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find that elsewhere in this great country be impoverished by the war; but the real the volume of business is only two and nine- value of these securities will not be affected tenths per cent below last year.

by the fact that we reacquire them cheaply, Surely these figures indicate that things and in the end we shall profit immensely by are sound at the core, and that those who the operation. are shouting so loudly of the widespread America cannot, of course, hope to escape depression live chiefly in the greater cities some share of the economic loss which will and draw their inspiration mainly from the result from the terrible destruction of life metropolitan newspapers, which naturally and property now in progress, but it begins reflect the subnormal feeling that results to look as if that share would be a very small from an abatement of the speculative activi- one, and it is difficult to see why the purties in which so many of those who live in chasing power of the United States as a these cities are engaged.

whole should be reduced, except in so far as As has been previously pointed out, the it will be responsive to the healthful and reports of the stock market, being so widely world-wide tendency toward post-bellum published and so well advertised, wield an economy that will be made fashionable by the influence upon business sentiment that is necessities of European poverty. altogether disproportionate to their real im- If we shall learn to practice this economy, portance; and it is in an endeavor to dissipate it will be worth all that it seems likely to cost the unwarrantable pessimism that now exists us, deplorable as is the event from which the in many quarters that space is given to a lesson will be drawn. mass of figures that would usually be uninter- Meantime, directly as a result of the war, esting

we have an immensely increased prestige as At present, however, they should inspire a Nation, a world-wide appreciation of the pride and confidence in the breast of every advantages of democracy, greater contentcitizen of the United States. The world has ment at home, a National solidarity that is been at war for over six weeks. The result intensified, and a closer sympathy between in so far as this country is concerned has Government and business that means much been to increase the value of an unexampled for our economic progress in the future. These grain crop by about $500,000,000, which will are our domestic blessings. more than offset the probable depreciation in In so far as our international relationships the cotton crop. No American lives have are concerned, they, too, have already become been sacrificed and no American property sympathetically closer with every nation except has been destroyed, but thousands of our Germany and Austria, and once the bittercountrymen have been forced to return from ness of conflict has subsided it is unlikely Europe and go to work at home instead of that any resentment toward us will be cherspending a very large sum of American- ished by the peoples whose present mismade money abroad.

fortunes we deplore as the unfortunate conThe monthly figures of iron production sequence of a militarism and autocracy to show an increase for August. The unfilled- which in theory we have always been opposed. order statement of the United States Steel The commercial solidification of North and Corporation reveals an increase in the ton- South America has been greatly hastened by nage of unfilled orders on the books of that the

war. Canada has become a closer company. The number of idle freight cars neighbor and a safe-deposit vault for Amerishows a decrease for the two weeks ending can gold. The Kaiser has appealed to the September 1. These data are perhaps not President of the United States as the world's as favorable as they would have been in the most notable representative of humanitarianabsence of war, but at least they show a ism, and the feeling between the people tendency toward expansion rather than con- of England and America is one of contraction and do not justify pessimistic fore- sanguine sympathy, accidentally intensified bodings.

rather than diminished by the coincidence It is true that the market for foreign ex- that it is just a hundred years ago that a change has been somewhat disturbed and British army occupied Washington. It was that the supply of investment capital will be the triumph of American soldiers over those for some time absorbed in taking care of the who were our foes, but are now our friends, good securities which we shall shortly have that inspired Francis Scott Key to immorto rebuy from the foreign holders who will talize in song the Star-Spangled Banner,

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which, with the Cross of St. George, is now as they are to him who writes it. As a rule recognized the world over as emblematic of statistics are wearisome and unappealing, the liberty, fraternity, and chivalrous self- and I have resorted to them in the existrestraint that we are proud to call Anglo- ing situation only because it has seemed to me American.

that if they are studied with a vision which I wish that I might know whether these perceives their true significance they will be figures of bank clearings are as interesting reassuring as to the present and encouraging and inspiring to those who read this article as to the future.

We regret to announce that Mr. Price's articles, which our correspondence shows have proved of distinct value and interest to readers, will hereafter appear once a month instead of once a week.

