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1914

THE WEEK

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hospitals because the necessary time and the AMBASSADOR HERRICK necessary clerical force have been lacking. It is fortunate, not only for this country, The American Ambulance Hospital is so or- but for the people of other lands, that from ganized that at the close of the war it will the beginning of the war the American Amhave a collection of surgical histories of the bassador at Paris has been Mr. Herrick. most difficult cases which will serve as text- During the days preceding the outbreak of books for surgeons throughout the world, and hostilities he rendered great service under which will be the product of American doc- conditions that called for wisdom, discretion, tors working in an American hospital.

frankness, and foresight. When, on the The work of the American Ambulance Hos- 31st of July, the die was cast, Mr. Herrick pital has not only its scientific and altruistic was all prepared for departure from his post. value, but it is accomplishing much in cement- The Embassy was dismantled. The Aming the bonds of internationalism. Mr. Robert bassador's trunks were packed. That was Bacon, to whom we are indebted for many

of on Friday. He was expecting to leave on the facts here presented to our readers, and the following Monday. Mr. Herrick is still Mr. Myron Herrick, the American Ambassa- in Paris. dor in Paris, are of the opinion that nothing Mr. Herrick's foresight is illustrated by more effective could be done to promote a the fact that even before war was declared good international understanding than the between any of the nations except Austria carrying on of this work. Every French and and Servia he had already communicated British soldier, every soldier from distant with the United States Government with parts, every German who is treated at this regard to the transportation to the United hospital, will carry away with him recollec- States of the thousands of Americans who, tions of American efficiency and American he foresaw, would be caught in the meshes humanitarianism. President Poincaré, of of a general European conflict. To-day he France, has cabled his appreciation of the is the representative in France of whatever hospital to President Wilson, and the Germans may be in that country as well as Governments of the Allies have been SO of Americans, and he is remaining in Paris interested in its work that they have offered in spite of the fact that the French Governto bear a part of the expense by paying ment has moved to Bordeaux.

His experiso much a day for the maintenance of each ence and his personal qualities cannot be wounded soldier. This offer, however, has inherited by his successor. been declined by the hospital administration, There is no known reason why any change because it believes that by relying entirely should have been contemplated except that upon American contributions it can best there happened to be a change in party control retain its independence and neutrality.

in the United States. How absurd and danThe committee in charge of the hospital

hospital gerous is the practice of allowing party politics ardently desires to raise five hundred thousand to control diplomatic appointments is suffidollars immediately to maintain the work. The ciently demonstrated by the fact that in this few Americans now living in Paris have them- crisis the expected change in Ambassadors selves raised one hundred and twenty thou- did not take place. If party policies have anysand dollars. The money that has so far thing really to do with diplomacy, it is at a been contributed in this country brings the crisis like this that those policies should be total to about two hundred thousand dollars, enforced. The fact that political consideraleaving a balance of three hundred thousand tions have lapsed at this time of peril is for which contributions are urgently re- alone proof that party policies have nothing quested. With the money in hand the hos- to do with diplomacy, and that changes in pital is maintaining four hundred beds. The ambassadorships with changes in parties building and the staff can take care of a have no relation to the welfare of the counthousand beds as soon as the required funds try, but are governed by priyate or political are obtained. Contributions should be sent considerations. to Messrs. J. P. Morgan & Co., 23 Wall Nevertheless, there is now already in Paris Street, New York, who will remit the money another man waiting to take Mr. Herrick's by cable to Paris. Americans may take a place. The only reason why he is there is justifiable pride in the efficient part which that Mr. Herrick is a Republican while he is their country is taking in the war through a Democrat, unless some personal reason this humane instrumentality.

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exists of which the public knows nothing and which so far has not prevented Mr. Herrick from remaining at his post.

If the United States diplomatic service is ever to be made the safeguard to this country that it might be and ought to be, a fresh beginning in making it so would be to recall Mr. Herrick's successor and to keep Mr. Herrick where he is and where he ought to remain.

THE NEWS OF THE WORLD

telegrams were carried over the frontiers by post. Reuter promptly tried service by carrier pigeons, with unsatisfactory results.

In England his enterprise met some newspaper opposition, but no obstacles placed in his way by the Government, and he soon made himself an indispensable accessory to the press.

