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the ocean. He desired to transport a num- explosives. It is fitted out with a wireless ber of passengers and considerable freight telegraph apparatus with a radius of about without danger even in heavy weather. two hundred miles. Greater carrying capacity, speed, and radius The Zeppelin air cruiser is well suited for of action were his goal. So he gave his

its purpose.

While its speed is somewhat balloon a rigid skeleton made of rings less than that of aeroplanes, it can rise very and angles of aluminum, and covered it much more quickly. Its main advantage lies with impregnated cloth. Inside he put in its great radius of action, which enables it to the real lifting power—a row of gas-filled make long scouting flights. Even in cases ballonets.

when it has been brought down by the In his first experimental balloon, in 1902, enemy, the results of its expedition are not he had nine ballonets. His first engines were lost because of its wireless communication. two Maybach motors of 75 to 100 horse- In the hulls a number of officers are con

He could carry over two tons, veniently and safely carried to make observaand had a speed of 60 kilometers (about 40 tions, take photographs, and plot maps. miles) an hour. The dirigibility of his ship German military authorities express satwas perfect from the beginning.

isfaction with the efficiency of the Zeppelins In spite of a number of serious accidents, in the present European war. They have and after sacrificing his fortune, Zeppelin at done successful scouting and have certainly last conquered public opinion, obtained the inspired the Allies with fear. Some of them support financially of the German people and are built so that they can be propelled on the Government, and went on improving and surface of the water. The Zeppelin Hensa enlarging his balloons, and making them suit- has successfully descended from the air to able for service in peace and war.

the surface of the water and risen again, and A modern war Zeppelin may be described great sheds, or hangars, are maintained at as follows : Capacity, 30,000 to 35,000 cubic Cuxhaven and Heligoland as a basis for both meters (1,100,000 to 1,300,000 cubic feet); seagoing and land-scouting Zeppelins. At speed, 100 kilometers per hour (62 miles); the beginning of the war Germany possessed radius of action, 36 to 40 hours in the air at ten or twelve war Zeppelins ready for active full speed ; height of rising, 3,000 to 3,500 service in her army and navy.

There are meters (10,000 to 12,000 feet) ; propelling two great yards for building air-ships at power, four motors of 125 to 150 horse-power Friedrichshaven and Potsdam, in each of each, connected by belts with the propellers. which five dirigibles can be under construcThe two hulls carry two propellers each.“ A tion at the same time. It takes from two to third hull is provided for commander and three months under present circumstances to pilot. An open air-shaft in the center of the build a Zeppelin, and before long Germany balloon affords free vision to the sky. The will have fifty such air-vessels at her comvertical steering is done mainly by dynamical mand. While Germany has given her attenapparatus, but also by throwing out ballast. tion chiefly to the development and building Ample provision is made against loss of gas. of dirigibles of the Zeppelin type, she has not The gas, when heated by radiation of the wholly neglected the construction and use of sun, is cooled by strong ventilation. The aeroplanes, and many monoplanes and bisurface of the balloon case is painted with planes are employed for scouting duties by aluminum paint, which keeps it from over- the different German armies, each of which heating. The number of gas-filled ballonets has its own Flieger Corps. But the buildinside is from 15 to 17, of which 5 to 7 ing of flying-machines or aeroplanes, as conmay be hit by bullets and emptied of their trasted with the dirigibles, is believed by the gas without destroying the buoyancy of the Germans to be still in its infancy. whole.

DISSENSION IN THE ZEPPELIN

MEXICO

The confused and uncertain state of afFor military service a Zeppelin may be fairs in Mexico continued last week. Genarmed with one or two machine guns, with eral Carranza's resignation, offered to the one or two light rapid-fire guns, and with congress or convention of military leaders at machinery for dropping bombs. . - It can carry Mexico City, was a mere formality, not to say about a ton and a half of ammunition and a stage-play, and, of course, was immediately

IN WAR

1914

THE WEEK

353

THE FIGHT

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refused. Villa's faction was not represented. feated. A careful count of the complete Attempts are still going on as we write to returns, however, showed that he had been bring the two Constitutionalist leaders into nominated by a comfortable margin. harmony, and their representatives have This-result may be taken as addechconplanned a conference at - Aguas Calientes. firmation of The Outlook's belief that the The prospect is not hopeful, as Villa insists - "Presidential election of 1912, despite the that neither Carranza nor any

other military admitted independence and the progressive leader shall become Provisional President. tendencies of Mr. Wilson, resulted in a defi

