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Philosophy, A History of (Thilly).
Plants, The Human Side of (Dixon).
Russia, An Economic History of (Mavor).
Society, The Great (!Vallas).
Washington: The Man of Action (Hill).
SEPTEMBER 2, 1914
LYMAN ABBOTT, Editor-in-Chiel
HAMILTON W. MABIE, Associate Editor R. D. TOWNSEND, Managing Editor
OF THE WAR
BY ARTHUR BULLARD
THE OUTLOOK'S WAR CORRESPONDENT AT HOME
HE third week of the war— from place they had picked out for a last stand.
severe fighting all along the line from the Germans were to take the place. We Antwerp to the Swiss border.
As we go to can imagine that von Moltke, the German press the outcome is still, to use the phrase Chief of Staff, had, like his illustrious uncle, of Homer, on the knees of the gods. But planned this campaign in detail, had foreseen the German armies on the French frontier each move from the resistance of Liège to have scored definite successes. There is a the entry into Brussels, and had staked his distinct tone of serious concern in the offi- hope on turning the left of the French line cial announcements from London and Paris. of forts at La Fere. If so, he would have to Lord Kitchener, in addressing the House of drive the British out of Mons at all costs, and Lords, foretold a long and bitter conflict. their resistance would be for him a defeat. Berlin is celebrating victories.
But perhaps—we have no definite informa
tion—the German commander before Mons WAR ON A NEW SCALE
had orders to keep the English busy at the exOne thing is clear. We shall have to revise treme left of the Allies' line so that they could the meaning we give to the word " battle.” not bear help to the French where the main The week brought news of a dozen “ engage- attack was planned. In this case the Germents” each greater in the number of sol- mans would not be displeased to hear that diers involved and probably greater in loss of the English had stood fast. life than most of Creasy's * Decisive Battles We are getting reports—uncertain, conof the World.” Thermopylae was a very flicting reports-of a stupendous chess game small affair indeed compared to Liège, in which only the first moves have been made. Haelen, Dinant, Mülhausen, Lunéville, Neuf- What move has significance we cannot know chateau, and the struggles about Charleroi. until we hear what the two sides have been They would have been “ battles” in Napo- trying to do—perhaps not until the generals leon's days. In this war they are officially retire on pensions and begin to write their described as “outpost actions."
memoirs. War has been " trustified.” And just as a score of steel mills which once seemed THE GERMAN ADVANCE IN BELGIUM gigantic have become small parts of the During the third week of the war the Germerger of the United States Steel Corpora
overran practically all of Belgium. tion, so to-day the bloodiest battle has signifi- Their principal opposition seems to have cance only in its relation to the centralized come from the small native army. They plans of the opposing General Staffs.
pushed it back steadily and broke through The British War Office, for instance, the line of the Allies, forcing the Belgians announced on August 24 that the English to retreat northward to Antwerp behind their troops about Mons had been engaged for fortifications, and folding the Anglo-French twenty-four hours and that their lines held army back to a line which is very close to firm. This is important or unimportant the Belgian southern frontier. according to whether Mons was an outpost Having divided the Allies in this manner, which the English did not hope to hold or a the Germans had a clear road to Brussels,
and entered that capital unopposed on August to retire, and that the Germans had occupied 20. Light cavalry scouting parties pushed some French territory around Nancy. On west through Ghent and to, or near, the coast the same date a message came from Berlin of the English Channel. But the main force, by wireless, telling of an “official" announcewhich passed through Brussels, seems to have ment by the War Office of three distinct victurned south towards Mons and the French tories in this region. An army under the frontier.
Grand Duke of Wurtemburg defeated the Namur has fallen into their hands. This French at Neufchateau in southeastern Belis a brilliant feat for the German arms, as gium. An army under the Crown Prince the place was considered to be stronger than drove the French across their border at Liège, and was expected to put up at least Longwy. And the left wing of this center as determined a resistance. No details of army, commanded by the Prince Heriter of this action have reached us. But here, as at Bavaria, occupied several villages about Huy, the Krupp siege guns must have done Nancy, well within the French frontier. The themselves proud.
French defeats were serious ; large numbers The importance of this campaign in Bel- of men, including superior officers, and many gium depends entirely on an unknown quan- guns were captured. Whether this advance tity—how intensely did the French and is in sufficient force to threaten the French English try to resist this German advance ? forts is uncertain as we go to press, but it Two possibilities are worth considering. probably is.
First, the Allies may have strained every The French War Office has announced resource to support the little Belgian army. that, as there is pressing need for troops in They may have failed to reach the front in the north, the offensive campaign in the time, through some mismanagement in trans- Vosges and in Alsace has been temporarily portation. They may have suffered disas- abandoned. Mülhausen has been evacuated trous reverses of which the censors have sup- and the French army has retired to a defenpressed all news.
sive position. Secondly, they may have decided to leave The real importance of these engagements Belgium to its fate, and to solidify their cannot be reckoned in our present ignorance defenses on the line they considered most of the intentions of the belligerents. On the advantageous—somewhere near the French whole, it appears that the French advance has border. In this case all the fighting in Bel- been everywhere stopped. But the relation gium has been skirmishing, the retrogressive between the cost of the German advantages movement of the Allies part of a predeter- and their worth is uncertain. mined plan.
