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1914

THE STORY OF THE WAR

347

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parently put up very little resistance. The along the line from Cracow to Thorn. It is Austrians advanced as far as Lublin. The a much more serious problem than any the concentration base for the Russian Center Russians have yet faced. The Germans have Army was at Brest-Litowsk, farther east than been in western Poland for iwo months now; either of these raids was likely to go. The just how far they have penetrated we do not raids could do relatively little damage, and the know. Some time ago we heard that they more men who were employed on them, and were fortifying Kalisz. They have had ample so kept away from Galicia, the better.

time to pick out a favorable position and to While all the available Germans were busy throw up extensive field defenses—much in East Prussia and northwest Poland, - more time than they had to prepare their large part of the Austrian force was working lines on the Aisne, which are holding so stubdown the Vistula towards Lublin, the Rus- bornly. And they have had time to bring up sians shot their main bolt at the Austrians in all their available force. They will not be Galicia. How many men they employed is heavily outnumbered—at least at first. not certain, but half a million ought to have It is to be in many respects like the battle been ample. It was the most successful now raging in France—the front is long, the campaign so far developed in the war. The number of men engaged is immense. And right wing of the Austrians was smashed at it will also be like the Battle of the Aisne in Lemberg and that city was occupied. The that a defeat for the Germans might well be Austrian center was defeated at Tomaszow decisive, but a victory for them cannot be. and Rawaruska. The left, which had ad- If the Russians win, the next battle will be vanced to Lublin, was forced to a rapid perilously near the heart of Germany. If retreat. It may have been involved with the the Russians are annihilated, they will find a center at Tomaszow. The Austrians were new army and the next battle will still be far so shaken that, although the Russians gave from their vitals. Here, as in the West, the them plenty of time, they were not able to Germans must not only win, but go on winning. reform on the San. The Russians forced a This battle will be a test much more passage at the strongly fortified city of desperate than the Russians have yet faced. Jaroslav. The backbone of the Austrian It is the first time they have met the Germans military force seems to have been broken. in a prepared position. It is in every way a It is reported that German staff officers are more serious job than they had on their now in command of the remnants, and are hands in Galicia. A German of my acquainttrying to reorganize them for the defense of ance is quite confident of the outcome. Cracow-with some success, for the Rus

far," he says,

a third-class

army

has defeated sians seem to have been checked at Tarnow. a fourth-class army. Now it has to face a But the Austrians, badly beaten in Galicia first-class one.” Certainly the German army and having a desperate time with the Ser- has proved its right to a place in the first vians in the south, threatened by Italy and class. Whether the Russian army will rank Rumania, are hardly likely to render much as third class—or first-depends on this battle further assistance to Germany.

which is just beginning. "The Cossack raids over the Carpathians into Hungary can have little significance from a strictly military point of view. They may The explanation of the daring Cossack cut a few railways and hinder the recruiting raids across the Carpathians is very probably of reserves, but their real explanation is to be found in the political effect of these probably political. Except for such side ex- operations on Rumania. This country is cursions and the siege of Przemysl this Rus- the best example of mediæval feudalism sian Army of the Left has done its work in which is left in Europe. The GovernGalicia. It can be merged with the Central ment is entirely dominated by a small group Army of Poland, which by now—with two of landlords. They have always been wealthy months spent in preparation-ought to num- -vastly so of late, since oil has begun to ber over a million men and be ready for the bubble up through their rich wheat-fields. main advance on Germany,

Rumania now ranks fourth or fifth among So the first stage of the war has passed the countries of the world for the export of with the honors to Russia. The second stage petroleum. The position of the peasants is has already begun. The despatches tell of miserable, and the percentage of the recruits advance-guard actions in a number of places who are illiterate is larger than in any other

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RUMANIA

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Christian country; in 1910 it was more than forty per cent. Probably over sixty per cent of the people above seven years of age can neither read nor write.

In the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–8 the Rumánian army helped the Russians to win the Battle of Plevna, and felt themselves, very badly used in the division of the spoils. It is hardly possible to speak of a “national sentiment” in Rumania, but the small ruling class became violently anti-Russian. The King is a Hohenzollern, and up till the second Balkan War Rumania was counted as a sure asset to the Triple Alliance. When her neighbor Bulgaria was attacked on two sides, by Servia and Greece on the west and Turkey on the east, Rumania stepped in and—without a battle, as the Bulgars were already defeated-annexed a large strip of Bulgarian territory. Austria, who did not want to see Bulgaria annihilated, would not let Rumania take all she wanted. So, again feeling herself aggrieved, Rumania turned

against the Alliance. Russian diplomats have been busy in Bucharest, and it has been very hard for the Rumanians to make up their mind which side they are on. A great many of the peasants in Transylvania (Hungary) speak Rumanian, but so also do many in Bessarabia (Russia). If Rumania helps Russia to defeat Austria, she may get Transylvania; if she helps Austria defeat Russia, she may be given Bessarabia. She is between the devil and the deep-blue sea. The King is loyal to his family, but the ruling class of Rumania is loyal to the best chance. They would evidently like to do as they did in the Balkan War—wait till the victory is decided and then jump on the defeated.