This change is made because of the pressure upon our pages of articles directly

or indirectly connected with the war.THE EDITORS.

THE NEW BOOKS

THE NEWER THINKING 1

life the whole realm of human experience.

It includes in that survey such spiritual pheThere is no "new theology." There is nomena as remorse, repentance, forgiveness, what has been well called “the newer think- hope, love. It includes not merely a recoging.” The new thinking differs from the old nition of the unity of physical phenomena theology in two fundamental respects. The recognized by the very word universe, but a old theology assumed that it was possible to certain moral unity in the seeming chaos of construct a comprehensive system of philoso- the world of men in action. It seeks to find phy into which all the various and seemingly an explanation for the moral progress of contradictory facts of life could be fitted—a humanity, for the existence of the worldsystem which would thus explain the great wide phenomena of religion, for the fact that mysteries. The newer thinking has no such men in all ages of the world have more or ambition. It is possessed by the spirit of less clearly seen an ideal which inspired them Paul, who said, “We know in fragments, and and for which they had reverence, and espewe prophesy in fragments.” The newer cially for such a fact in human biography as thinking does not attempt to expound the Jesus Christ, and such a fact in human histruth. It only attempts to expound truths. tory as Christianity. Different members of this school present When independent thinkers thus start out their respective views without troubling them- upon an investigation of the human experiselves orermuch on the question how their ences, seeking with an open mind to ascertain views are to be related to the views of other what the world of experience has to teach members of the same school.

them, and quite willing to learn one truth at The newer thinking differs from the old a time, it is to be expected that their conclutheology also in its method of inquiry. It sions will often differ and sometimes clash. does not start out with saying, “We must Out of this difference, and even out of this assume that there is one living and true God, clashing, a more vital faith issues than out of immutable, eternal, incomprehensible," etc. any perfected system based on some previous It looks into life and inquires what has life assumption of something which “we must to teach us respecting the Creator and the suppose.' Ruler of the universe. It differs from the Professor Eucken has shown very clearly deist, John Stuart Mill, for example, by that truth is not all to be ascertained by including in its survey of the phenomena of logical processes; that there are truths, and

these most vital and fundamental, which 1 Getting Together. Essays by Friends in Council on the Regulative Ideas of Religious Thought. Edited by can be ascertained only by experiencing James Morris Whiton. Sturgis & Walton Company, New York. $1.

them. Theology that is vital is an outgrowth of these experiences. It is an attempt to the Lord " in the experience of the modern translate spiritual life into an intellectual Christian. philosophy. It assumes nothing but the These principles are illustrated in the reality of these spiritual experiences. It volume entitled * Getting Together.” It refuses to ignore any of them merely because comprises contributions by representatives they are inexplicable. It refuses to accept of the Baptist, Congregational, Methodist any theological theories which contradict Episcopal, Presbyterian, Protestant Episcohuman experience. It refuses, for example, pal, Unitarian, Universalist, and Jewish deto accept the statement that we in this twen- nominations. These essays are independent. tieth century sinned in Adam many centuries They have been written apparently without ago, because no man ever experienced re- conference. Their unity, for the volume

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or repentance for that hypothetical possesses a real unity, is that of the spirit. sin. It refuses to accept the notion that And just because they are independent and God will not forgive sin without exacting a represent widely different denominations, penalty for it from some one, because that is they will afford to the interested reader a inconsistent with the universal experience of good illustration both of the spirit and mankind, among whom forgiveness is con- methods of the newer thinking. We wish, stantly exercised without exacting any pen- however, that the writers had kept more alty. It constructs its theory of inspiration clearly in mind the lay reader, and had preout of the actual experiences of men who sented their views of religious philosophy feel the inspirations to a higher life, and it somewhat less in the terms of the theological inclines to explain the “thus saith the Lord” thinker and more in the terms of spiritual of the ancient prophets by the “ thus saith experience.