The, French and English General Staffs have carefully studied all the strategical fea- While it is impossible to guess with any tures of Belgium. The New York - Eve- surety the actual plans of the opposing Genning Post's ” London correspondent writes eral Staffs, there is a large literature in every that he has reason to believe that Lord language of Europe on probable war plans. Kitchener made a secret visit to this part of Certainly all military writers have laid great Europe during the summer and went over stress on the expected “dashing attack” of the ground personally. It is possible that the Germans. I have not found a single the Allies have not lost a single position in such discussion in which either a French or Belgium which they hoped to hold.
German writer expected that the German The dispirited tone of the despatches from army would be kept out of northern France London and Paris, more than any facts they as long as this. contain, tends to show that the Allies are The occupation of Brussels and the caphaving an unexpectedly hard time.
ture of a few French border villages is very
much less than students of strategy expected THE GERMAN ARMY OF THE CENTER
the Germans to accomplish in three weeks. As was anticipated, the German forces oper- The reduction of Namur in three days is ating between Luxemburg and the Vosges the achievement so far of which the Germans have developed a formidable advance. The have most reason to boast. But Namur is French War Office announced on August 25 not in France. that the fighting had been severe, that their The German advance has been steady, army was outnumbered and had been forced uninterrupted-slow. The Allies, even if
on their statute-books against cowardice—in the field beside them, and the Anglo-French fleet bombarding Cattaro on the Adriatic, there is every chance of Servia recovering her “lost provinces ” of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Austrians have officially announced that they have temporarily abandoned their “punitive expeditions." The pressure of Russia on the northeast and the threat of Italian action on the west promise to keep Austria's army too busy to continue at present her attempt to chastise Servia.
the defeats announced from Berlin are not exaggerated, are at this writing as far advanced as they were expected to be. If the Germans planned a dashing attack,” it has not materialized.
Another of the ante-bellum war plans which is worth note is the rôle assigned to the French border army.
In the war of 1870 the decisive point was reached when Marshal MacMahon had to choose between throwing his large army to the defense of Metz or covering Paris. He decided on the latter course. The two main French armies were separated. Marshal Bazaine was left to his fate at Metz. MacMahon began a retreat with the object of keeping between Paris and the Germans. He was forced into a corner at Sedan and overwhelmed.
There is not a French military text-book in which this disastrous move is not discussed. Their General Staff has planned to make its repetition impossible. General Joffre, with his army along the frontier, does not have to trouble about the defense of Paris. Back of him is an intricate system of forts fully manned and equipped. The rest of France is expected to take care of the capital. His army is intended for offense. into difficulties, he will not have to worry about withdrawing his forces in good order. He is expected to strike as long as he has a man left alive. His object, of course, is victory—to defeat the enemy. But even if his army is annihilated it will have done its duty if it has seriously weakened the enemy.
RUSSIA BEGINS TO MOVE There was no news of serious operations on the Austro-Russian frontiers during the third week of the war. But the army corps from Odessa and Kiev must be approaching the border. They ought easily to outnumber the force Austria can oppose to them. The one serious fortification they will encounter is Przemysl ; but the Carpathians are a national defense, and it is probable that the southern Russian army will try to advance in a northeasterly direction by way of Cracow towards the heart of Germany. Railways are scarce in that part of the world, and the advance cannot be rapid.
The northern Russian army, operating from Vilna, has crossed the German frontier, and claims to have defeated the first line of the German army and to have overrun East Prussia to the Vistula. It is a territory nearly as large as that occupied by the Germans in Belgium, but from a strategic point of view of even more doubtful value.
If he gets
Persistent rumors have been afloat during
THE SECOND STAGE OF THE WAR the week that Italy was about to join the How long the preliminary maneuvering Allies and attack Austria. One circumstan- of the immense armies now in the field will tial despatch says that the Dual Monarchy last it is impossible to forecast. But sooner has redrawn some of its troops from Alsace or later the second stage of the war will come to guard the Italian border. It is certain —it will consist of sieges. that serious forces have been concentrated Geographical frontiers have little signifion both sides of the Austro-Italian frontier. cance in military matters. For soldiers to Hostilities may break out at any moment. pass a row of sign-posts does not mean
much. But back of almost every political THE AUSTRO-SERB CAMPAIGN
frontier in Europe there is a line of fortified The first authentic news of a decisive vic- defenses. In war these are the only frontiers tory comes from Servia. The Austrian in- that count. vasion has been definitely repulsed. The The dividing line between France and Serbs have published a detailed list of the Germany, for instance, is hardly more real spoils they collected on the battlefield, and than the equator. The military frontier of this list gives evidence of a thoroughgoing Germany is along the Rhine. Military France rout.
begins with the line of forts from Belfort to With the Montenegrins—who have a law Verdun. The strip of land between is a