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the Adriatic. Avlona is the key. But Aus- not yet been written. Its object was to pry tria was just as anxious to control the Straits Italy loose from the Triple Alliance—it of Otranto. To avoid fighting over it, the probably had the approval of the Powers of two nations entered the Triple Alliance with the Entente and may even have originated Germany. To make assurance doubly sure with Russia. Greece has a surfeit of coast they signed a dual treaty on the side, in which line and no special interests in the Adriatic; they both pledged themselves to maintain the she wanted territory more than harbors, so status quo in the Balkan Peninsula. Nei- she was to give up her claims to Avlona. ther felt strong enough to take Avlona, so The harbor, and enough of the hinterland to each made the other promise to keep hands protect it, were offered to Italy on condition off.
that she should flop to the Balkan side in the When the Austrians took Bosnia and Albanian controversy. Herzegovina—a step in the direction of the But for Italy to have occupied Avlona at coveted port-Italy protested, but did not that time meant immediate war with Austria. feel strong enough to fight.
Her hands were full with the work of pacify-: When the Christian Allies of the Balkans ing Tripoli. The Marquis di San Giuliano, tore up the status quo, Italy was in the Foreign Minister, felt that his personal embarrassing position. The Greeks laid honor was involved on the side of the Triple claims to Avlona. Italy drew closer to Aus- Alliance. So Italy refused the bribe. tria in a joint project—the creation of a The Marquis di San Giuliano is dead. principality of Albania. This appealed to Austria is too busy to be dangerous. And Austria as a blow at Servia, and by this Italian marines have landed in Avlona. Their scheme the Italians kept the Greeks away mission is said to be one of mercy. But the from the Straits.
chances of their ever leaving Avlona are about The Bulgarian and Servian diplomatists, on a par with the prospects of Great Britain's who were then working in concert, framed up giving up Gibraltar. a deal at this stage, of which the history has New York City, October 28, 1914.
other ways, too, this body has been concerned CONGRESS
in the upsetting of tradition. At the instance When the Sixty-third Congress adjourned of President Wilson, its members reverted to on October 24, it had completed a notable the old practice of holding joint sessions of record for endurance. It had been in con- the two houses to hear Messages presented in tinuous session since April 7, 1913, a period person by the President. Furthermore, Conof 567 days.
gress adjourned, for the first time in the memPresident Wilson called the Sixty-third ory of old inhabitants of Washington, while Congress into extraordinary session a month the President was absent from the Capitol. after his inauguration, and this extra session merged into the first regular session on WHAT CONGRESS December 1, 1913. When the final curtain HAS ACHIEVED fell, neither the Senate nor the House had a The Sixty-third Congress has been one of quorum present as the vote for adjournment the busiest in the history of the United States, was taken. Only eighty-three Representa- and, whatever criticism may be brought tives and about a dozen Senators held on to against it, that of idleness—save in the case the last. So impatient were these few remain- of certain absentee Congressmen—does not ing members. to get away that in both cham- fairly apply. The presence of Democratic bers resort was had to the time-honored majorities in both houses after the elections prank of meddling with the hands of the of 1912 gave the President a free hand, and clock.
few Executives have so held together and More than eighteen thousand pages of dominated the legislative body as he has held the “ Congressional Record” have been filled together and dominated the Sixty-third Conby this Congress—a longer history than any gress. preceding Congress ever wrote for itself. In The most determinative transactions of the
Congress, and those upon which the success States. Of the States that have considered the or failure of the Democratic party in the question, Texas alone voted against this profuture most depends, are, of course,
the posed revision of Republican representation. important measures in its programme of Under the new plan the total representation in financial and economic reform, the revision the National Convention of 1916 will be reof the tariff, the income tax law, the estab- duced by eighty-nine votes. Alabama will lose lishment of the Federal Reserve system, the 8, Arkansas 3, Florida 4, Georgia 11, LouisiClayton Anti-Trust Bill, the Trade Commis- ana 8, Mississippi 8, New York 2, North sion Act, and the bills still pending in the Carolina 3, South Carolina 7, Tennessee 3, Senate to regulate stock exchanges and to Texas 16, Virginia 8, Hawaii 4, Porto regulate the issuance of railway stocks and Rico 2, and the Philippine Islands 2. bonds. Then the Smith-Lever Act granting That even this reformed plan of repreFederal appropriations to aid in the estab- sentation is not wholly satisfactory to the lishment of farm bureaus throughout the liberal-minded Republicans may be several States, the law for direct election of judged from the following quotation from an Senators, the Industrial Employees' Arbitra- editorial in so good a Republican organ as tion Act, the Alaskan Railway Act, the bill the New York - Tribune :'' passed by the House for the development of The reform effected does not cut as deep as water power on navigable streams, the admis- it should have cut. It leaves a great deal of sion of foreign-built ships to American regis- unjustifiable inequality in the distribution of try, the modification of the Aldrich-Vreeland voting power, and gives too much encourageLaw to make easier the issuance of emergency ment to the sort of Republicanism which in currency, the appropriations for relief of certain parts of the country exists only for American citizens stranded in war-involved
the purpose of producing National Convention
delegates. Europe, the War Revenue Bill, and the tax on
Yet it will do a good deal to lessen the scantransactions in cotton futures, are all impor
dal of “rotten borough ” control of the machintant measures. The repeal of the Panama
ery of the National party. The delegations tolls exemption clause will not soon be for- from the States in which the Republican party gotten by the political opponents of the is only a stalking-horse for capturing Federal Democrats.
