Obrázky na stránke
PDF
ePub
[graphic]

menace of the increasing prevalence of the by promises Turkey had been persuaded to lend drug habit. One probable beneficial result itself to German schemes. There has been no of the passage of the Boylan Law will be the secret concerning Germany's ambition in the passage of similar laws in neighboring States, East and consequent effort to influence Turfor, if these States do not thus protect them- key. The proverbial wealth of the Orient selves, they will become the dumping-ground can be approached by Germany only on a for the “ drug fiends” of New York's under- route that passes through what is or has been world forced to flee from that State. Before Turkish territory. The same Kaiser who has State legislation on this subject can reach its issued his warning against the yellow peril of greatest effectiveness, however, Congress Asia has been willing to employ to the interest must act. The State experts who have stud- of the policies of his own Empire the power ied the drug problem say that it is “ abso- of Asia which is nearest to Europe. lutely essential that an accurate accounting There are reasons, however, which might should be made to the Federal Government well have influenced Turkey in deciding to of all importation, manufacture, and inter- enter the European conflict when the situation State traffic in habit-forming drugs."

is seen from the Turkish point of view. For years the hunter has been hunted; the

Turkish Empire that once was aggressive TURKEY AND THE WAR

has been furtively seeking protection against

the aggression of others. For more than a Turkey's participation in the world war hundred years Turkey has expected and would seem at first sight to be the supreme dreaded an invasion from Russia. That act of folly.

great Slavic Empire, tardily emerging from Once a great Empire, Turkey threatened mediaevalism and retaining primitive virtues to overwhelm Europe with Mohammedan with primitive defects, has sought an outlet ideas, manners of life, and type of character. to the common highway of the sea. Her The Turkish Empire attained power the ex- natural course has been to find that way to tent of which it is hard for us of the twentieth the Mediterranean by way of Constantinople. century to imagine. Professor Hart's article It was this southward pressure of the Russian

“ The Sultans," which is printed in this forces that was resisted by England, France, issue of The Outlook, recounts graphically Sardinia, and Turkey in the Crimean War. the rise of that great power. Turkey of the It was this same southward pressure that fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was the great was resisted successfully by Bismarck at the exemplar of Machtpolitik-the doctrine that making of the Treaty of Berlin, when Russia "might makes right”-and Turkey's policy was compelled after 1878 to forfeit the best of power was reinforced and sustained by the fruits of its campaign. As a matter of Mohammedan religion. To the resistance fact, the boundary line in the Caucasus has against the Turks maintained through gen- been forced southwards after each war, erations by the peoples of eastern Europe and the Turks have felt the ominous preswe owe to-day what we have of European

Even with the Bosphorus in the civilization and what we have of free institu- enemy's hands, Odessa has become the tions. Gradually the Turk was driven back, greatest seaport of Russia.

Moreover, apart and for years he retained his Empire solely from the natural desire for an open way on the sufferance of those European Powers to the Mediterranean, there has been actuatthat found it to their own advantage to keep ing Russia a religious feeling. Constantinople, him on the throne. Then came the Balkan in its origin and early history a Christian city War, and not even the self-interest of the and the seat of the Eastern Church, seems European Powers could save Turkish domin- to be inviting the head of one branch of that ion in Europe from crumbling almost to the Church, the Russian Czar, to come back to point of utter destruction. The Turkish his own, and to win once more for ChristenEmpire is scarcely a shadow of its former dom Constantinople and its historic churches, self. So wretched has it become that its So during the nineteenth century, while Rusonly defense has been, in fact, its utter weak- sia has been expanding, the Turkish terri

Why should such a nation allow itself tories have been contracting on every side. to be Aung into a conflict which may involve The Turks have thus been made to feel that the ruin even of mighty Powers ?

some time these aggressions must be checked. It would seem, perhaps, as if by flattery and Encouraged by the fact that Japan, an Asiatic

on

sure.

ness.

[ocr errors]

1914

TURKEY AND THE WAR

573

nation, was able to defeat Russia, Turkey ancient aggressive spirit of the Turkey that has .come to believe that surely Allah would once made Europe tremble. The Machtenable the Turkish armies to beat back the politik of Germany in the twentieth century Muscovites and would strengthen the borders is perhaps appealing to an element in the of the Empire of Islam.

