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1914

A JOURNEY IN SOUTH AMERICA

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to impress one with the belief that the the most part, the voyage along the western present prosperity which it enjoys must coast of South America, where storms are rapidly increase. 'The natural conditions very rare, resembles a yachting cruise more point convincingly to such a conclusion, and than the ocean trip to which Atlantic travelers the Chileans themselves are such a pro- are accustomed. The Humboldt current, gressive, determined people, united in their sweeping up from the Antarctic, keeps the love for their beautiful country and the journey toward the equator from becoming desire to promote its development, that the uncomfortably hot. future of Chile seems very bright.

Sea birds, flying-fishes, and the larger inhabEver since the birth of the Republic the itants of the ocean, porpoises and whales, are welcome extended to foreigners has been companions of the voyage in sufficient numin keeping with the hospitality for which the bers to divert the attention from the seemSpanish race is famed, and this has resulted ingly endless panorama of reddish mountain in a broad, cosmopolitan spirit; but, though

At times thousands of birds are to be the Chileans make the stranger. welcome, no seen in the air at once, and occasionally a prouder or more sensitive people exist. guano island is passed that is literally covered They are not arrogant, but they have a with birds. proper patriotic pride, and they are quick

THE CAPITAL OF PERU to resent any action or attitude which is not in keeping with their high sense of

The harbor of Callao is an excellent one, personal and national dignity. In the more but as yet the ships do not come alongside intimate relations with our sister Republic the piers. Only seven miles from Callao is which will be brought about by the opening Lima. The individual and picturesque charof the Panama Canal it will be well for us acter of the city and the romantic and brilliant to remember this.

part it has played in American history unite

to make it irresistibly attractive to the visitor, , ALONG THE WEST COAST

There are many evidences of the modern From Valparaiso to Callao, and from Callao spirit of progress in Lima. Wide streets, on northward until the Guayaquil River is beautiful squares, crowded business thorreached, the steamer is never out of sight of oughfares, and delightful residential districts land. The course follows the straight line of impress the visitor with the attractiveness of the shore, usually hugging it so closely that the city and its commercial importance.

To the surf can be seen breaking at the foot of many travelers the main point of interest in the arid mountains. The higher summits to Lima, however, is the University of San the eastward have robbed the winds of their Marcos, the oldest seat of learning on the moisture by the time they reach the coast, so American continent. It should fill any Amerithat from the deck of the steamer the traveler can with pride and reverence to enter the looks upon a region as bleak and often as beautiful patio of the University, climb the weirdly fantastic in contour as the landscapes ancient stone stairway to the wide verandas, Doré painted to illustrate Dante's verse. and visit the great halls with the portraits of League upon league of land destitute of all rectors of the University from the time of its vegetation is passed ; but, despite its barren- foundation in 1551 looking down from the ness, the prospect is made interesting by the walls. Through centuries of great stress, vividness of the coloring. In the changing through war and revolution and untold hard. lights of morning, noon, and evening one ships, earnest teachers and students of San may see displayed upon the peaks and in the Marcos have kept brightly burning the valleys all the colors of the spectrum, from first lamp of learning lighted in the New red to violet, with the striking exception, of

World. green, which lack the tossing sea in the fore- Peru has had to contend against great ground supplies. For two thousand miles or difficulties. Her remoteness from Europe more the ship sails under the lee of these hot, and from the United States has served to desert mountains which need only the touch isolate her, but the day of this isolation has of water to convert them into hanging gar- passed or is rapidly passing. In the extent dens of tropical luxuriance.

and variety of her natural resources few A heavy swell is constant, and at times nations of the world are so rich, and the causes the ship to roll uncomfortably, particu- time must soon come when these riches will larly when the vessel is at anchor; but, for bring to her people a new era of prosperity

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greater than any which they have enjoyed although they accept most readily suggestions in the past.

prompted by a sincere friendship; but an

attitude of superiority, too often assumed by SOME GENERAL IMPRESSIONS

unthinking persons of other nations, can beget In speaking or in thinking of the republics only their suspicion, distrust, and contempt. of South America we are exceedingly apt to Much has been said of the rivalry that fall into the error of regarding them as a whole. exists between the various republics. It is The ten separate states are as distinct as the only natural that the rapid progress made by separate countries of Europe ; the peoples nations lying so close to each other should constituting them differ in race, habits, and produce a spirit of keen competition in their ideals; their governments, though retaining advance toward the common goal of greatthe same basic form, are really often quite · The same spirit is evident in nearly dissimilar. We shall never go very far every country in the world. The sentiments toward improving our relations with the which exist between the several nations Latin-American republics, either in the mat- should be respected by all who deal with ter of intellectual intercourse or of com- them, for in that way only can one escape merce, until we have made ourselves familiar giving offense by apparent partiality ; but I with the separate nations, and by study or incline to the belief that much loose talking actual contact learn to make the necessary by persons ignorant of the facts and a good distinctions between them. A true under- deal of loose thinking by careless observers standing of our neighbors can come only have grossly exaggerated the nature of this with a knowledge of their separate histories, competitive spirit. of their heroes, of the epics of valor and Upon the great questions that concern the perseverance of each republic, and of the welfare of the entire continent, upon matters races, native and European, from which the that relate to the advancement of humanity in people have sprung.

general, and upon the principles of right and The day has gone by when a majority of progress, the peoples of South America, or these countries, laboriously building up a at least those with whom I came in contact, governmental structure, under tremendous are united. They are believers in high ideals, difficulties, were in constant fear of the and in the work for these ideals they show a danger of instability. Now all the more solidarity that rises far above any feeling of important republics are firmly established national rivalry. and no longer live in the shadow of dic- In every country which I visited I found tatorships or unconstitutional rule. They sentiments of warmest friendship for the have passed,” to use the words of Mr. United States. The reported occasional pubRoot, “out of the condition of militarism, lic expressions by agitators of South Ameriout of the condition of revolution, into the can distrust of our purposes and motives condition of industrialism, into the paths are practically negligible in comparison with of successful commerce, and are becoming the earnest desire for the friendliest relations great and powerful nations." With this of our countries which one hears expressed development has come material progress by the real leaders of opinion everywhere. and prosperity which attract the attention of It behooves the people of this country, the world to South America and assure however, to conduct themselves toward their its increasing greatness in the future.

Latin-American neighbors with such considAlthough error springs from regarding the eration and fairness that no cause for susSouth American nations as a whole, certain picion may arise. For our conduct we cancharacteristics are, in greater or less degree, not do better than to remember and follow common to all of these peoples. They are the sentiments of John Quincy Adams exhospitable, courteous, sensitive, proud, and pressed in a special Message to the House of intensely patriotic. Whoever goes among Representatives, explaining his action in apthem with a disregard of these traits is sure pointing delegates to the Conference held in to produce a bad impression upon them. Panama : We of northern climes are traditionally more

The first and paramount principle upon which brusque, and brusqueness is foreign and

it was deemed wise and just to lay the corneroffensive to these descendants of the hidalgas stone of all our future relations with them (our razas of the Iberian Peninsula. Their sensi

sister American republics] was disinterestedtiveness causes them to resent criticism, (Continued on page following illustrations).

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SINKING OF THE GERMAN CRUISER MAINZ
This remarkable photograph was taken by an officer from the deck of a British battle-ship during the naval battle off-Heligoland. One

of the masts and two of the funnels of the Mainz have been shot away, and she is settling in the water

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