patronage under Republican National adminisOf perhaps less internal significance are trations will exercise much less of a balance of the arbitration and peace treaties ratified power than formerly, and Republican policies by the Senate. More noteworthy is the
will not be shaped by the controlling influence appropriation of half a million dollars to of merely nominally Republican constituencies. fight hog cholera, and the passage by the The reason for the “ Tribune's ” partial the House of the Philippine Bill and the bill dissatisfaction—and we think its complaint for leasing gas, coal, oil, potassium, and fully justified-is that the new plan for repre
— sodium lands.
sentation is still in some measure based For the enactment of laws which it prom- on geographical rather than political units. ised to the Nation by its platform the Demo- Under the amended rule there are still discratic party must receive credit even from its tricts in which the representation is grossly party foes, whether they agree with the poli- large, taking into consideration the number cies enacted or not; on the other hand, the of voters having a voice in the election of Democratic party cannot escape responsibility delegates. Each delegate from South Carofor its failures—notably the failure to live up lina, for instance, will, on the basis of the to its professed desire for real economy. A vote cast in 1912, represent but 134 voters. great deal of the legislation, in this as in other Delegates from New York State, however, Congresses, has been the work of men of all will probably represent the desires and opinparties.
ions of well over five thousand voters. It
can hardly be said that, so long as such unLOCKING THE
fairness exists, the “ rotten borough ” system
in the Republican party has been entirely The plan put forward last winter by the destroyed. Republican National Committee for reforming If even only this moderate change had been the basis of representation in the party con- made before, the whole course of the political vention has now been ratified by a majority history of the United States would have been vote of the party conventions of the several altered. Now that it has been made, it is
not only inadequate but belated. Neverthe- may be retained, and at the same time allowless, such as it is, it ought to be welcomed ance for conditions which vary with the differas a step toward a larger measure of self- ent States. Familiar examples of such comgovernment.
missions are the public service commissions
which administer laws regarding public utiliTHE CONFERENCE
ties, and labor commissions which administer OF GOVERNORS
laws regarding wages and conditions of Lacking all legal and legislative power, the
labor. seventh annual Conference of Governors, The overlapping of Federal and State funcwhich meets at Madison, Wisconsin, from the tions is almost as great an evil as the conflict 10th to the 14th of this month, may never- and unconformity of State legislation. Such theless have great force as a means of influ- an organization as the Conference of Governence and persuasion. Having as its aim the ors can promote harmonious action between promotion of greater uniformity in State the Nation and its constituent States. legislation and of greater co-operation between the States and the Nation, it may well be what President Wilson called a former Con
IN MEXICO ference which he attended as Governor of
No further confirmation of the report, to New Jersey—“ a new instrument of political
which The Outlook alluded in its issue of life, National in its character, scope, and inten
last week, that Villa has massed troops for tion; an instrument not of legislation, but the purpose of overawing the conference at of opinion, exercising the authority of influ- Aguas Calientes has come to us from Mex
ico. ence, not of law."