From the beginning, with German thoroughness, he strove for absolute accuracy. The battles of Magenta and Solferino, in 1859, were the first battles of which the European press received telegraphic reports. Reuter at that time had representatives in the three armies—Austrian, French, and Italian. During the Civil War in this country, before the cables were laid, his despatches, inclosed in air-tight cases, were sent to England, received by small vessels off the coast of Ireland, carried to the nearest landing-place, and then transmitted by private telegraph wire. When President Lincoln was assassinated, the mail steamer conveying the news had already sailed. Reuter's launch overtook it, put the despatch case on board, and the event was known in London a week in advance of the receipt of official information. When the war between Germany and France a generation ago broke out, Reuter had become such an international institution that Prince Bismarck himself announced the fall of Napoleon III to a Reuter correspondent.

A JAPANESE NEWS AGENCY

The greatest shock which the nightmare of war has given the world was the sudden discovery that while it has been buying and selling, learning, thinking, writing, and painting, and conducting the most intimate relations of life as one community, it is still made up of separate parts which on the instant may fly apart. This is an intolerable situation ; but it exists, and the world is compelled to recognize it through many losses, inconveniences, and miseries.

The transmission of news from all parts of the world has been brought to such a stage of efficiency that it is not easy to put one's self back to the time, fifty years ago, when news from country to country was fragmentary and dilatory. Not much more than half a century ago Julius Reuter, a German, who knew no English and had no capital, but who had courage and faith in a great idea, opened a small office in the heart of London. He had conceived the idea of creating a center for telegraphic information from all parts of the world ; and he went to England because political opposition in Germany presented insuperable obstacles. He was aided, as men of energy and imagination are often aided, by events. The laying of the first cable across the Atlantic put a wonderful instrument in his hands. He saw the immense possibilities for news collection and transmission opened up by the cable. At that time the various countries of Europe were afraid of the possible effects of rapid exchange of news that they did not allow the building of international telegraph lines. Tlie wires ended at a fixed distance within the boundaries of each country.

Since the war began travelers have learned the inconvenience of trains which cannot cross frontiers; in many cases they have been compelled to walk long distances over territory which they once crossed without interruption. When the first telegraph lines were established,

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Both the United States and Japan have suffered greatly from the very imperfect and inaccurate transmission of news between the two countries. The necessity for the establishment of additional methods for the transmission of accurate news is becoming more and more insistent, and last year a group of influential Japanese headed by Baron Shibuzawa, one of the most prominent financiers and one of the most public-spirited men in Japan, organized the “Japanese International News Agency," represented by Mr. J. Russell Kennedy, an able and experienced journalist, who was for a number of years the representative of the Associated Press in Tokyo. The new agency, by a combination with Reuter's, aims to receive and to convey full and accurate reports of events, and the newspapers of Japan are now receiving fuller news from all parts of the world than formerly.

It is only necessary to say in regard to the International News Agency that it is in no sense under Government control ; that it has

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received no subsidy from the Government; of securing the permanent retention of Proand that it is not aided by governmental fessor Münsterberg upon the Faculty of financial support. It is conducted upon a Harvard University. purely business basis, and is supported by the newspapers which it serves. These in- THE HARTFORD COURANT” clude many of the foremost Japanese news- When a man dies, or celebrates his ninepapers and a majority of the newspapers tieth birthday, or lives to look back upon published in foreign languages.

some great historic event, such as the Johns

town flood or the Battle of Waterloo, his A RESIGNATION

friends and neighbors are inclined to credit DECLINED

him with the accomplishment of most of the The newspaper report, accorded greater things he has observed. It is a pleasant credibility than it apparently deserved, that a fiction, and a fiction not without some foundaman named Clarence Wiener had threatened tion in truth, when, instead of a person, the to cut out of his will a bequest of ten million time-garlanded spectator happens to have dollars to Harvard University unless Pro- been an institution of genuine importance. fessor Münsterberg immediately severed his The romance of having lived through a relation with the University, has given Har- period of enduring significance becomes vard an enviable opportunity of striking a doubly inviting when the honored spectator telling blow for the spiritual independence of has actually played an important part in American educational institutions. The fact creating the story of his time. that no one for an instant expected that the Such, indeed, is the proud distinction of Harvard authorities would pursue any other the Hartford “Courant,” which has recently course than the one they adopted detracts in celebrated the one hundred and fiftieth no way from the credit due the University anniversary of its birth. In a memorial they represent. Not a very long time has issue of one hundred and forty-four pages elapsed since certain individual American the “ Courant” reminds its readers with colleges have been accused, perhaps not with- commendable restraint and justifiable pride out reason, of having derived their purses that “the first number of the · Courant' and their opinions from one and the same appeared October 29, 1764.