At the Mexico City conference Carranza nite postponement of the day when American proposed a programme of reforms for Mexico politics will be measurably free from the which is thus summarized in the press re- control of such men as Sullivan, Murphy, ports :

and Barnes. Assurance of municipal liberty ; division of national lands and of lands which the Government may purchase from large holders ; expro- AGAINST NOISE priation of lands in the vicinity of municipalities One of the unnecessary annoyances of the ot five hundred population or more, the pro- day is the production of noise by all kinds of ceeds to be used in erecting schools, markets,

mechanism. · Each city has its particular and court-houses; obliging all large business

noise. Tennyson long ago wrote of the interests to pay weekly and in coin all their em

6 central roar ployees; limitation of hours of labor and of

of London ; in Paris the note Sunday work; workmen's compensation laws

is staccato, shrill, and penetrating ; New for injuries; just taxation of land ; tariff laws York has a great combination of sounds intended to help the poorer classes; importation which assail the ear from earth and air. of necessaries such as the country does not cul- the country factories, locomotives, and motors tivate, and reformation of banking laws to per- make unnecessary nuisances of themselves. mit the establishment of State banks; marriage Nine-tenths of the noise made serves to be made a civil contract; divorce laws; bet

good purpose.

Factory whistles are not terment of the working classes.

necessary; the ringing of bells and the blowThis is apparently a good programme in ing of the whistles of the locomotives is more itself, speaking generally, altł, jugh it must be

than half an expression of individual inclinaremembered that all Mexican party leaders, tion. Motors go shrieking along the roads including even Huerta, have been profuse in

and are often silent at the places where they paper promises for reforms.

We note par

ought to sound the signal of approach. ticularly as a promising sign that Carranza

Those who live in suburban towns and proposes purchase and expropriation (by

who belong to the commuter class are the something approaching our condemnation victims of both kinds of noises, and the New proceedings when land is taken for public York “Evening Sun” has undertaken a usepurposes) instead of the outright confiscation .ful work in the endeavor to secure both of land which the opponents of the Consti- from railway officials and from passengers tutionalists have declared would follow the

some expression of opinion as to how much success of that party.

noise is needed and what can be done to

relieve its pressure. Years ago when the WISCONSIN POLITICS

elevated roads were opened in New York In an editorial on politics in the Central City there were many suggestions in regard West published in The Outlook of Septem- to possible ways of diminishing the noise ber: 9 the statement was made that the made by the rushing trains. One correWisconsin Democrats had chosen as their spondent of a newspaper proposed that the candidate for Governor John A. Aylward, noise should be gathered during the day in progressive Democrat, in preference to his large boxes and emptied down the harbor at conservative opponent, Judge John C. Karel. night like other garbage. This was interestIn this statement The Outlook was mistaken. ing, but hardly practicable. The Wisconsin primaries were held on September 1, and on September 2, the day on WORKMEN'S COMPENSATION which the number of The Outlook containing AND THE COURTS the editorial in question went to press, it was In a recent issue of The Outlook an acconceded by many political observers and count was given of the democratic, efficient, newspaper editors that Karel had been de

and sympathetic way in which the New York.

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Compensation Law is being applied by the THE GERMAN PEOPLE AND Compensation Commission. Our attention

THE WAR has been called by a lawyer of standing to an error of statement in our account-an Most Americans are loth to believe that error which does not at all affect the main the German armies that have overrun Belpurpose of that account, but which is in itself gium and have invaded France went forth of some importance. Careful examination of two months ago at the bidding of the Gerthe Compensation Law confirms our corre- man people. They do not believe in Gerspondent's assertion that we were incorrect many's cause, but they have always had reain stating that an injured employee who has son to believe in Germany's people. They made his claim for compensation through the have therefore not wished to identify a Commission had still the right to take his case cause which they believed unjustified with a into the courts, and that a defeat at law would people for whom they have nothing but not prejudice him in applying to the Commis- friendship. sion later. This is true only in the very Many things have operated to establish limited number of cases (if there are any) friendly relationship between the people of the where the employer fails to insure the payment United States and the people of Germany. of compensation for his injured employees Not only are a large proportion of Americans under one of the four methods prescribed in themselves of German descent or German the Act. Otherwise the payment of compen- birth, but that German element in the Amersation through the Commission is the exclu- ican population has contributed distinctive sive remedy of the employee. This applies qualities of character to the Nation. Hisnot only to the New York law but to most torical tradition has also contributed to this compensation laws, and is a part of the pur- feeling of friendliness, for the people of the pose of such laws to simplify the procedure United States have never been in conflict and to secure the compensation directly and with the Germans, as they have with the easily.