In fact, the American consular agent, The Outlook has long advocated a higher Mr. Carothers, has telegraphed word that degree of uniformity in State legislation, Villa said he had purposely withdrawn his pointing out especially with regard to indus- forces from the vicinity of the conference so trial improvement that the chain of States is as not to appear to be coercing the assembly. no stronger than its weakest link, and that it Be that as it may, perhaps Villa's attitude is difficult to get any State to pass needed
towards the Carranza faction may be judged legislation so long as the lawmakers of other fairly by the following ultimatum recently States hold back on the particular subject in
issued over Villa's signature : question. Almost every big industrial dis- Venustiano Carranza has offended the honor pute in this country within the past two or and dignity of our Republic by his usurpation three decades has brought out the fact that of the supreme powers under the pretext of States are backward in alleviating by law acting in the bounds of the First Chief. I have unfortunate and unjust industrial conditions watched his actions, and I can no longer endure so long as such conditions are allowed to ex
the caprices of an old man who seems to have ist in competing States. The argument that
no more lofty motive than his own selfish ambi
tions. He had leagued himself with the Cientiproposed legislation will injure home industry
fico element in order to further his ambitions, at the expense of competing industry in other
and my generals and myself have agreed that States is nearly always conclusive with legis
we can no longer tolerate such action by one lators.
who claims to represent us. These considerations are true in regard to Unless he is removed from his self-appointed almost all subjects of State legislation-bank- position as the de facto President of Mexico, I ing, taxation, divorce, etc. How absurd it is promise, with the consent of my commanders that a man who inherits stock in an inter-State and my people, to go to Mexico City and rerailway, for instance, may be subject to an
move him by force. inheritance tax in one State in which his Villa's laudable and professed intention testator died, in a second State in which the of exerting no force upon the delegates in stock was on deposit with a trust company,
conference. at Aguas Calientes seems pracin a third State in which the railway was tically to be somewhat similar to the still chartered, and in a fourth, a fifth, and a more laudable and justifiable intention of the sixth State, perhaps, through which the rail- old Quaker who had covered a chicken thief way passes.
with the muzzle of his gun. “Surely,” said By making the operation of laws elastic the thief, "you wouldn't shoot me. You're through the use of administrative commis- a Quaker." Well,” came the determined sions, the value of uniformity in legislation reply, " I'm going to shoot right where thee
stands. If thee don't want to get shot, get remembered, there were many authorities away quick."
who believed that its provisions would not General Carranza, after reciprocating by and could not be recognized by the belgiving an equally candid opinion of Villa's ligerent nations. As most of the ships transadministration in the northern part of ferred under this bill were changed from Mexico and of Villa's personal character, has German registry, the Allies are naturally now offered to resign. According to the most concerned over the legality of this measopinion expressed by a well-known supporter Nevertheless, England has in these two of Carranza, we are to presume that his cases declined to raise this point for contenresignation, conditioned upon the similar tion. Doubtless she has done this from a retirement of General Villa, is offered with- desire to avoid irritating American public out relation to any threats that may have opinion by interfering with American trade. been made, solely to prove the disinterested- This point of law may not be finally settled ness and patriotism of General Carranza !
case arises that vitally, affects Carranza's supporter is reported as saying, England's position as a belligerent. “ The followers of General Carranza are will- In reference to the first question raised, ing to let history judge us by this act of dis- Sir Cecil Spring-Rice, the British Ambassainterestedness on his part, for we can make dor to America, has said in an official comno greater sacrifice in the interest of peace munication to the State Department : and patriotism.” It may be simply a coinci
I think it would be opportune were I to make dence, then, that this opportunity for patriotic some remarks on the general question of conself-sacrifice was discovered only after Villa's traband and the attitude of the British Governreported ultimatum.
You are doubtless aware that in the last few
weeks there has been a marked increase of the THE SEIZURE OF
export of certain articles as compared with preBritish cruisers have recently seized and
vious years to those neutral countries which detained three ships of American registry
are in direct communication with the beiiiger
ent nations. carrying cargoes from American ports to
As you are aware, the Supreme Court of the neutral nations. One of these, the Brindilla,
United States in 1863 considered vessels as gave satisfactory proof that her destination
carrying contraband, although sailing from one was Alexandria, Egypt, and she was there- neutral port to another, if the goods concerned fore released. The second, the John D. were destined to be transported by land or Rockefeller, bound for a Danish port and sea from the neutral port of landing into the carrying illuminating oil consigned" to order," enemy's territory. It then decided that the was likewise detained until evidence was af- character of the goods is determined by their forded of the neutral destination of her cargo
ultimate and not their immediate destination, and the intention of the Danish Government
and this doctrine was at the time acquiesced in
by Great Britain, though her own trade was the to prevent re-export. The case of the oil
chief sufferer. steamer Platuria is still under investigation,
I may observe, in conclusion, that, although the for there is a question of the ultimate destina- British Government have detained cargoes of tion of her cargo.