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City of Numbered Days (The). By Francis

Lynde. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $1.35. A reclamation story, well invented and well told. The Government engineer is building a great dam to impound waters which when released will destroy the “city of numbered days" unless fraud and bribery can bring about the abandoning of the project. His moral problem is peculiarly irying because he is tempted through love as well as through money. He does not escape unscathed, but what wrong he does he remedies. The tale is spirited and shows literary quality as well as story-telling skill. Personality Plus. By Edna Ferber. The Fred

erick A. Stokes Company, New York. $1. “ Personality Plus,” it seems, is the possession in a salesman of such excessive charm that his prospective customers enjoy his society so much that they can't do business with him. At first this hindered the activities of Jock McChesney, the wide-awake, somewhat bumptious son of Emma McChesney, once the best saleswoman on the road, a good and clever lady much liked by readers of Miss Ferber's former stories. Soon Jock finds himself and makes his hit. The story is intensely modern, humorous, and shrewdly observant of business and of men and women. Knight on Wheels (A). By Ian Hay. Hough

ton Mifflin Company, Boston. $1.35. Ian Hay is always a cheerful story-teller. His “knight” begins life as secretary to a sort of up-to-date Robin Hood, a professional beggingletter writer, who extracts money from wealthy sentimentalists on false pretenses and bestows it in really worth-while charity. Later our hero

has motor adve tures which more or less justify
the title. The book is amusing and its action
moves vivaciously.
Misadventures of Joseph (The). By J. J. Bell.

The F. H. Revell Company, New York. $1.
Joseph Redbornis, in his way, a better creation
than “Wee Macgreegor,” who made Mr. Bell
famous. Joseph is a village painter, dry, canny,
given to quaint philosophy, but also kindly and
generous even to rivals and enemies. The tale
of his doings and sayings is full of fun with a
real touch of tenderness and sympathy.
Saturday's Child. By Kathleen Norris. The

Macmillan Company, New York. $1.50. Mrs. Norris is not afraid of normal human life ; she has not lost faith in the power of wholesome experiences to supply all the material essential for dramatic interest; she has more than once proved her case, and has invested very simple situations with deep and beautiful meaning. It is not necessary to be a bad woman in order to be a significant and charming woman, nor is immorality the only road to the dramatic in life. It isn't even necessary to make a “ career in order to fulfill the possibilities of life; it is quite possible to be respectable and entertaining, to keep out of the newspapers and make life impressively and strikingly successful.

Mrs. Norris deals with normal people in normal conditions; there is nothing esoteric about her work; its interest is the interest of life clearly seen and faithfully reported. This story of a working-girl in San Francisco is realistic in detail and romantic in temper, The way of things in a boarding-house is made

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1914

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so plain that the hardness of conditions and the dispassionate tone; no attempt at moralization strain of poverty "get on the nerves" before is made, nor is any characterization of war the story emerges into a freer environment. The necessary; its cold, merciless cruelty, its essengirl's love affairs, her great temptation, her tial and ruthless brutality, its inevitable savagenarrow escape, and the simple human happiness ry, are brought home by the scientific intelliwhich comes to her in the end are described gence with which the campaign is conducted, frankly and fully, sometimes too fully; the novel and the scientific temper of the commanders would gain by some condensation. No one can who direct it. In its best estate war is savagery read one of Mrs. Norris's stories without used by trained men. The story is reeking with thinking better of life.

blood, as the newspapers would be if they were Secrets of the German War Office (The). By permitted to report the details of the battles

