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THE WEEK

THE ELECTIONS

But even the election of this Congressman The newspaper reports of an election that must be taken not as an indorsement of the are received within the twenty-four hours Progressive party so much as a decisive rewhich follow the closing of the polls can be buke to the economic policies of the present fairly discussed only in their general terms. Administration in their effect upon that There is too large an opening for doubt still State's interests. remaining as to the details of the opinion With the election of Boies Penrose to the registered by the Nation at large.

Senatorship in Pennsylvania over Gifford Before the present election there were Pinchot and A. Mitchell Palmer, with the four general questions upon which the Na- likelihood that Illinois will be represented in tion's voters expected to take their stand : the Senate by Roger Sullivan, with the return

Has the Democratic Administration war- to political activity of such old Republican ranted the continued support of the country war-horses as ex-Speaker Cannon and Repreat large?

sentative McKinley, the third question anIs the Progressive party still a vital factor swers itself. The Nation at large seems to in the arena of National politics ?

have decided that it did not care to sacrifice Have the American people definitely de- what it regarded as its present economic welcided to eliminate the boss and the political fare by a vote of protest for political princimachine from sharing the control of their ples or for the reform of political machinery. destinies ?

To the first, and perhaps the most imporWhat is the attitude of the Nation at large tant, of these four questions the handwriting upon such social questions as woman suf- upon the ballots has given apparently a more frage, prohibition, the various questions of definite answer, when we consider that there Constitutional policy and of legislative reform were many who no doubt longed for the elimthat were presented to their attention by ref- ination of such men as Barnes and Penrose erendum in the several States ?

from the political structure of this Nation Upon the last of these four questions the who nevertheless chose to swell the tide of final results are not yet known as The Republican triumph with their votes. Outlook goes to press. Apparently, the hope reports we have received from Pennsylvania of the suffragists that the vote might be given indicate that thousands voted for Penrose to women at this present election has been upon the same principle by which the Gerdestroyed in Ohio, Missouri, Nebraska, North mans have justified their violation of Belgium. Dakota, South Dakota, and Nevada. Mon- A vote for Penrose seemed to them the shorttana alone seems to have rendered a verdict est and quickest road to Paris, and they were in favor of woman suffrage. In these seven willing to sacrifice their convictions to make States the right of nearly three million women their actions immediately effective. New to vote was involved in the election. The York State, by returning a Republican Govresults on the question of National prohibi- ernor by approximately 150,000 majority, tian and of Constitutional reform are not at this has added its quota to Democratic defeat. writing decisively definite. Oregon, Arizona, Here, as in other States, local issues conand Colorado are reported as probably going tributed to the result, for the election of

dry.” California, Ohio, and Washington Mr. Whitman to the Governorship not only are now counted as victories for the “ wet" means popular discontent with the National vote.

Administration, but also a revolt against the If the second question is to be answered particular machine in power, and therefore by the success of the Progressive party in most evident above the political horizon. electing men to office, it must be answered The Republican victory in New York State, in the negative. Only in California, where in New Jersey, and in other States throughGovernor Johnson is reported as re-elected, out the Nation has apparently placed the did the Progressives hold their own. The Democratic control of Congress in very real solid South, however, is reported as broken peril. In the Senate the Democrats have gained, by the election of a Progressive Congress- but in the House and without the House man from the Third District in Louisiana. their policies will have hard sledding; their

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control has been lost or retained by a very lated railways? There are only these three narrow margin.

possibilities. We are for the last. If after The result of this election has been in a fair trial it proves a failure, Government many instances a triumph of the reaction- ownership with all its difficulties and dangers tionary element. Generalizations are unsafe, seems inevitable. but it may be deduced perhaps from the Under a policy of Government regulation, results that, without economic prosperity, the shall the regulation be administered by ConNation has little stomach for political and gress or by an executive committee or board social reform.

to carry out the principles laid down by Con

gress ? We are for the executive committee THE INTER-STATE

or board, as we think every experienced COMMERCE COMMISSION

business man must be. The executive comIn the celebrated Freight Rate Case of last mittee in this case is the Inter-State Comsummer the Inter-State Commerce Commis- merce Commission. sion, it will be remembered, granted an in- Shall it be a group of estimable but praccrease of freight rates to the railways in the tically powerless sub-assistants of the PresiCentral Freight Association territory, but dent and of Congress, or shall it have ability, denied an increase to the Trunk Line and responsibility, and power? It seems to us New England territories. Since that decision axiomatic that the men who administer our was rendered the railways assert that the railways must be men of ability, responsibilwholly unexpected economic and industrial

ity, and power.