But Russia is impatient. She has undoubtedly offered Transylvania to Rumania if she will help, but by sending her Cossacks into Hungary she is plainly saying: If you do not decide to take this province very quickly, I will take it myself.

New York, October 7, 1914.

THE WEEK

PRAYER AND WAR

conditions which invite war and make it still

possible. They were confessions of sin ; and Never before in the history of the world they were prayers for such a change in the have the people of one continent, without spirit and hearts of men as will make peace respect to race or religion, united in special possible. services of prayer for another continent. Dr. Hadley, speaking at Yale University, President Wilson's appeal to the people of said : “ Unless we follow up our prayers by the United States that they should observe intelligent help in promoting peace on earth scrupulous neutrality was : made more im- they are but the vain repetitions of the pressive and significant by his appeal that the heathen. They may have a certain use as a first Sunday in October should be observed public recognition of the controlling power of as a day of special intercession for peace God over the affairs of men ; otherwise they among the warring nations. To that appeal are no better than peace parades and the religious people of all: churches and of

children's peace cards and other similar no church responded ; Protestants, Roman manifestations of misdirected zeal with which Catholics, and Jews were at one in their we are now familiar. People think they are common spirit of sympathy with the sorrows doing their duty when they are simply indulgand misery of the warring countries, and in ing the luxury of expressing their own emotheir desire that the day of peace might not tions in public. To expect such prayer to be be long deferred. In many places out-of- answered is folly on the part of the ignorant door meetings were held; clergymen of de- and blasphemy on the part of those who nominations which do not often co-operate

should be wiser. . . . To pray effectually we spoke from the same platform or the same must take thought. We must find what were pulpit.

the causes at work in men's minds which led The day was made significant by the char- them to forget themselves in their zeal. for acter of the petitions offered. They were fighting.” not, as a rule, prayers to a tribal God; they This lays the emphasis where it belongs. were not petitions for immediate peace ; they It is idle to pray for peace ss we work were rather confessions of the existence of for it; and we do not work for it when we

1914

THE WEEK

349

WAR TIME

simply express a desire that it may come. Netherlands ; and on August 3, at the very Peace cannot come until there is justice beginning of the trouble, Dr. van Dyke was between nations; and while permanent able to put into force an arrangement of his peace ought to be held steadily before own devising which entirely relieved the finanmen, not only as an ideal, but as a neces- cial strain and enabled him to give Americans sary achievement of civilization, it ought all necessary money.

After that date there to be worked for even more than prayed for. never was an hour of financial distress; nor We must remove the obstacles to peace was there any cessation of the strenuous before we have a right to ask the God of work of the Legation. Peace to establish it among the warring In the storm which swept Europe Holland nations of the world.

was an island of refuge. Americans came It is a profanation of the great and sacred there from all parts and immediately reported function of prayer to ask for peace and to the Legation. They went to the Legation happiness and continue the habits and prac- for information, for addresses of places at tices which make peace and happiness im- which to stay, for advice, and for money ; possible. There is a legal maxim that he and the Legation was open night and day who comes into a court of equity must come to aid them. Not only that, but the with clean hands; it is a kind of blasphemy whereabouts of thousands of missing and to ask for peace unless we make every effort wounded of several nations were investo put hatred and greed out of the world. tigated and ascertained. The Hague was a

kind of postal exchange—all communications EMBASSIES IN

to Germany and Austria and from Germany

and Austria were sent through that town; Proper provision for the housing of Amer- and the Legation was flooded with telegrams ican embassies and legations abroad and and letters from all parts of the world... A proper appropriations for salaries of ambas

large fund was contributed by Americans sadors and ministers have sometimes 'been and placed in the hands of Dr. van Dyke opposed in Congress by members who have and spent in relieving special cases of disdeclared that the diplomatic service abroad is tress. Under his tireless and zealous activity : essentially un-American and undemocratic; the Legation, to : quote the words of an ; that it is infected with snobbishness and that American who was present at The Hague, the necessary interchange of views between became "an international bank, an inquiry different governments can be carried on by cor- bureau, a registry office, a diplomatic post, and respondence. These arguments were always a consolation agency for nervous and unhappy in the mouths of men without the experience people. of foreign travel. If any further refutation Dr. Wilson says that it is impossible to of them were necessary, it has been furnished praise too highly the work of Dr. van Dyke. by the experiences of the last two months. All day long he was constantly giving words of