Dr. Armgaard Karl Graves. McBride, Nast & Co., recently fought on Belgian and French soil. It
New York. $1.50.
The puzzle is how seriously to take these

is realistic or it would be worthless, and the “ revelations ” of a man who claims to have be read comes not from the book but from the

repulsion with which some of its chapters will been employed (under the assumed name he

events which it describes. Such books as this now signs) for many years in the German secret service. It is a fact that a man of that name

are not pleasant reading, but life over a great

section of Europe is now like this story; it is so was arrested, tried, and convicted as a German

horrible that it is incredible, but there is no spy in Great Britain three years ago ; an account of the proceedings appeared in English

escape from the facts. papers of the time. “Dr. Graves” claims that News, Ads, and Sales : The Use of English

for Commercial Purposes. By John B. Opdycke. his arrest was secretly plotted by the German The Macmillan Company, New York. $1.25. Government, who felt that he knew too much. It is an experiment which seems well worth He was released, he says, after a few weeks, trying that Mr. Opdycke formulates in this and questions asked about the matter in Parlia- book. His experiment is the use of the Amerment were refused an answer. “ Dr. Graves" ican newspaper as the subject of a course of declares that, convinced of Germany's perfidy, study for high school and college freshman he took service as a British secret agent, but pupils. His book is offered as the text-book of soon after having reached New York he re- such a course. Mr. Opdycke is Chairman of signed.

the English Department of the Julia Richman The stories he tells are extraordinary. To High School of New York City. take one instance, he tells of a secret meeting Mr. Opdycke discusses and illustrates the in the Black Forest, under his personal man- newspaper in all its departments-editorial, agement, of great statesmen of England (Win- business, and mechanical. He gives his idea of ston Churchill and Lord Haldane), Germany,

newspaper ethics, of how a forceful advertiseand Austria (their representatives are named ment should be written and printed, and of also, and are of high rank and importance), in what the physical appearanc, of the high-class which an informal coalition is formed against newspaper should be. He suggests that the Russia. Not a happy hit, this, as things have study of the newspaper is a good thing in itself, turned out, but a vivid piece of narrative. and that while the student is learning what a Even the Kaiser is introduced in person more newspaper is he will also be learning twentieththan once, and a thrilling story is told of how century business English. “ A few years ago," he and Dr. Graves prevented the Agadir inci- says Mr. Opdycke in his Foreword, “it was dent from causing war. One almost hopes that more or less necessary for a teacher of English the narratives are fiction, because they are so to apologize when he mentioned commercial good as fiction. Mr. E. P. Oppenheim could not English. He stood in fear of the 'culturists.' have done better! In fact, one suspects them Now the live, efficient teacher of English must of being a fascinating and exciting combination apologize if he does not mention it, the 'culturof fact and fiction.

ists' notwithstanding. He has no quarrel with War. By W. Douglas Newton. Dodd, Mead those who argue for the classics; he believes & Co., New York. $1.20.

in the classics too, but this belief does not move This is not a novel, but it has all the interest

him to disbelieve in commercial and industrial of fiction; it is not a record of fact, but it reads

English. He recognizes the two as different, so like current history that many of its chapters not as antagonistic, each with a place pecuseem like reprints from the newspapers. The liarly, even exquisitely, its own. Indeed, he is colossal struggle in Europe gives it not only a almost ready to say that they are complementary timely but a tragical interest. It describes the

one to another." unfolding of an invasion described as an eyewitness saw it until he is shot for having tried

Open Roads of Thought in the Bible and in

Poetry. By Rev. T. H. Wright. Oliphant, Anderson to save the woman he loves from the supreme & Ferrier, Edinburgh. outrage that can be committed upon a woman.

This volume from the Scots manse in DresThe story is told in detail and with graphic den is made up of selections from the poets in skill. It gains in effectiveness by reason of its lines of thought upon human life and destiny,

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reverberations of the teaching of the Bible from human hearts. These are taken mainly from Dante and modern British poets, and are accompanied with judicious comments, mainly interpretative. Ritual and Belief. By Edwin Sidney Hart

land, F.S.A. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. $3. These studies in the history of religion are in the line taken by anthropology, the science of man, in its inquiry into the beginnings of religion. This takes us back to the primitive state of mankind, in which a characteristic trait of religion appears in its rudimentary form of a vague but real belief in unseen superhuman powers. These essays by an eminent member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science take up the subject at the mooted points to which it has been carried by such distinguished investigators, as Sir Edward Tylor, Andrew Lang, Professor Frazer, and others, French and American—the relations of religion and magic. Which is prior ? What is their difference ?