The Commission must be conditions resulting from the war have made in very truth a kind of Supreme Court of necessary a further increase of rates, or railway questions. The political stability of rather an extension of the territory in which the United States rests upon respect for the rates may be increased. Railway authorities authority of the Supreme Court. Consider have published tables of statistics and reports for a moment what would have happened if to show that the gross earnings of some of in 1893 the supporters of the Income Tax Law the best-managed railways in the country are had said while the Supreme Court was conrapidly decreasing without a proportionate sidering it, You must find it Constitutional ; decrease in expenditures. Mr. Charles Fran- if you do not, you are a failure and must be cis Adams, of Boston, who for twenty-three abolished. years was an officer of the Union Pacific The very function and purpose of the Railway, and who is recognized as an accom- Inter-State Commerce Commission is to hear plished and expert authority on American in its proceedings the most reliable expert public questions, has written to President witnesses that the country can produce ; to Wilson in defense of National as opposed to get the facts, to get the technical statistics, State regulation of railways, and urges that to digest the figures, and to render its judgthe National Government, if it wishes to ment on that basis. It is created to do save the American railways from a terrible what no layman, no single railway man, financial crash, must grant an increase of however expert, and no single publicist, howrates.

ever experienced, can hope to do for himThese various events and incidents have self. led again to much private and public criticism The remedy is not for any private citizen to of the Inter-State Commerce Commission. formulate in advance a verdict, and to insist Many impatient citizens assert that if the that the Inter-State Commerce Commission Commission does not grant the desired in- shall adopt that verdict. If any remedy is créase, and grant it at once, it will prove that needed, it is to see that the Inter-State Comit has wholly failed in its functions and ought merce Commission is put, by reason of its to be abolished. We think these critics of ability, its respected authority, and its governthe Inter-State Commerce Commission lose mental power, on a plane not dissimilar to sight of one or two aspects of the question that of the Supreme Court of the United that are more important than an increase of States. rates.

If we could address the railway managers Shall we have wholly privately managed of the United States in mass-meeting assemrailways, like those of the scandalous period bled, we should say: Devote yourselves, of the '70's and '80's, or Government owned gentlemen, to the problem of making a great and operated railways, or Government regu- Inter-State Commerce Commission instead of

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to the inappropriate and useless task of trying to make its verdicts.

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THE MEXICAN
CONTINUOUS PERFORMANCE

The most significant features of the continuous performance in Mexico during the seven days that end as this number of The Outlook goes to press have been the amalgamation of the Villa and Zapata forces at the Aguas Calientes gathering and the acknowledged transformation of this peace conference into a war conference. According to newspaper despatches, the Aguas Calientes Congress has “ ordered an extensive movement of the Villa troops towards Mexico City.” Already there have been rumors of clashes between Villa forces and Carranza troops at several points between Aguas Calientes and Mexico City, while the irrepressible Zapata is reported to have attacked the town of San Angel, a suburb of the Mexican capital.

The Villa-Zapata coalition at the Aguas Calientes Conference, after coming out openly for the so-called " plan of Ayala,” which calls for the immediate division of the big landed estates of Mexico, brought about the election of General Eulalio Gutierrez as Provisional President of Mexico for a period of twenty days. It is carefully explained that the extreme limitation of General Gutierrez's term of office was due to the fact that the Zapata delegates had not been given by their chief the power to vote in the Convention, and hence we are led to infer that there may be another vote on the fitness of Señor Gutierrez for office before his twentyday term is out. Gutierrez was comparatively unknown prior to his sudden elevation into eminence. A humble grocer a few years ago, he first received favorable attention from the revolutionists as a successful dynamiter of Federal troop trains.

Carranza, of course, denies the legitimacy of the Gutierrez election and continues to aver that he is willing to retire to private life only if Villa and Zapata will do likewise. This the redoubtable pair seem not anxious to do. Carranza has again protested against the presence of the United States forces in Vera Cruz. On the whole, the Mexican situation continues to be a subject to try the temper of the most confirmed optimist.

the difficulty encountered in obtaining proper sanction to extraordinary military expenditures. The present exigency imposes upon Italy an unusual care, not only to keep her military and naval forces intact, but also to provide for a possible heavy increase in expenses in the near future.

Accordingly the Minister of War and the Chief of the General Staff have made extraordinary demands upon Italian finances—SO extraordinary indeed to lead to the proposal that all taxes should be increased by one-tenth to meet such augmented expenditure. Unless this were done the Minister refused to approve of such expenditures, as there would be an inevitable deficit for which he declined to undertake the responsibility. Nor would he give way to the urgent insistence of the Prime Minister and the Minister of War that the expenditures be undertaken at any cost, the deficit to be remedied later. Rather than agree, the Minister of Finance resigned, and his resignation has caused the retirement of the whole Cabinet.

