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trenches on the battle lines in northern tary efficiency was displayed Admiral Togo France, and the work of the Mission is being was approaching his sixtieth year when he kept up for the most part by the wives and took the field; Prince Oyama, the Commanchildren of the workers who are in the army. der-in-Chief of the Japanese forces in Man

Five of the Paris mission halls have been churia, had passed his sixtieth year ; Field converted into workrooms for women whom Marshal Nodzu was sixty-three; Field the war has rendered destitute. Two meals Marshal Yamagata was sixty-six; General a day are provided, and a small sum of money Kuroki was sixty ; and General Nogi, who is given to each woman. The Mission work- took Port Arthur after a series of desperate ers are on half-pay, which is entirely insuffi- conflicts carried on with unflinching energy cient, and if the war lasts more than three and almost breathless rapidity, was nearly months it is a question how the workers sixty years of age. .can live.

In the present war Lord Kitchener, the Meanwhile the work of the Mission is organizing genius of the English army, is more necessary than ever. Part of its work sixty-four, and Sir John French, commandhas been conducted on two boats that went ing the English forces in the field, is sixtyup and down the little rivers of northern two. When Lord Roberts was sent to South France running through the terrible battle- Africa to snatch victory out of defeat under fields. One of these boats was at Meaux, on

circumstances demanding openness of mind, the Marne, when the war broke out. With flexibility, and agility, he was sixty-eight the approach of the Germans towards Paris years of age, and to-day, at eighty-two, he is the it was a military necessity to sink all the boats most striking figure in the English war councils. that could help the invaders across the river, On the French side General Joffre, who is and a Mission boat, Le Bon Messager, on steadily gaining in reputation and whose unwhose wide decks in days of peace the Gospel bending devotion to his work and unwillingwas so often preached, was sunk by a detach- ness to talk about it put him in a class with ment of English troops.

Lord Kitchener, is sixty-two; General Pau, Everywhere in the northern towns the who has come to the front of late, is sixtymissions have been working to relieve the six, and came out of his retirement to take suffering of the people about them. The iron the second position in authority in the French hand of war crushes everything it touches, army; General Castelnau, the third in comand it falls heavily on all institutions which mand, is well advanced in the sixties; and live by public generosity.

General Gallieni, who is in command of the defenses of Paris, is seventy.

The German armies are also led by a

group of elderly men : Count von HuelsenVice-President Marshall's declaration, made Haeseler has reached the mature age of some time ago at Wabash College, that the seventy-eight; Field Marshal von der Goltz old man is being shoved off the stage every- is seventy-one, and has been an authority on where, needs revision, as does the opinion of military subjects for fifty years; General von another Democratic statesman that men over Kluck, who has so far been the most promififty are atrophied and of no use in public nent commander on the German side, has affairs. “ Failing physical vision,” said Vice- reached his sixty-eighth year; General von President Marshall, “ is assumed to mark a Emmich, who took Liège and has since died, like diminution of intellectual sight.”

was sixty-six ; and General von Hindenburg, In a field in which old age ought to be a who is regarded as the ablest of the German heavy handicap, Mr. Marshall's assumption is commanders on the eastern frontier, is sixtystrikingly disproved. In the last great war between France and Germany the campaign These figures suggest that, while fifty may was planned and led by elderly men. The be the dead line among Democratic statesEmperor William, then King of Prussia, was men, it appears to be a kind of life line in his seventy-fourth year; von Moltke, the among great leaders abroad. masterly strategist of the war, was seventyone years old ; General von Roon was sixtyeight; and Bismarck, the master-mind in the IMMIGRATION larger field, was in his fifty-sixth year.

With the opening of a war involving the In the next great war in which high mili- chief sources of American immigration, the






subject acquires a new interest.

The war

do ? A new element which has temporarily arrested the flow as abruptly as closing a cut off the stream absolutely has been water-tight gate in a dam would do that of a introduced to complicate the problem. Alstream. What the ultimate effect will be it though, undoubtedly, immigration will set is difficult to forecast, but it is probable that in again, it would perhaps be the better part the ebb and flow will be affected for years. of wisdom to await a clearing of the atmos