contraband in order to make sure that they are In the case of the Brindilla and the Rocke- really intended for neutral countries, and have feller two questions of international import retained some cargoes, such as copper destined have arisen. First, were the destination and for Krupp's ammunition works, they have not the character of the cargo transported by
yet taken a single cargo without paying for it, these vessels such as to make them seizable
and have allowed every cargo really destined as contraband of war?. Second, were the
for neutral countries to proceed to its destinavessels themselves of bona-fide American
tion. registry? It will be remembered that these The question of the seizure of ships destwo steamers were among the fleet of Ameri- tined for Danish ports by England has been can-owned but foreign-built vessels which raised in the Parliament at Copenhagen by was transferred to the American flag after the query of a member as to whether the the declaration of war, in accordance with Government could guarantee that corn and the American registry laws as recently re- foodstuffs imported from America were not vised by our Congress. At the time of the re-exported to Germany. The Danish Prepassage of the Registry Bill, it will also be mier replied that the Government was ready
to guarantee to England that no illegal ex- other necessary and useful duties which ports from Denmark would
The do not require technical training. Premier added that investigation proved that As may be seen from the illustration on rumors of recent illegal re-export were un- another page, the ambulances of the hospital founded.
are Ford motor cars. These cars were doThat oil is contraband if destined for a bel- nated to the hospital while in their original ligerent seems indisputable, since it is as indis- shipping cases. As most of the mechanics of pensable in modern warfare as coal, or even Paris had gone to the front, young Amerias arms and ammunition. The way by which cans attached as volunteer workers to the Americans can best understand the merits of hospital took these cars from their cases this case is to imagine that we were at war and used the lumber of the cases to make with Mexico and that English shippers were the ambulance bodies as shown in the illussending arms and ammunition to Guatemala. tration. Military and hospital experts in
Paris have pronounced these ambulance A UNIQUE AMERICAN
bodies, made in this emergency fashion, to HOSPITAL
be the best of their type, and they are now In the midst of the terrible carnage, bru- being copied by other hospitals in France. tality, and suffering of the European war it The general verdict of European experts is comforting now and then to remember that who have seen the hospital in operation is that the awful conflict has its finer side. It has it is the only one of its kind in existence. Its brought out the unselfish and altruistic quali- reputation has become so extended that the ties of human nature as well as the qualities word has been passed along among the offiof primitive savagery.
cers of the Allies on the fighting lines that, if One of the most striking examples of this severely wounded, they should ask to be sent fine side of the war is found in the “ American for treatment to the American Ambulance Ambulance” in Paris. There has been some
Hospital. confusion in this country on account of the The institution is wholly neutral, and name of this institution. The word ambulance the patients are wounded soldiers within French means a military hospital. The out discrimination of race or military affiliaAmerican Ambulance Hospital, which has been tion. Naturally, as it is within the lines of organized and is being managed by Americans, the Allies, its patients have been chiefly is lodged in the building of the Lycée Pasteur French and British ; but some of its inmates in Paris, a Government building which on the have been German soldiers. While the outbreak of the war was turned over to the troops were fighting in the neighborhood of administration of the hospital. The interior Paris during the first German advance the of the building was redesigned and recon- ambulances of this hospital went to the batstructed for its present hospital use by an tlefield and collected the wounded. American architect, Carroll Greenough, of matter of fact, they were the first ambulances New York, now living in Paris. The med- on the scene. ical, surgical, and nursing staff of the hospital is composed entirely of Americans who
A GOOD EXAMPLE have volunteered their services. Dr. Joseph OF EFFICIENCY Blake, the eminent New York surgeon, for
The American Ambulance Hospital has example, is one of those in charge. The several features which probably have never head of the hospital is Dr. Winchester Du- before been employed in a military hospital. bouchet, an American in spite of his French One of these is the use of ultra-violet rays name. He was formerly at the head of the for sterilizing water. There are three ultraAmerican Hospital of Paris, an institution of violet sterilizing plants in the hospital with many years' standing. Even the orderlies which water is prepared not only for drinkare American young men, many of them art ing purposes but for the antiseptic bathing students, who have temporarily abandoned of wounds. the brush and pencil for dish-washing! The Another unique work is the keeping of professional nurses are largely American. accurate histories of every case that comes Many American women who have not had a into the hospital. Complete records of hospital training have volunteered their serv- all patients and of all operations are kept ices and may be seen in uniform doing such by volunteer clerical help. Such records work as making bandages and performing have never been possible before in military