The interesting thing about the Italian Cabinet crisis is the fact that, as in France. it has really been caused less by any lack of confidence in the integrity of the Ministers than by the growing feeling among the Italian people, as among the French, that the present time demands a

Ministry of All the Talents”—that is to say, the Ministry which shall represent all parties. Accordingly we are not surprised to learn that the King has summoned me of all parties, including the Socialist, to decide whether a so-called national Ministry, like that in France, may not be formed.

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PUBLIC OPINION
IN ITALY

In view of the Italian Cabinet crisis, Italian public opinion becomes very interesting. As may be expected, the long-cherished hope to reclaim Italia Irredenta (unredeemed Italy, the Trentino and Trieste) is a strong factor in the present situation. It is natural that the Italians should incline to whichever side in the present conflict promises them the possession, especially, of the Trentino—the region about the city of Trent in which a great Italian population lives. If Italy had the Trentino, her northern frontier, now interrupted by this triangular piece jutting into the peninsula, would be properly rounded.

Because of this hope, and also because they believe in the cause of the Entente Powers,

THE ITALIAN CABINET

The members of the Italian Cabinet have resigned. The cause of their resignation is

1914

THE WEEK

565

AND STRICKEN EUROPE

certain Italian political parties—the National- tained up to this time its position of neutralists, the Republicans, and the Reformistity, in the belief that, if it can keep its Socialists—would declare for the Allies. military and naval forces armed and in

With the Nationalists there is a touch of tact, it can, in the final settlement, greatly humor in the situation because they used to strengthen its moral position as a neutral consider France as Italy's greatest prospective Power, and, while legitimately attending to enemy. Perhaps they correspond to the its own interests, can more quickly assure Bernhardi school in Germany; they seem justice and peace. to be Real-Politiker, political realists—that is to say, time-servers who will take terri

THE ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION torial gains where they can. The other two political parties, the Republican and the In such a time as this, when the sympathy Reformist Socialist, seem to be chiefly inspired of the whole world is searching for means to by hatred of Austria, inherited from their aid the innocent sufferers of Europe, it is great apostle Mazzini.

gratifying to record that this outpouring of The Socialists proper preach neutrality. the Nation's spirit is to find an immediate But these Socialists themselves fall into two expression through the highly organized and classes : those who believe in absolute and efficient philanthropy of the Rockefeller those who believe in conditional neutrality. Foundation. Men trained to deal with probTheir organ, the “Avanti,” is interesting read

lems on

a national basis are not ready at ing these days; and their leaders-Ferrari, hand in every emergency.

When such men Mussolini, Bissolati-worth hearing. Indeed, can be found, backed by almost unlimited Signor Bissolati has now actually been called wealth, to face such a catastrophe as has to Rome to help form the new Cabinet. devastated the Belgian nation, all the

Opposed to the Nationalists, Republicans, forces that are working towards the relief and Reformist Socialists are the Conserva- of the terrible suffering across the seas can tives and a section of the Liberals. These are take new hope in the progress of their the political parties who maintain that the work. triumph of England, France, and Russia, no From the Rockefeller Foundation has matter how inspiring for popular rights, would come a statement of intention from which the mean the triumph of those who have been following quotation has been taken : Italy's chief competitors in the Mediterra

It having become clear that one of the most nean, and who are the protectors of the Slav

terrible and appealing effects of the war will fall power which Italy dreads.

upon the non-combatants—those most innocent In addition, there is a feeling among them of any part in the cause or the conduct of the that to fight against Germany and Austria conflict-the Rockefeller Foundation has deterwould be in some sense a betrayal. The other mined to exert itself to the extent, if necessary, day the Catholics, in congress at Milan, de- of millions of dollars for the relief of nonclared that “an attitude of hostility towards

combatants in the various countries involved. the states of the Triple Alliance and in favor This action is taken as a natural step to fulof those of the Triple Entente would be,

filling the chartered purposes of the Foundaunless imposed by insurmountable necessities

tion, namely, “to promote the well-being of

mankind throughout the world.” of national defense, an attack on the rights

In order to obtain expert opinion as to the of nations equal to that of the violation of

time, place, and means of rendering aid most Belgium.” This is an extreme statement, but effectively, the Foundation has arranged to it finds recognition even among the Entente send to Europe within the next few days a Powers by such an organ as the “ Westmin- Commission which shall visit the countries ster Gazette," for instance, which says: affected and advise.us first-hand. The chair

man of the Commission will be Mr. Wickliffe We, for whom the breaking of a treaty by