Professor George P. Wilson, of Harvard, encouragement and comfort to those who who has just returned from abroad, gives were distressed. No finer example of Chrissome account of the invaluable services tian comfort and sympathy could be given rendered to Americans by Dr. van Dyke as than the daily acts of our American Minister Minister to the Netherlands and the Legation at The Hague. Dr. van Dyke enjoys the at The Hague.

confidence of his colleagues of every nation The declaration of war caused a general represented at The Hague, and to the financial panic. The majority of the banks greatest degree of the Dutch people, who temporarily stopped payment;, letters of regard his appointment because of his Dutch credit and checks were for a time use ancestry as particularly pleasing, and a signal less. This left an army of American travel- recognition on the part of the United States ers in real distress. Dr. van Dyke, who of the cordial relations existing between the enjoyed the fullest confidence of the Dutch Government of the Netherlands and that Government, at once conferred with the Dutch of the United States. Foreign Minister and effected an arrangement between the two Governments under which

THE JAPANESE checks, drafts, and letters of credit indorsed by Dr. van Dyke were cashed by the Neth- The conditions under which Japan declared erlands Bank or by the Treasurer of the war against Germany are now very clear.

POSITION

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For a long time past the Japanese have passports were handed to him and war was gravely distrusted German aims in the Far formally declared. East. They had not forgotten that after the In the Imperial decree it was stated that arrangement of the terms of peace at the Germany was busy with warlike preparaclose of the war with China, by which Japan tion at Kiaochau; that her armed vessels had secured the Liaoyang Peninsula, it was crossing the seas of eastern Asia were Germany that persuaded Russia and France threatening Japanese and English commerce ; to interfere and prevent the consummation that after full and frank communications of the treaty. Within three years these with the English Government Japan had Powers had possessed themselves of large agreed to take such measures as might pieces of Chinese territory. Nor have they be deemed necessary for the protection of forgotten the famous “ Yellow Peril” speech the general interests contemplated in the of the Kaiser, which, they believe, has done agreement of the Alliance. It is stated by more than all other causes to prejudice the trustworthy authority that, although there is a West against Japan. They believe that when widespread feeling of gratitude among the they were engaged in a life-and-death struggle Japanese for all that Japan has learned from in Manchuria the German Government, in Germany, there is also a conviction that most its attitude towards Russia, violated its neu- of Japan's troubles during the last few years trality and permitted a German steamship have been the outcome of German influence company to sell a number of steamships to in Europe and America, and that the war is the Russian navy, and helped the Russian immensely popular with all classes in Japan. Baltic Squadron to secure coal en route to the These facts dispose of the charge that Japan Japan Sea.

has wantonly made war for her own purBefore Japan had taken any action, last poses, and that she has obtruded herself, so August, a German cruiser, disregarding Jap- to speak, among the European nations in the anese sovereignty, seized a Russian steamer hope of advancing her own position. in Japanese waters, and British merchantmen in the same seas were repeatedly chased THE DIRIGIBLE BALLOON and seized. The Japanese declare that Jap- AND ITS USE IN WAR anese ships were intercepted and their cargoes Military aircraft have certainly not revolutaken. In answer to the statement that Japan tionized warfare, nor have they done the took the occasion to declare war in advance tremendous amount of damage to life and of any request from England, it is stated property which some enthusiastic aeronauts that the day before England declared prophesy and some impressionable civilians war on Germany the British Ambassador fear. Nevertheless, they have played a more in Tokyo informed Baron Kato, the Jap- successful and useful (if that word may be anese Minister of Foreign Affairs, that his employed in connection with instruments of Government was compelled to open hostili- destruction) part in the European- war than ties, and asked whether Japan would aid the newspaper correspondents have credited England if British interests in the Far East them with. While the French have devoted were jeopardized. On the evening of the themselves largely to the heavier-than-air fly-. same day the Prime Minister convened a ing-machines, the Germans have pinned their meeting of all the Cabinet members ; and on faith to the gas-filled balloon. In this respect the following day Baron Kato notified the the Germans, with their characteristic effiBritish Ambassador that Japan would not ciency, are following the experimental history shirk the responsibilities which the alliance