Since rapid intercommunication and trans- phere. portation became easily accessible to all classes of society, there has been no war THE IMMIGRATION comparable with the present one to serve as a guide in framing a prophecy. In the past Up to January 1, the official year which there was little opportunity for the class that closed on June 1 promised to be the record furnishes most of the privates to escape the one for immigration. On that date the inburdens which recovery from war entails. coming stream of immigrant and non-immiThey had to remain in their places to help grant aliens had reached the total of 830,744. pay the cost of reconstruction. But in this Usually the immigration for this half of the age of industrialism, if wages at home are year is less than fifty per cent of the year's not equal to those abroad, laborers can remove total. It might have been expected, thereto the more profitable field of employment. fore, that the number for the year would be It is easier to destroy the mechanism of more than 1,600,000. This would have been industry than of agriculture, and it cannot be a record. From January 1 forward, howrebuilt until capital, earned perchance from ever, the immigration fell off, and the total the most primitive wealth-producing industry, for the second half of the year was 572,337, has been raised. Men outside of Russia to- two-fifths of the number for the year, which day cannot, except under military law, be was 1,403,081, a number slightly less than forced to labor in a given spot, provided they that of 1912-13. Eliminating the nonhave the essential for removal to a more immigrant aliens-those who have been here lucrative place of occupation. Will they stay before and established a home—the total to help build up the prostrated country, or was 1,218,480. emigrate to countries which have not been The exodus since the first of the year has devastated by the scythe and torch of modern not been equaled for a corresponding period warfare? The duration of the war, of in any year since that following the crisis of course, will have some bearing on the October, 1907, while the number entering

has fallen to so low a total only once since To be sure, even in the direst of national 1908. The outgoing stream was three-fifths calamities, emigration is not an unmixed the incoming evil, for if it removes the able hands, it With the exception of Ruthenians and returns a portion of the wealth it has pro- Italians, the only people establishing new duced elsewhere.

records in the year just closed were from the It will be interesting to observe the Balkan region and included the Rumanians, effect of the upon


scale Bulgarians, Slavs from Dalmatia, Herzeof the world, for labor is now a fluid, govina, Bosnia, and Montenegro, and Greeks. international commodity. Will it tend to Perhaps the record Balkan emigration may raise wages ? There is no immediate need be taken as an indication of what may be for immigrants either in Canada, the United expected to follow the close of the great States, or in the Argentine, the chief coun- European war now waging. tries drawing upon other sections of the The Italian total of 296,414 (north and world for workers. In Canada and the south) was to be credited in a large measure United States the depressed state of industry to a desire to be on the sure side of the has turned the stream back upon itself and gate should a literacy test be established. reduced the flow materially. The crop con- Fewer of this race returned home this year dition in Argentina is responsible for a de- than last, a fact which perhaps may be taken crease in immigration to that country. Ordi. as an evidence that they intend to remain as narily 300,000 “ birds of passage go to this long as possible where literacy tests cannot land, their transoceanic flight made easy by a

get at them.

More Hebrews came last one-way rate of $7.50 from Italy.

year than in any year since 1907, the total In view of the situation, what will Congress being 138,051. Comparatively few “birds









of passage ” futtered hither last spring, but whole and the life of the community as a the number of women and children admitted · whole. exceeded that of the previous year. A record In January and February, 1911, the first number of Africans (since the slave days), Child Welfare Exhibit was held in the Seventy8,447, entered, chiefly from the West Indies. first Regiment Armory of New York. It is In 1904 the number admitted was only 2,380. estimated that two hundred and fifty thousand

The causes for the heavy immigration be- people saw this exhibit and ten million people tween July 1 and December 31, 1913, in the read about it. The Outlook described it at face of National legislative conditions such the time. Jane Addams characterized it as as have usually discouraged immigration, cross-section of our civilization.” The were untoward economic conditions in central material then exhibited, supplemented by Europe and the fear in Italy of the establish- local material, was shown at a second Child ment of a literacy test. Usually in recent Welfare Exhibit given in Chicago a few years the primary motive for immigration months later. Then requests from cities has been American demand. As we have wishing Child Welfare Exhibits began to pour seen, industrial conditions here were so un- in so thick and fast that New York's local satisfactory this spring that, bad as they committee was swamped and the organizawere at home, there was no incentive to tion of the National Child Welfare Exhibit emigrate.

Association, with headquarters at 200 Fifth If we did not set up a new record in im- Avenue, New York, became imperative.