French and the English and the Spanish, exThere may be

more compul- cept as they fought the Hessian hirelings of sory compensation laws abroad or in other the English King in the Revolutionary War; States which allow both remedies, but the and, on the other hand, Baron Steuben in the authorities on this subject consider that to Revolutionary War and the German regiallow the workmen to attempt to collect dam- ments in the Civil War have helped to fight ages in two ways is more than doubtful and American battles. These are only some of undesirable. The theory of the Workmen's the reasons why the American people wish Compensation Law in New York as well as to think well of the German people, and why in other States is that it is a compromise at this time they have instinctively attributed arrangement—that is, the employer gives up the present war, not to the German people his so-called common-law defenses of assump- as a whole, but to the bureaucrats, the miltion of risk, contributory negligence, and the itarists, the Crown Prince, and the Kaiser. fellow-servant doctrine, and in return therefor The fact, which has been established by the employee gives up all right of action at the testimony of Americans returning from law. In fact, as our correspondent points Germany, that the German people were parout, one of the great merits of a compulsory ticipating in the war with earnestness and compensation law, such as that of New York with devotion to their Fatherland caused no State, is that the great bulk of master and surprise, for Americans well know that any servant litigation which has taken up the people in the position in which the Germans time of the courts for years is eliminated. have been placed would fight with the same

One consequence of this elimination and of spirit. The question which is not answered the human and direct methods of the Com- by American travelers who testify to the mission has been, as we have already pointed German war enthusiasm is, Who was responout, to spoil the wretched practice of the so- sible for placing the German people in that called "ambulance chasers ”-un principled position ? Most Americans believe that the lawyers who instigate damage suits, often responsibility rests upon the military oligarchy. unjustly, practically blackmail the employers It is the non-military German whose point into paying, and appropriate to themselves of view the American wishes to understand. a large part of the damages which the em- This point of view is well presented by some ployee should have.

striking testimony on behalf of Germany

1914

(THE GERMAN PEOPLE AND THE WAR

355

which we propose to consider in this article. pamphlet and leaflet we have referred to This testimony comprises five separate things, undertake to interpret Germany's spirit and namely:

purpose from the point of view of non-miliHugo Münsterberg's book, just published, tary Germany. We shall give their interpretaentitled “The War and America.” Pro- tion as fairly as we can in the space available. fessor Münsterberg is of Harvard.

He is a friend of the Kaiser. He identifies himself Germany is naturally peaceful. For fortywith the believers in peace. He repudiates four years it has remained at peace with all the doctrine of the Pan-Germanists.

other nations. During this time of peace A pamphlet entitled “Truth about Ger- Germany has made an enormous advance. many: Facts about the War.” This appears In commerce it has progressed more rapunder the auspices of an honorary committee, idly than the greatest of commercial naamong whose members are Herr Ballin, tions—Great Britain. In social progress it Chairman of the Board of Directors of the has set standards for the rest of the Hamburg-American Line ; Prince von Bülow, world by its laws for the economic advanformer Chancellor of Germany; Dr. Dry. tage of the working people, by its developander, of Berlin ; Professor von Harnack, of ment of agriculture, and by its administraBerlin, famous Biblicalscholar; Dr. Lamprecht, tion of cities. In music. its supremacy is of Leipsic; Siegfried Wagner, the son of the generally recognized, and its contribution to great composer ; Professor Wundt, famous as all art is acknowledged by other nations. In a psychologist; Baroness Speck von Stern- science it is supreme.

For such an advance burg, the widow of the late German Ambas. as this peace is essential. Even a successful sador to the United States.

war would halt this progress and destroy Prince Bernhard von Bülow's book entitled much of what Germany has achieved. Every “Imperial Germany," which has appeared in German has recognized that war would sweep an English translation and now has been Germany's commerce from the seas, arrest its published in French form. Prince von Bülow industries, paralyze its efforts for science and is not a warrior, though he is a great admirer art. Naturally, therefore, the Germans value of Bismarck, and believes that Germany has peace. been forced into the arena of Weltpolitik. But Germany is surrounded by enemies

Dr. Bernhard Dernburg, whose letters secretly plotting against her. On one side is published in the New York “Sun” and the Russia, nursing Pan-Slavic ambitions ; on New York " Times have been models of another side is France, cherishing revenge courteous argument.

for 1870; and lying off her ports is England, A leaflet, addressed “ To the Evangelical jealous of her commercial progress. Christians Abroad," signed by thirty-one peror and nation,” says Professor Münsterreligious leaders of Germany, including Pro- berg, “ are one in the knowledge that Gerfessors Eucken, Harnack, and Dryander. many is surrounded by peoples whose racial