of a century. with England put upon her shoulders. On When the Frenchman Montgolfier with his August 7 the British Ambassador again waited balloon filled with hot air rose for the first upon the Foreign Minister and notified him time in 1785, it was assumed that this great that England asked for Japan's assistance problem was solved and the possibility of without delay. Thereupon Japan sent her navigation of the air was secured. Even ultimatum to Germany, demanding the evacu- then aeronauts tried to make such spherical ation of Tsingtau, the disarming of the war- balloons dirigible by providing them with ships there, and the handing over of the terri- sails and rudders. The trials were failures tory to Japan, to be ultimately passed on to and cost many lives. The fundamental laws China. The time fixed in the ultimatum were not sufficiently known, and the experihaving passed, the German Ambassador's ments were given up.

A century later the

THE WEEK

351

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TYPE

problem was attacked again. Krebs, a run over pulleys and ingeniously arranged so Frenchman, Schwarz, an Austrian, and others that it will remain level even when the baltried to move their balloons by mechanical loon itself is tilted up or down at a decided power, but their engines were by far too angle. heavy for their power. The weight of their The stability of the Parseval type has engines probably was at least fifty pounds per been conclusively demonstrated. Air-ships horse-power, far too much for the capacity of of this type are manufactured by a German their balloons even in quiet air. The first to stock company, the Luftfahrzeug-Gesellschaft succeed was Santos Dumont, the Brazilian, in Berlin, which up to last year had built at the end of the nineteenth century. Like more than twenty dirigibles of different sizes some of his predecessors, he used cylindrical, not only for the German Government, but cigar-shaped balloons, from which the hulls for Austria, Italy, Russia, England, Japan, or carriers were suspended. Success came and Turkey. The first ones built had a with the use of gasoline motors, as used in capacity of 1,500 to 2,000 cubic meters automobiles, because of the much lower (about 55,000 to 73,000 cubic feet) and their comparative weight of the engines and fuel. speed was 40 to 50 kilometers (25 to 32 Dumont's balloons were all of the flexible miles) per hour. They are now built with kind, without any metallic stiffening, and the 8,800 to 10,000 cubic meters (about 300,000 hull or carrier hung from a netting covering to 360,000 cubic feet) capacity and capable the balloon.

of a speed of 70 to 80 kilometers (about 40

to 50 miles) per hour. THE THREE TYPES OF DIRIGIBLES : THE PARSEVAL

THE HALF-RIGID The progress above described did not suffice to make the balloon a practical A second class of dirigible air-ships are means of traveling and transportation. It those built by the German Government after took years before this was accomplished. the plans of Major Gross. These are of the Three types of systems were developed: half-rigid type. Major Gross's air-ships have flexible, half-rigid, and rigid balloons were a metallic keel, above which the balloon is built. Many different constructions fastened and from which is hung the carrier. peared, especially from the workshops of The keel, by giving a certain stiffness to the inventors and navigators. In Germany these air-ship, guarantees its dirigibility. In a three types were introduced by three men, French experiment with an air-ship of a all military officers: Major Parseval, Major similar type the rigid part was bent and broken Gross, and General Count Zeppelin. Parse- by the pressure of the wind, the balloon torn val's flexible balloon, in order to keep its open, and a terrible accident was the result. shape even after great loss of gas, contains The Gross dirigibles have special devices to two air-bags near its ends which are filled by provide against just such accidents. The à ventilator, and are thus kept more or less vertical steering is chiefly done by movable inflated according to necessity. This arrange- weights running on rails along the keel. The ment is most ingenious, as simple as it is stability of these balloons lengthwise as well effective. It enables the navigator to steer as laterally is perfect. the balloon vertically by filling or emptying The defects of both the Parseval and Gross the ballonets, as these air-bags are called, at systems are that dirigibles of these types are one end or the other, thereby lifting or lower- limited in carrying capacity, in radius of ing one end or the other of the balloon. An- action, and in speed. High speed is a source other great advantage is the facility with of safety in bad weather and against head which balloons of this kind are launched or winds and gales. Their usefulness in warlanded—an essential for safety where there fare is therefore questionable. Their deare no sheds or hangars. In cases of unex- structibility by shrapnel is also a great military pected landing the flexible balloons present defect. less danger than other types, and in fact no losses of Parseval air-ships from this cause THE ZEPPELIN have ever occurred. A Parseval balloon can Count Zeppelin began his experiments on be landed and dismantled in about an hour. quite different principles. He proposed to It can be transported in three heavy freight create an air-ship to be sailed and controlled carts. The suspending lines for the hull are in the air as the giant ships are navigated in

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