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commercial appeals in the shop windows. In out one individual after another. But, as one a Piccadilly cigar emporium there is this : looks over the vast mass of men and women

and sees them going about their usual avocaALL TOBACCO AND CIGARS FOR THE CON

tions, and indulging in what seem their usual TINENT ARE NOW DUTY FREE. REMEMBER OUR MEN AT THE FRONT.

football and cricket and theaters, one does not

quite get the notion that the whole nation is And then there is still another kind of ap- in sorrow. For instance, twenty-odd theaters peal :

advertise in the “ Times ” and “ Telegraph,”

and doubtless double that number do not YOU DON'T WANT US TO CLOSE UP BECAUSE OF THE WAR, DO YOU? TWO HUN

advertise. Yet in the list of plays mentioned DRED AND FIFTY EMPLOYEES ARE DEPEND- by any of these theaters I have been unable ENT FOR THEIR DAILY BREAD ON THIS

to discover more than one of a very serious, ESTABLISHMENT. PATRONIZE US INSTEAD

soldier-like character, viz., " Drake,” though OF BUYING GOODS "MADE IN GERMANY."

the popular “Tommy Atkins" need not be forBut the recruiting's the thing. It is going gotten. There ought to be twenty" Drakes.” bravely forward, and an additional fillip is This condition may be contrasted with that given wherever a band is present outside in Munich, where all the best theaters were the recruiting office playing patriotic airs. closed at the beginning of the war and only Several orchestras make a point of accom- four of the smaller ones allowed to remain panying, without charge, the various contin- open. These, generally devoted to light gents from the London Central Recruiting comedy, gave only such very serious and Depot in Great Scotland Yard to the railway soldier-like pieces as Minna von Barnhelm " station.

and “ Wilhelm Tell.” Yet with all the recruiting there comes to The result of this war will be social as us who have been in Germany two pathetic much as political. In Germany there will convictions. The first is that these prepara- come a more ungrudging appreciation of tions are being made much too long after what English social progress means, the war has begun. The second is that the England there will be a greater recognition preparations are meeting with inadequate of what has been accomplished in Germany, response. Day before yesterday was Lon- especially in the direction of self-respecting, don's largest recruiting day; four thousand so-called State Socialism. In both countries, men joined the ranks. But the total of especially in this, there must be a keener recruits is small as compared with the two appreciation of military preparedness, organimillion volunteers in Germany.

zation, and discipline. And that means, not Yesterday I had a talk with one of the merely a clever plan and sticking to your great navy surgeons. He was m de- plan. It means getting up very early in pressed on account of some of his patients, the morning to begin the plan. The lazy and said: “ Remember that the severest nation, like the lazy man, will be sent to the burden of this war is going to be on our navy men.

You might think it the other way As to the causes of war, when certain facts because our navy is proportionately larger become known praise and blame will be than our army.

But the army man has more evenly meted out. But, as one cannot greater certainty of what he is going to face. now live in Germany without realizing that Every night, without any artificial light what- the people do not believe themselves enever to guide him, the English sailor must, in gaged in other than a war of defense, so one the blackness of darkness, cross seas in which cannot now live in England without realizing he knows mines float, and these at any that the people believe themselves engaged instant may blow him into eternity. Already in a conflict for the defense, not merely of three cases of hopeless insanity have come their rights, but of the rights of the small under my notice."

neutrality-guaranteed nations. Now one would think that any realization In these aims the two peoples are animated of such facts as these would sober the whole by a sincere fervor and conviction.. English people. And so it has, as one picks

ELBERT F. BALDWIN.

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A JOURNEY IN SOUTH AMERICA

BY ROBERT BACON

Mr. Bacon visited South America in the autumn of 1913 as the representative of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Senator Elihu Root is the Presi

. dent of the Carnegie Endowment. In a letter of instructions which he wrote to Mr. Bacon previous to the latter's departure on his mission Mr. Root stated the specific objects of the Carnegie Endowment, From that letter we quote the following interesting paragraph :

You will observe that one of the means by which the Division of Intercourse and Education proposes to advance international good understanding is a series of international visits of representative men. Accordingly, under the auspices of the Division, directly or indirectly, Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, of France, the Baroness von Suttner, of Austria, and Professor Nitobe, of Japan, have already visited the United States, and President Eliot, of Harvard University, has visited India, China, and Japan, and Dr. Hamilton Wright Mabie is now in Japan. Your visit to South America comes in this category, but it has a more definite and specific purpose than any of the other visits which I have enumerated or which are contemplated under the head that I have mentioned, for it is not merely to strengthen good understanding by personal intercourse between a representative North American and representative South Americans, but it is also to introduce to representative South Americans personally the work and purposes and ideals of the endowment, and to invite our friends in South America to cordial and sympathetic union with us in promoting the great work of the trust.