The conclusion here drawn is that they spring from a common root “in man's emotional response to his environment, his interpretation in the terms of personality of the objects which encountered his attention, and in their investiture by him with potentiality." iginally interwoven and indistinguishable, they show opposite tendencies as civilization advances. Religion subordinates individual interests to social. Magic is employed for individual and anti-social ends. Hence its increasing reprobation as ethical religion develops. Ritual and belief, whether religious or magical, are elaborated and organized together.

Essays on “ The Boldness of the Celts," “The Haunted Widow,"

," “ The Philosophy of Mourning Clothes,” “ The Rite at the Temple of Mylitta,” and “The Voice of the Stone of Destiny" exhibit, with comments, a great mass of primitive ritual and belief, on which the foregoing conclusions are based. Strange, absurd, or shocking as they are, their vestiges survive in modern civilization-a case of “the haunted widow" in 1912 at Macon, Georgia, is cited. Magic has not yet been wholly purged out of modern Christianity. “The fact is,” says the essayist, " that on these [religious and metaphysical] subjects the majority of the human ráce, whether savage or civilized, think little. Their minds are seldom excited to the point of reasoning on their beliefs." Constructive Basis for Theology (A). By Jame

Ten Broeke, Ph.D. The Macmillan Company, New York. $3. A solid contribution is this of Professor Ten Broeke to the groundwork on which many thinkers are now engaged. The basis of theology being God as the ultimate Reality beneath all phenomena, it can be really constructive only in so far as it provides adequate ground for the demands of our intellectual, social, and religious life. This truth Dr. Ten Broeke as

sumes at the outset. His discussion leads up to the conception of God as “a Life objectifying itself in a world-order and a kingdom of selves.” He comes to this through an elaborate critical review of the history of speculative thought upon theological doctrines. To this also points Jesus' thought of God as Spirit, Father, and Sovereign of a spiritual kingdom. “In the consciousness of Jesus himself,” says Dr. Ten Broeke," the reality of Christianity is to be found.” To this he appeals from systems of the remote and recent past as the norm of present-day theology, and both from theologians who yield too much to scientists, and scientists who claim more than belongs to them. “What a relief it is,” he exclaims, “ to turn from bewildering soteriologies to the divine Saviourhood which Jesus taught !” The constructive principle of Dr. Ten Broeke's theology is the divine immanence in man and nature. But to say," Transcendence and immanence are spatial conceptions," seems quite inconsistent with his thought of God as a self-conscious, self-determining Personality having his life in and through a world-order and a kingdom of selves, a social unity who is the Father of spirits.” In the influence of spirit on spirit personality is essentially dynamic and nonspatial. Professor Ten Broeke's philosophy of the constructive basis of theology is in close agreement generally with that of Eucken. Demosthenes and the Last Days of Greek Free

dom, 384-322 B. C. (Heroes of the Nations Series.) G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York. $1.50. The subject of this fresh volume in the series of Heroes of the Nations is the statesman and orator whose claim to be ranked among the heroic men of the past“rests above all on the constancy and sincerity with which he defended the noblest cause known to the Greeks—that of Hellenic liberty.” He failed, but came near worsting his antagonist, the war lord Philip of Macedon. His present biographer, an eminent Oxford scholar, attributes his failure chiefly to the "deep-seated jealousy of able men " which characterized Athenian democracy, its inability in the presence of strong foes to accept aristocracy of those who have the power to think, to foresee, to plan, and to command.” Our own wise men have reminded us that the success of democracy in the conduct of momentous interests depends on its ability and willing. ness to avail itself of expert counsel.

This volume, based on a critical study of orig. inal authorities, is a valuable monograph on the decline and fall of the Athenian state in the fourth century B. C. Its last great fillar is the central figure in the tragic drama. His faults are not spared, his unjust aspersions on Æschines, his rival, are rebutted. Judging him by the standards of his time, his biographer re. gards his defects as more than redeemed by his dauntless passion for a great cause and his selfabsorbing devotion to a noble ideal.

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