While by no Perhaps the impertinent suggestion means the first paper established, it is beyond of Mr. Wiener has been useful at least in question the oldest living newspaper on the calling public attention to the dominant note continent. It was here a dozen years before that now.exists, not only in Harvard, but in an the United States arrived, and it published overwhelming majority of American educa- the “Declaration of Independence'as 'news.' tional institutions.

Think of that! We had this news so promptly In the instance under present discussion (there was no Associated Press in those days) Professor Münsterberg, who has expressed that we were able to give it to our readers on himself with more frankness than tact in the the fifteenth of July. It took only eleven defense of his native country, made himself days to come all the way from Philadelphia. persona non grata to Mr. Wiener, who, it is We had more than a year earlier printed reported, thereupon made the threatening the rousing story brought on horseback by suggestion to which we have referred. Fol- Trail Bisseil, who rode through the colony lowing this, Professor Münsterberg, more telling of the Battle of Lexington, and before from the dictates of tact than from necessity, and after that had published many articles promptly offered his resignation to the fired with the spirit of independence.” University. The Harvard authorities then In recent years one of the pleasantest brought the incident to a close, creditably to associations of the “ Courant” was the long all concerned but the one responsible for its and intimate connection which Charles Dudley beginning, by asking Professor Münsterberg Warner maintained with it. For many years to withdraw his resignation and by stating he contributed, either editorially or otheremphatically that the University could not wise, “a column a day;” and in its pages tolerate any suggestion that it would be will- many of his most charming essays first ing to accept money to abridge free speech, appeared, including the chapters of "My

, to remove a professor, or to accept his Summer in a Garden." resignation.

The Hartford “ Courant” is a private No one could have taken a surer method concern which is, indeed, a public asset. To

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a newspaper which even the whole United codified law definitely establishing the legal States of America can allude to with editorial status of the Indian ; and of the Stephens courtesy as “our distinguished contemporary" Bill, which will enable the Indian to place his

.” The Outlook offers its hearty congratula- claims directly in the United States Court of tions upon a distinguished career and its Claims without first securing the special perbest wishes for continued independence of mission of Congress. The passage of this thought and of devotion to clean journalism. latter bill would relieve much of the bitterness

that has been growing from year to year as THE SOCIETY OF

the different tribes awaited the settlement of AMERICAN INDIANS

their ancient grievances. As a statement Over a thousand Indians and white Ameri- published by the Society says, " Surely a cans have banded together during the last great nation of a hundred million people can three years for the uplift and advancement of afford to do justice to the remnant of that the Indian race. This organization, the Soci- race which once ruled our domain from shore ety of American Indians, in which only per- to shore. Surely such a nation can trust the sons of Indian blood may hold an active settlement of claims against itself to its own membership, held its fourth annual Confer- high courts.” Other demands which the ence at Madison, Wisconsin, last month. Society will lay before Congress and the Its aim is to suggest and bring about better President are the just trusteeship and districonditions, and it urges the Indian to “avail bution of tribal'funds; the efficient allotment himself of every opportunity to learn the of lands; the wise utilization of mineral and ways of civilized life,' in order that he may water resources ; adequate educational recompete and co-operate successfully with sources; and the just settlement of many other men; to use his mind and muscle, to specific grievances on the several reservabecome more and more a worker, a producer tions. and a builder, instead of merely a consumer." A body of five Indians has been delegated It demands of the American Nation a better to present their petition to the President, system of laws regulating Indian affairs, Congress, and the Commissioner of Indian better educational facilities, and the settle- Affairs in November. This Nation is a selfment of many long unsettled claims.

appointed guardian of three hundred thouNo one who attended the sessions of the sand Indians in this country. Its duty is not recent Conference could fail to be impressed merely to deal justly with them itself, but to with the idealism and self-sacrifice of the protect them from the rapacity of those who many educated Indians who had come long covet their property, and to enable them to distances at their own expense in order to become good American citizens who will need work for the good of their race.