All this testimony supports the belief that hatred would crush Germany to the ground the German people are united with their rulers, if it could not fight at an instant's notice.” and, with the exception of Prince von Bülow's • Let us consider the adversaries of Gerbook, which was written before the war, all many,” says the “ Truth about Germany." agree that the Gerinan people are a unit in Russia, the classic land of power and terupholding the war. The pamphlet entitled rible exploitation of the people for the benefit “ The Truth about Germany" explains that of a degenerated aristocracy. France, a type this must be so, because the German army of a nation in which there is not even enough “draws its strength and life-blood from all enterprise to increase the productiveness of classes of the whole German folk," and there. the country. England, which has so long

can develop its entire strength only felt its glory vanishing, and in the meantime in a war which the folk approve."

has remained far behind its younger rival in In a summary of General von Bernhardi's financial and economic equipment. One can book "Germany and the Next War" The easily imagine the feelings of these peoples

" Outlook has recently given to its readers the when they observe the rapid and successful interpretation of Germany's spirit and pur- growth of Germany.” The same idea of pose from the point of view of the Prussian conspiracy against Germany is expressed by war party. Dr. Münsterberg, Prince von the writers of the letter “ To the Evangelical Bülow, Dr. Dernburg, and the authors of the Christians Abroad” when they say :

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scruple holds back our enemies where, in berg there was no other talk “but the war their opinion, there is a prospect, through our which the French restlessness would force destruction, of seizing for themselves an

So the Germans have been economic advantage or an increase of power, brought up to exalt the Fatherland. To this a fragment of our motherland, our colonial end they have been taught to subordinate possessions, or our trade.”

thought of self and to be willing to die—even Thus surrounded, Germany is compelled glad to die—that Germany shall extend her to keep her sword sharp and close at hand. influence. In all her people there has thus It is the fear of her enemies conspiring been latent what a correspondent of Profesagainst her that has made of every German sor Münsterberg praises as the furor Teua soldier and of her Emperor a War Lord. tonicus, inspired by the ideas of “the great In fact, the very progress that she has made time which created the German Empire ;" in the arts of peace gives added reason for and every German has felt, as this same corher achievement in the art of war. Since respondent says,

" that in this war the existshe is the trustee for culture, she is bound to ence of Germany as a cultural world energy protect herself.

was at stake.” The logical outcome of this The real dualism, as Professor Münster- is that the Germans, even in America, are berg points out, is not between the Emperor roused to show what Professor Münsterberg or the war party and the nation, but between calls « a crushing power of which the reckthese two interests within every German life. less torch-bearers of German hatred did not “It is,” says he, “the contrast between the dream." ideal values and the earthly power and suc- In this, however, Germany lays no blame cess, the contrast between cultural unfolding upon her foes, for to each one of them she and practical efficiency, between the legacies concedes the moral right to do what they of Goethe and of Bismarck.”

And he says

have done to advance their interests if they of the Germans, “ Their old traditions of a life

a

It is put in this way by Professor devoted to idealistic culture conflict too Münsterberg: strongly with the life yearning for powerful external civilization.” Prince von Bülow

If two men love the same woman, neither of

His exemplifies this dualism in his book.

them is wrong, and yet only one can possess

her. If two nations grow, there may be conmain interest is in the agricultural and indus

flicting needs of expansion; both may need a trial development of Germany, but he declares

strip of land, a harbor, an island, an outlet to that Germany must always be prepared for

the coast, if they are to develop their resources. He writes of this conflict between the Neither Russia nor Japan was in the wrong peaceful and the military interests of Ger- when their wholesome growth led them to mumany with irritation.

tual interference. No tribunal of the world can It is because the people themselves feel find in such cases a decision, because it is no that Germany must make her way against

question of right. Both parties are equally on her foes that they trust their Kaiser and their

moral ground, and the source of the conflict is military chiefs. " We have been forced to

only the scarcity of the available land, in sharp

contrast to the unlimited goods which the indi. become a nation of soldiers,” “ Truth about Germany,'

» 6 in order to be

viduals covet. Then strength alone can bring a

final decision. free. And we

are bound to follow our Kaiser, because he symbolizes and represents In other words, among nations there is the unity of our nation.”

only one law that really counts—the law of This feeling on the part of Germans is the the jungle. This is avowed, be it rememresult of a long process of education. They

They bered, by one who in another place repudi“ have been brought up under the shadow

ates the “ fantastic dream of the so-called of the feeling that revengeful neighbors were Pan-Germanists." This, however, is the waiting for the hour to burn their villages and essence of Pan-Germanism. their towns." This dread every German has As a consequence, it is not surprising to known from his childhood days. Professor find in these spokesmen for non-military GerMünsterberg testifies that his conscious life many the same view of treaties and of other begins with a vivid image of Hussars return- international obligations that we find in Berning from the Austro-Prussian War, that his hardi. The pamphlet “ The Truth about first writing was a childish poem about war, Germany" acknowledges that the invasion and that when he was a student at Heidel- of Belgium was a “breach of neutrality,” but

war.

says the

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