Rose, Director-General of the International Germany has been a factor of such supreme importance, should do well to respect the senti

Health Commission, whose successful experi

ence in organizing the campaign against hookment that makes a large section of Italians

worm disease in various parts of the world pecuaverse to making war against former allies.

liarly fits him for the task. Neither by caresses nor by veiled threats should

To avoid delay and to provide relief at the we try to lure the Italians to our side.

earliest possible moment for the suffering peoWhatever the position of the Italian peo- ple of Belgium the Foundation has chartered ple, the Government, like our own, has main- the largest neutral ship available in New York

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Harbor, and purchased a full cargo of supplies to be despatched immediately.

OTHER AGENCIES
NOT SUPPLANTED

It is not to be understood in any way that the Rockefeller Foundation expects to supplant the efforts of those agencies which have already undertaken the difficult task of bringing succor to broken Belgium. This fact the statement of the Foundation makes very clear. It continues :

This action will but supplement the publicspirited efforts of the Belgian Relief Committee, of which Mr. Robert W. de Forest is Chairman. That the necessity is vital and worthy of the heartiest support is indicated by the following cablegrams which, in reply to inquiries, we have received from Mr. Page, the American Ambassador at London:

“Belgians on the verge of starvation. I enphatically regard it most opportune to help. I have never known such a case of need. Committee to distribute food consists of prominent Americans here and influential Belgians in Belgium and American Minister and Consuls in Belgium, all under my direction. British Government forbids export of food, and no food can be bought on Continent. Help needed is food and clothing for women and children.

" It will require a million dollars a month for seven or eight months to prevent starvation. In fact, many will starve now before food can reach them. No food can be bought and exported from any country in Europe. Every dollar you choose to give will save or prolong a human life if you give it quickly enough. No other time will come in any land when there can be greater need. Do not send money. Buy six parts wheat, two parts rice, two parts beans, and ship in neutral ships consigned to American Consul at Rotterdam. Inform me when you ship and I will arrange all diplomatic requirements for landing, for transit to Belgium, and for distribution in small quantities by the Commission of Relief, which as a means of reaching all the people have taken over all grocery stores."

On next Tuesday morning [November 3], therefore, the Massapequa, of the New York and Porto Rico Steamship Company, will sail direct to Rotterdam, Holland, laden with 4,000 tons of supplies, consigned to the American Consul.

The extraordinary need in Belgium is further indicated by the following cablegram received from Mr. H. C. Hoover, of the American Relief Committee in London:

“ Have received reports from members of our Commission, from the American Minister in Brussels, and from local officials that within

three weeks the last vestige of foodstuffs in Belgium will have been exhausted, and the entire population of over seven million people will be faced with starvation. The minimum supply of foodstuffs required amounts to about ninety thou nd tons of cereals per month, together with bacon or lard. The minimum monthly expenditure required is from four to five million dollars, of which some part returnable through sales. It therefore appears that the problem of feeding the people of Belgium transcends other Belgian relief. The one function of Americans in Belgian relief is the purchase and despatch of food. We have expended every dollar that we have received in the purchase and despatch of foodstuffs already, and it will take all the funds we can raise here to take care of emergency pending arrival of stuffs from America."

It is obvious that no philanthropic exertion will be too great to relieve the acute suffering of those victims of the war who are innocent of any participation in it.

That the committee of investigation of conditions in Europe is under the head of so efficient and capable an executive as Mr. Wickliffe Rose is ample guarantee to all of the earnestness and the effectiveness with which the mission will be prosecuted.

Ships have gone out from this country, before to suffering Europe, carrying supplies to the famine sufferers of Ireland, to the cotton-spinners of England, to India, and to earthquake-stricken Italy, but it can be said that no ship has ever gone upon a more imperious call than that which took the Massapequa from our shores.

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THE WAR AND
THE MCALL MISSION

The fate that has befallen the McAll Mission in France makes a vivid picture of the ravages of war far away from battlefields and burning cities.

Almost all Americans know about the McAll Mission. It was founded in 1872, the year after the Franco-Prussian War, the first service being held in a little hired shop in Belleville. This was SO successful that a number of halls were rented, and in time these were succeeded by more ample accommodations. These “ plants," as they are called, have developed into centers of all kinds of human assistance and sympathy in neighborhood life. Now there are more than forty McAll Mission institutions; and hundreds of Americans have seen the Salle Centrale and the Maison Verte in Paris. Most of the leaders of this Mission are now in the

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