In the following article Mr. Bacon, who was, our readers will remember, Secretary of State in Mr. Roosevelt's Administration and Ambassador to France in Mr. Taft's Administration, records some of the impressions resulting from his visit to the capitals of Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, and Peri. Mr. Bacon's views of the future relations of the United States and the South American nations are of especial importance at this time. For the European war must inevitably bring South America and North America into closer relations. The EDITORS.

THE chief purpose of my visit to South couple of hours, and our sightseeing was con

America was to explain in detail the fined to a rapid motor trip through some of

objects of the Carnegie Endowment the main avenues, but the short stay was an at Washington, and to describe its working inspiring introduction to the activity which we and some of the activities in which it is inter- had heard was marking the development of ested. Because the time at my disposal was Brazil. Streets were torn up, old houses very short it was possible to visit only five were being demolished, new and imposing republics—Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, buildings were 'aking their places; street-car and Peru—and I was able to stop only at the lines were being built or improved. Apparcapitals of these nations, so that, in the main, ently expense was but little considered in the the impressions here recorded were formed desire for improvement. Babia is a revelaby experiences in these centers; but the jour- tion to travelers from northern climes, who ney took our party down a good part of the are wont to regard the people of the tropics east coast, across the continent, and up most as lacking in energy and too content with an of the west coast, so that we were able to get easy existence to suffer change. a reasonably correct general idea of the country.

RIO DE JANEIRO We gained our first impression of Brazil at Our first view of Rio was such as to stamp Bahia, the third largest city in the Republic, it forever on the memories of all of us. It and a principalmart for tobacco, sugar, is probable that no one can enter that woncacao, and cotton, where on all sides were derful harbor without receiving impressions evidences of the energy that is transforming which cannot be effaced, but it was our good the capitals of these Brazilian states into fortune to pass through the narrow entrance modern cities. We were ashore for only a just after sunset and to come to anchor in

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the circular bay when the myriad lights of Andes, a large and well-equipped vessel of the city were shining, outlining the broad arc the type which the growing trade and pasof the shore and extending from the water's senger traffic between Europe and South edge to the heights behind the city. A full

A America has called into service. moon revealed the high, dark mountains of The comparison of Buenos Aires with curious shapes which encircled us, with the Paris is not an effort of the imagination nor the dome-like rock, the Sugar Loaf, which is hyperbole of local pride, but suggests itself so beloved of every

“Flumineuse," rising sheer naturally that it becomes unavoidable. I was from the deep waters only a few hundred conscious again and again during our stay of yards away.

the illusion that we were really not in the The natural beauty of Rio's surroundings Argentine but in France: is famous the world over. Probably no other It is truly a wonderful city, substantial, capital in the world has such a picturesque important, beautiful, third in point of size on site, and it is the highest tribute one could this hemisphere, nearly as large as Chicago, pay to say that the city is worthy of its set- and rivaling that city in the rapidity of its ting. The broad boulevards, lined with palms growth. In the shopping centers one finds and perfectly paved, the private and public the bustle and life of a prosperous capital, palaces of characteristic and attractive archi- and in the residential districts are splendid tecture, the parks filled with tropical trees houses, nearly all of French architecture, and plants, and the many large business indications of the wealth and cosmopolitan buildings not only provide metropolitan character of the inhabitants. beauty, but offer convincing proof of Rio's A day or two after our arrival, during a commercial importance.

tour of the city, I saw some of the magnifiThe wonderful sanitary conditions of Rio cent new avenues and parks of the capital. are most striking, and it seems impossible We inspected the extensive underground that the city should

have been railway which was just being completed, and lurking-place for deadly fevers.. To-day the also went to the model municipal farm, city is scrupulously clean ; the streets are so and there had our first drink of maté, or well cared for that a torn-up thoroughfare is Paraguayan tea, which, though scarcely a rarity. Pestilential disease has disappeared, known in Europe or in the United States, is and the mortality rate is one of the lowest in a most important article of consumption in the world.

