were delivered by Mr. Justice Riddell, of the

THE WEEK

151*

[graphic]

soon

It was

Supreme Court of Ontario, and Robert C. still waved. His imagination was fired by
Smith, K.C., of Montreal.

the striking episode ; and part of the poem The most picturesque feature of the cele- was written on the deck of the Minden, and bration was the Pageant of the Champlain

finished as

as Key landed. Valley, presented in a series of fifteen epi- published in the Baltimore ". American” sodes, largely historical, but with poetic inter- nine days later, September 21, 1814. The ludes which interpreted to great audiences flag which Key watched with such passionate the spirit of the beautiful landscape in the interest was not the Star-Spangled Banner of heart of which the pageant was staged. to-day. It bore then fifteen stars and fifteen Many of the characters were taken by de- stripes, in accordance with an Act of Conscendants of the original settlers.

In more

gress signed by Washington twenty years than one episode every participant was of before. The flag remained in this form for the blood of the settlers, whose coming was twenty-three years. It now bears thirteen dramatically presented. The study and in- stripes, representing the original colonies; terpretation of the history of the Champlain but the forty-eight stars which appear on its Valley, stimulated by the pageant, illustrated surface register the development and expananew the historical as well as the artistic sion of the United States. value of pageants adequately staged and Although not in one sense the National appointed. Miss Margaret Maclaren Eager, anthem, the "Star-Spangled Banner" has

, assisted by Miss M. Eager, created a series received special attention at the hands both of of dramatic scenes, to which it is but just to the army and the navy, and it has become dear affix their names as the names of artists are to a host of Americans. Mr. Key adapted affixed to pictures and the names of sculptors his song to an English air written to accomto statues.

pany

" To Anacreon in Heaven” and sung The New York State Commission, of at important meetings of the Anacreontic which Mr. Stetson was Chairman, not only Society at a tavern in the Strand, London. prepared a programme which set the Battle The inusic was written by an Englishman, of Plattsburgh in the foreground, but very John Stafford Smith, and was published in skillfully evoked the deeper sentiment of the his “ Fifth Book of Canzonets, Catches, and occasion, and made the lovely landscape in Glees," about 1780. The tune cannot be which all the exercises were unfolded a noble sung, as the Austrian and English national accessory.

hymns can be sung, by a great multitude

with ease of memory and ease of voice; it THE STAR-SPANGLED

belongs rather with the French “ Marseil BANNER" CENTENARY

laise," though the tune lacks the bugle-like There have been many centennial celebra- qualities of that stirring air. tions in this country during the past two A national anthem ought both to be simple decades, but none more picturesque and in expression and to be set to simple music, and appealing than that which was recently no doubt the time will come when such an observed with varied and interesting exer- anthem will be written by an American. The cises in Baltimore, commemorating the writ- criticism often made that Americans do not ing of the “Star-Spangled Banner.” This know their own National anthem has a basis National hymn was born in the throes of of fact; but the fact finds its explanation in battle, and the incidents which it describes the nature of the music.

The army reguwere seen by its author ; in the effort to lations prohibit the playing of the “Starsecure the exchange of a friend who was a Spangled Banner as a part of a medley. prisoner on a British ship he happened to be One of the humiliations of Americans abroad during the memorable night of the bombard- is the playing by the great bands of " Yankee ment of Fort McHenry on the deck of the Doodle after the Russian and Austrian Minden, in a position from which the attack hymns. The regulations also provide that was vividly revealed in all its details.

when the President and Vice-President are Francis Scott Key watched with alternat- formally received the bands shall play the ing hope and fear the flag floating over the “Star-Spangled Banner;" and that whenever fort, standing out clear in the light of rockets it is played at a military station or at any place and bursting bombs, and then obscured by where persons belonging to the military servthe smoke ; and when the firing ceased Key ice are present in uniform, all officers and had no means of knowing whether the flag enlisted men shall stand at attention. The

[ocr errors]

a

[ocr errors]
« PredošláPokračovať »