. migration this year, we did in the number Since then Kansas City, Rochester, Knoxville, debarred. We sent back 33,041, as com- and Atlanta have followed the example of pared with 19,938 in 1912–13 and 24,270 New York and Chicago. in 1909–1910, the previous record. Among The forthcoming exhibits are to be State them were 1,077 idiots, imbeciles, and instead of city affairs. Mr. Charles F. Powfeeble-minded, 3,254 persons suffering from lison, the Executive Secretary of the Assoloathsome or dangerous contagious diseases, ciation, in a recent tour of the West, found 15,705 liable to become public charges that in the State universities he had an (a number twice as great as that of the efficient instrument already at hand for carprevious year), 6,537 certified by the sur- rying a Child Welfare Exhibit to the people geons as having physical or mental defects of entire States both in city and .country. which might affect their capacity to earn a Practically all State universities, particularly livelihood, and 2,793 contract laborers. in the West, have departments of sociology With the exception of the number of those and extension departments for carrying the liable to become public charges, which was university to those taxpayers who cannot greater by 200 in 1909–10, these are records. come to the university. Since the officers It is evident from the increase in the num- and teachers in these universities are State ber of mentally affected who were debarred officials and employees, they can naturally that the facilities for detecting ailments of and readily secure the aid and co-operation this nature are being developed. The totals of the various State departments. For inare expanding from year to year.

It is a

stance, in the State of Indiana an Indiana pity that such an army of disappointed human State Child Welfare Exhibit has been in beings are not saved part of the disappoint- preparation by the Professor of Sociology ment and loss involved in a futile trans- in the State University, working through atlantic journey through the adoption of an the Extension Division of the University, effective system of examination at the ports and in co-operation with the State Superinof embarkation.

tendent of Public Instruction, the College

of Agriculture of Purdue University, the EDUCATING A NATION

State Board of Charities, the State Bureau ABOUT ITS CHILDREN

of Inspection, the State Library CommisThe Child Welfare Exhibit has now become sion, the State Fire Marshal, and private a National institution. Wherever such an societies. Similar exhibits are being simiexhibit is held it instructs the community in larly prepared for the States of Arkansas and what that community is doing for its children ; Oklahoma. what it is not doing for its children ; and The States of Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, what it should do for its children. It shows Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin have agreed the relation between the life of the child as a through their universities to take the matter

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up as soon as organizations can be sent by passage to the Orient, which the early exthe National Child Welfare Exhibit Associa- plorers sought in vain, has now been created tion to take charge of the work. New York by twentieth-century science and determinaState may be the first of the Eastern States tion. As the New York Tercentenary Comto follow the lead of these Western States. mission points out, “ We thus have a period One obvious advantage of this plan is that it of three hundred years of American history is capable of extension until the giving of sharply defined by two conspicuous eventsState child welfare exhibits at appropriate at one end the beginning of the chartered intervals shall be looked upon as a regular commerce of New Netherland, which was the and essential part of the extension work of forerunner of the greater commerce of the every State university. Perhaps nothing Nation ; at the other end, the opening of the could do more to develop the greatest re- Panama Canal, which is the consummation source of the United States—its children. of the hitherto unattained hopes of centuries,

and which is destined vastly to increase the THREE HUNDRED YEARS OF

commerce of the port of New York and the AMERICAN COMMERCE

Nation as time goes on.” On October 11, 1614, the States General of Holland granted to several merchants of A MONUMENT TO Amsterdam and Hoorn the exclusive privi- JACOB A. RIIS lege of trading with the Indians in New As our readers know, we deeply shared in Netherland, the region which is now New the universal respect and affection which was York City and vicinity. This was the begin- felt in this country for Jacob A. Riis. Few ning of the regularly chartered commerce of native Americans were more sincerely patriNew York.

otic, more profoundly devoted to its instituAlthough other parts of the territory now tions and social welfare, than he. And he the United States had been settled before was an immigrant! His untimely death was that year—notably St. Augustine, Florida, in no small part caused by the self-sacrificing and Jamestown, Virginia—they had devel- expenditure of his time, strength, and money oped no systematic commerce worth men- for the benefit of his fellow-citizens of all tioning up to that time. Thus 1914 is the conditions of life. It is a commendatory tricentennial of the establishment of the practice in this country to make an effort to regularly chartered commerce of the United build material monuments in honor of AmerStates.

ican patriots, although some of these monuThe duty or pleasure of celebrating this ments are often not as commendable in event has been left largely to the people of their form as in their idea. Fortunately in New York City and State. A Citizens' Com- the case of Jacob Riis it is not necessary mittee appointed by the late Mayor Gaynor to build a monument. He designed and of New York has grown into the New York partly built one before his death, on lines Commercial Tercentenary Commission, which which can be enlarged and strengthened as includes, as ex-officio members, the mayors of time goes on. It is the Jacob A. Riis Neighall the cities of the State and the presidents of borhood Settlement. all the incorporated villages of the valley that Dr. Jane E. Robbins, the head worker of bears the name of the intrepid Hudson. the Settlement, informs us that, owing partly