some of the Southern republics, Argentina The impression we all got, and which, I alone having imported 43,161 tons of maté think, any one must receive in even the from Brazil in 1909. briefest visit, was of a city and country and The public schools of Buenos Aires are people for whom the future is big with models of which any country might be promise. The vastness of Brazil and its proud, and have aroused the admiration of inestimable wealth stimulate the imagination such distinguished observers as James Bryce to picture the development that must surely and M. Clemenceau. It has been said that come when this great country is more thickly the Argentine spends, in proportion to the populated.

population, more money upon the educaThe Brazilians are energetic, patriotic, and tion of her children than any other; country keenly alive to their opportunities, and it was in the world, with the exception of Ausa source of the greatest possible satisfaction tralia ; and one can easily believe that this to us to hear them give expression freely to is true if her schools generally have the exthe sentiments of friendship they entertain cellence of those in Buenos Aires. It makes for the United States.

a visitor from the United States proud to be reminded of the fact that the great Sarmi

ento, the founder of the Argentine's educaThe journey by sea from Rio de Janeiro tional system, was a close personal friend of to Buenos Aires occupies four days. A few Horace Mann and received his inspiration days before our visit the railway to the south largely from that friendship. had been opened, and it was possible to go In Argentina and in Chile English is as far as Montevideo overland, but we had spoken more generally than elsewhere on previously made our plans to travel by sea, the South American continent, and we found and embarked in one of the new ships of the that English was taught in the Argentine Royal Mail Steam Packet Company, the schools. It left an indelible impression upon

IMPRESSIONS OF BUENOS AIRES

1914

A JOURNEY IN SOUTH AMERICA

365

me to hear the National anthem of the United often retain. There are wide, well-paved, States sung by the school-children, and to be well-lighted avenues, lined with attractive greeted in my native tongue faultlessly by buildings and many interesting shops. The the girls and boys whom the others had city is well equipped with modern electric selected to welcome me. Nothing, I think, street railways. Public squares and parks of could have touched me more deeply.

exceeding beauty add to the attractiveness of The large, active, and important news- the place, to which many come from Buenos papers of the Argentine are the marvels of Aires during the hot months. Close by are the journalistic world, and, in fact, the news- delightful resorts on the sea which are within papers throughout South America display a easy access of the city and afford pleasant carefulness and accuracy not always found, places for outings for the Montevideans. To unfortunately, in the papers of the United the west is the famous Cerro, a large coneStates, and try to interest their readers in like hill, beloved by the people of the city, the ideas of men rather than in their person- who often go there for the fine view to be alities.

obtained from its summit of the river and So much has been said of the wonderful harbor with its moles and docks. The hardevelopment of the Argentine Republic that bor, already an excellent one, although too my own testimony can add but little to our small for the commerce of the port, is being realization in the United States of Argentina's extensively improved. rapid progress and the important place it oc- Some one has well described Montevideo cupies among the nations. Its recent history as the American Hague, because of the many affords many striking parallels to our own, international conferences and congresses and not a few of the problems which arise which are held there. A large number of are the same as those with which we have these gatherings have in view the improvehad to deal or with which we are even now ment of the present conditions of humanity. dealing. The immense natural resources of All that tends to uplift mankind, all that

' Argentina, which has an area of more than a makes for progress in the march of civilizamillion square miles, or about one-third that tion, finds a cordial support in progressive of the United States proper, the virility and Uruguay More than one historian has industry of its people, the learning, ability, pointed out that the majority of leaders in and patriotism of its public men, leave no

the world's advance have come from the doubt of the future greatness of the Republic. smaller nations. Uruguay, although the

Signs point unmistakably to increasing smallest in area of the South American repubcommerce between the Argentine and the lics, occupies a place of honor and conseUnited States, and, what is more important quence not dependent upon its size but upon still, to our intimate intellectual relations. It the intelligence, advancement, and patriotism is essential that a better understanding of: of its people. Although least in size of the each other by our two countries be brought nations of the southern continent, it is as about, and it is a happy augury for the future large as all New England with a part of the that in seeking this result we North Ameri- State of New Jersey added, and, as has cans will be met more than half-way by those been said, has not an acre of unfertile soil eminent Argentine leaders who are so largely throughout its length and breadth. Com-: responsible for the present advancement of mercially, materially, it is growing rapidly, their country.

sharing in the great prosperity and progress

that have come in recent years to these repubMONTEVIDEO AND PROGRESSIVE URUGUAY lics of the South.