no guardian. could fail to recognize the splendid oratorical ability of some of the very ones who decried RETIREMENT SALARIES their own “ignorance” and begged for an education for those to come. Pathetically It is proposed to establish in Michigan a ignorant as many of the older Indians were, system of retirement salaries for teachers, who came with their interpreters to seek the and the not inconsiderable propaganda with aid of their educated brethren, under the which the pedagogues of that State are conmistaken idea that the Conference was called ducting their fight calls attention to certain for the discussion of individual and tribal phases of the teacher pension problem in the grievances, they showed a sense of justice, a United States which are of more than local humility, and a pride in their leaders that interest. spoke well for the inherent nobility of the We learn, for instance, that at present in

the United States the laws providing retireWhile many of the members of the Society ment salaries for teachers are about as varied desire the passage of laws doing away with and irregular as the general run of State what they regard as the folly of reservation laws usually are in this country. Furtherlife, the resolutions adopted by the Society as more, in respect to legislation on this subject, a whole demand no such immediate change Americans have allowed ourselves to in our governmental policy. First and fore. lag behind other countries, as we have in most, they ask the passage of the Carter Code respect to laws for workmen's compensaBill, by which a Commission will draft a tion, sickness insurance, and other parts of

No one

FOR TEACHERS

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1914
GERMANY AND THE MONROE, POCTRINE

521

Public Library the twentieth-century programme of social ing to add any weight to their fax burden. justice.

In the third place, it must be decided whether The principle of salaried retirement for any amount raised by such additional taxation public school teachers is of comparatively should be spent for this purpose rather than recent introduction in the United States, but for any other. In general, improvement Russia has had it since 1819, Saxony since in the quality and the character of the 1840, and England since 1848. Practically

Practically teaching should give precedence over imall the countries of Europe have it, and in provement in buildings and in material ; the Western Hemisphere we find the princi- but laws already enacted establish standards ple in force in the Argentine Republic, and in buildings and material that cannot well be even in backward Mexico. At present, in abandoned. Unquestionably one of the most this country, twelve States make provision beneficent forms that private benevolence for the retirement on pension of all their has taken has been in the establishing of public school teachers, while fourteen have pensions for professors and other teachers in special acts providing pensions for teachers endowed institutions. If the practice of proin the schools of cities with a population of viding for the future years of teachers can more than ten thousand. New York, Chi- be extended throughout the public school syscago, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Cleve- tem, either by private gift or by an insurance land, and San Francisco are among the large system or by public appropriations consistent cities whose teachers are protected in this with adequate expenditure for other purposes, manner. In some States the pensions are the result would be of great benefit to the paid entirely by the commonwealth, in others schools and their pupils. they are drawn in part from a fund made up by contributions from the teachers themselves.

GERMANY AND THE MONROE Of the arguments usually brought forward by the advocates of retirement salaries for

DOCTRINE teachers, the following are the most frequently Disquieting words have been spoken very used and seem to have the most force: recently by eminent German officials in Amer

1. The existence of a system of retirement ica. The fact that they were meant to be salaries will bring to the profession of teach- reassuring does not make them 'the less dising able men and women who now enter quieting. other employments.

Dr. Bernhard Dernburg, formerly German 2. It will hold in the profession many Colonial Secretary, and now Germany's most persons of ability who now leave it for other

conspicuous advocate in the United States, fields that offer a safer future.

was understood recently to have made a 3. Such a system will remove the ever- statement to the effect that Germany had present nightmare of a penniless and depend

announced its recognition of the Monroe ent old age, thereby encouraging a teacher Doctrine. It

may

be well to recall here the t take more needed rest, spend more time words in which that Doctrine was first enunin traveling, and otherwise enlarge the teach

ciated by President Monroe in 1828, when er's sphere of life, and thus increase his or certain European Powers showed signs of her usefulness as an instructor. Those

wishing to help Spain recover her lost Americountries, like Germany, for instance, where

can colonies : teaching is one of the most honored pro

We owe it, therefore, to candor and to fessions, all have laws providing retirement

amicable relations existing between the United salaries for the state's preceptors.

States and those Powers, to declare that we Whether funds for providing retirement consider any attempt on their part to extend salaries should be secured through taxation

their system to any portion of this hemisphere must be decided by other considerations in

as dangerous to our peace and safety. With addition to the desirability of establishing

the existing colonies or dependencies of any such retirement salaries. In the first place,

European Power we have not interfered, and

shall not interfere. But with the Governments it must be decided whether the amount

who have declared their independence and mainraised by taxes now can be made to meet

tained it, and whose independence we have, this new drain upon the public treasury. on great consideration and on just principles, Second, if present taxes are not sufficient, it acknowledged, we could not view any interpomust be decided whether the people are will- sition for the purpose of oppressing them, or

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