Unlike the Hudson-Fulton Celebration, in to the financial condition of the country, per1909, the present movement emphasizes the haps, and partly to the fact that Mr. Riis is commercial and industrial aspects of Ameri- no longer here to plead for the work, the incan life, although the historical and intellectual come from voluntary contributions has greatly sides of the anniversary have been recognized decreased. She rightly feels that when this by numerous pageants and festivals in the fact is brought to the attention of the small schools and parks of greater New York. army of Mr. Riis's unknown friends throughThus far, however, the chief features in the out the country, the deficiencies will be made long programme of the Tercentenary have good. Mr. Roosevelt used to say, “ Taking been an Automobile Pageant on October 28 all his qualities into consideration, Jacob Riis and a Commercial Pageant on October 31. is the best American citizen I know." This

It is fitting that this tricentennial of Ameri- was a fine tribute from a man whose forecan commerce should coincide with the open- bears had lived three centuries in this country ing of the Panama Canal. The westward to a fellow-man who came to these shores in




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the steerage. We gladly print the following prices of these drugs for legitimate use are appeal which Dr. Robbins sends us.

now about twice what they were six years

ago because of the great expansion in the " Dear Reader of The Outlook :

sale of drugs for illicit purposes.

In New “ The dirty-faced little rascal of today York State awakening public recognition of with stone in hand can by your help become

the injury that was being done to the comin five years a manly young fellow in a re

munity by the drug habit led to the adoption sponsible position. What he needs is 'to

of the measure commonly known as the cut the gang.' Back of every boy who Boylan Law. As this measure has now been makes the. proud boast, · Not one of you in force since July 1, 1914, and as it is fellows has anything on me,' is the thankful probably the best piece of legislation on this old mother or the bright-eyed sister made

subject ever secured in this country, a résumé happy by the boy's success. One good father

of the law and an account of what it has had tears in his eyes as he watched his son

accomplished have general interest. go through his drill in the gymnasium. We The main provisions of the Boylan Law have 500 boys like him in the gymnasium

are as follows: and in our clubs learning to live up to Riis

(1) All drug dealers, physicians, dentists, House standards. Will you help us in our and veterinarians must use official order fight to keep this perfectly good' boy from blanks in making purchases of opium, morbeing spoiled by the street ?

phine, heroin, codein, or other dangerous, • The homelike social dances, with their

habit-forming drugs, and must keep record good cheer and wholesome fun, have meant of purchases and sales. more to the young people than you can possi- (2) In filling prescriptions containing any bly imagine. The working-girls spend them

of these drugs a certificate must be issued selves at their tasks by day and they want a containing names of doctor, druggist, and good time at night. A bright, attractive

patient. room appeals to their youth and to their

(3) Mere possession of any of these drugs unconscious love of beauty. The music, the

without this certificate is a misdemeanor. games, the amateur dramatics, find a ready

(4) Addicts may be committed by magisresponse, and peals of girlish laughter float

trates to hospitals where they can have mediout from their pleasant club-rooms.

cal treatment. “The children think the roof garden is The last provision is a very important one, theirs, and spend many happy hours there, for, as is well said by Mr. Charles B. Towns, free from the perils of the city street, swing

an authority on drugs and the effects of ing contentedly to and fro or playing their

their improper use, who drew up the Boylan ring-around games.

Bill : “ To deprive a drug addict of his drug " Come some afternoon to visit one of the

without giving him definite medical help insix mothers' clubs who meet with us. At

evitably will subject him to such suffering, the Fresh-Air Home, as we came to know such incredible and indescribable torment, these patient, hard-working, or ambitious as cannot otherwise be brought upon manmothers, we felt that we were spending the kind.” The truth of this statement is evisummer with a set of heroines. I know you

denced by the fact that the drug wards would like to help these mothers.

of hospitals in some of the large cities of “ To-day is a time of sacrifice for love of

New York State have had an unprecedented country, and we need you more than ever

number of applicants since the Boylan Law before in our patriotic work for these new went into effect. Unable to get their beAmericans. Contributions for Thanksgiving loved “ dope," many gunmen, gamblers, and Christmas may be sent addressed to the

prostitutes, and other denizens of New York Treasurer, Jacob A. Riis Neighborhood Set- City's underworld have appeared at the tlement, 48 Henry Street, New York City."

city's hospitals and clamored for treatment.

The law is considered an excellent police THE DRUG HABIT

measure, and during the months of July, AND THE LAW

August, and September New York City's · Apparently it is generally admitted by special" Drug Squad" of police has made medical experts that the use of habit-forming 409 arrests and secured 236 convictions, with drugs has greatly increased in the United 91 cases still pending. States within the past five or six years. The The public is only beginning to realize the


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