The Rio de la Plata at Buenos Aires is really an arm of the sea, so that Montevideo,

ACROSS THE CONTINENT TO SANTIAGO although “just across the river " from the

DE CHILE Argentine city, is distant one hundred and ten From Montevideo we returned to Buenos miles, and the journey between the two capi- Aires, and then started across the continent. tals occupies about nine hours.

During all the first day we traveled in a Montevideo is a much smaller city than straight line to the west through a prairie Buenos Aires, about one-third or one-fourth land of wonderful richness over which roamed the size, but it possesses all the dignity of a great herds of cattle and horses. Seemingly large and important capital, together with the boundless seas of wheat and alfalfa rolled charm of individuality which smaller cities away from us as far as the eye could reach.

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No one who has taken that journey across capital the morning after our arrival, a perthe pampas needs any further explanation fect October morning, with the comfortable of the prosperity that has so rapidly ad- sun shining from a deep-blue sky and a vanced the Argentine Republic to a leading gentle but invigorating breeze blowing from place among the nations of the world.

the mountains. Such days, I am told, are We arrived at Mendoza, in the foothills of common experience in Santiago, where the Andes, soon after daybreak, and there rarely does it become uncomfortably hot or changed to a special train on the narrow- uncomfortably cold. From the historic Cerro gauge road that climbs, amid impressive Santa Lucia we saw the city in panorama, mountain scenery, to a height of nearly a metropolis of half a million inhabitants, 10,500 feet. During the ascent we caught with wide, straight avenues, large public a glimpse of Aconcagua, the highest moun- buildings of Spanish architecture, and stattain in the Western Hemisphere. Near the ues and monuments worthy of the capital summit of the divide a tunnel has been cut of a great and powerful nation. through to the western slope, doing away While in Santiago we met many members with the mule-back journey of a few years of the old families who give to the society of ago. A good deal has been written of the the Chilean capital the cosmopolitan charm hardships of this railway trip across the and culture for which it is noted throughout Andes, but none of our party experienced the world. It was at the houses of these any discomfort. The descent on the Chilean friends that we were able to appreciate side offers panoramas differing from those how thoroughly delightful residence must seen on the eastern slope of the Cordilleras. be in this favored part of America, where, in The mountains are less barren, and for that beautiful surroundings, with climatic condireason, perhaps, seemed to us less rugged, tions as nearly perfect, perhaps, as can be although the descent was more precipitous found anywhere, a civilization exists which than the ascent nad been. The gorges are

combines old Castilian charm with the prognarrower and deeper, and as the train winds gress and virility of the New World. its way downward there are entrancing views covering a wide range and showing a country

BRIGHT FUTURE OF CHILE of great fertility.

The Republic of Chile is keeping pace A change was made at Los Andes to the with the progress made by the great repubbroad gauge again, and about half-past ten lics of the east coast of South America. She o'clock in the evening we arrived in the has contended against difficulties considerably beautiful and picturesque city of Santiago. greater than those which have confronted her

Santiago is entirely distinctive in character. eastern sisters, for their closer proximity to It possesses all the charm of an old Spanish Europe brought to them an earlier solution of city, but its progressive, enlightened citizens the great South American problem of rail have added to this charm of antiquity the and water communication, upon which the comforts and improvements of modern capi- development of every nation must largely tals. Its situation is superb. High moun- depend. Traffic by sea between Chile and tains rise close at hand, inclosing the city in the countries of Europe has necessitated the a frame of imposing proportions and ex- long and arduous passage through the Maquisite coloring. In the clear atmosphere gellan Straits or the difficult voyage around the mountains appear to be very near, but the Horn. Railway communication with the they give only the sense of protection with- outside world has necessitated until recently out any oppressive feeling of restriction, of the passage of the Andes on mule-back, a being shut in, such as one so often experi- journey impossible during several months ences in cities built near high mountains.

The tunnel joining the Chilean The visitor, perhaps unconsciously, keeps and Argentine ends of the Trans-Andean ever in mind that longitudinal valley of in- Railway, uniting a great transcontinental comparable richness and fertility in which system of transportation, solved the land-traffic Santiago lies, and which makes of this part problem, and other trans-Andean railways of Chile a region which experienced travelers are in contemplation or in actual course of have regarded as one of the earth's most construction which will greatly increase these attractive garden spots.

facilities. The problem of communication It was an altogether pleasing and im- by water will be solved by the Panama Canal. pressive glimpse that we got of the Chilean Even a brief visit to Chile is sufficient

of the year.

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