Turkish Empire that remembers what the And not only on the Russian side has Turks were in the fifteenth century. Turkey felt its losses and its perils, but it also There has been, too, the bond of financial has been forced to see its power and influ- interest between Turkey and Germany. ence wane through the domination of Egypt It is, then, perhaps not unnatural that by England, of Morocco by France, and of the military party in Turkey, who glory in Tripoli by Italy.

Turkey's past prestige, should listen to GerOf all the nations in Europe there is now man promises and German advice, and find but one which appears in the guise of a it natural to enter into this war on Germany's savior to Turkey. This has been the German side. And it is the military Turk who is in Empire. The Turks have not forgotten the power in Turkey to-day. There is ample Kaiser's speech at Damascus in the nineties evidence to show that the man whose personafter he had visited the tomb of Salah-ed-din. ality dominates the situation in Turkey to-day He declared himself the protector of Ottoman is Enver Pasha, who is better known as and Mohammedan interests. In Baalbek he Enver Bey. Last spring, in recognition of caused a marble tablet to be erected, commem- his services to the nation, he was made a orating his Imperial progress through the Pasha by the decree of the Sultan. His country and the restoration of the Roman early training was in the German military ruins. The same year a treaty was signed schools, and for some time he served as authorizing the building of a railway from military attaché in the Turkish Embassy at Constantinople to Bagdad by a German-con- Berlin. His mind became saturated with trolled company.

Neither have the Turks German ideas and methods, and upon his forgotten what the German Ambassador said return to Turkey he ardently advocated at Constantinople toward the close of the everything German. Enver Bey and Niazi Balkan War. Speaking to the Germania Bey carried through the remarkably rapid Club, he said : “ Whatever may be deter- movements of the revolution of July, 1908, mined as the possessions of the European compelling Sultan Abdul-Hamid to grant a provinces of Turkey, the time has now come constitution, and establishing the Commitwhen the Fatherland may attach to the tee of Union and Progress as the ruling Asiatic provinces the warning, “Touch me power in Ottoman affairs. These men benot.' These emphatic hints to the other came the popular heroes, the defenders of nations of Europe have aroused hopes in the the liberties and rights of the fatherland. hearts of the Turks that with Germany's aid Young, spirited, energetic, and intensely the losses of the Italian and Balkan wars patriotic, these two men dominated the curmight be retrieved.

rent of events. Through a treacherous plot And now they see their hereditary enemy, Niazi Bey was shot. Mahmoud Shevket Russia, occupied in a war with this German Pasha, another strong leader who was serving Empire that has announced itself to be the as Minister of War, was assassinated. These protector of Mohammedan interests. They facts have made Enver Bey, now Pasha, all see England, the overlord in the former Turk- the more the hero of the army and of the ish territory of Egypt, and France, a master nation. He has become the powerful head in the Mohammedan region of northern of the war party in the Cabinet, and as War Africa, arrayed also against this German pro- Minister

may have the final word in deciding tector of Islam and the Ottoman interests. Turkey's action. During these days of high Italy, Turkey's recent enemy, and Greece, tension he has been escorted constantly by the conqueror of Turkish islands and Turk- six officers with revolvers ready for use. He ish mainland, Turkey likewise sees in sym- is supported by a group of high-spirited, able pathy with the enemies of its German ally. army officers, and by those Cabinet members, And the opportunity seems ripe from one like Talaat Bey, who are conspicuously idenpoint of view of confounding these ancient tified with the Committee of Union and foes by joining with the gr War Lord and Progress-that is, with the Young Turk his mighty forces. The spirit of the Ger- party. man military leader seems kindred with that It is these aggressive Young Turks who

[graphic]

war.

can

brought about the reforms of a few years days have gone twice that length of time ago that were hailed as a sign of Turkey's without new supplies of food. American regeneration. It is these Young Turks who missionaries have helped to feed the starva few weeks ago announced the abrogation ing troops. There is, therefore, the best of the so-called Capitulations—those privi- of reasons why the Turkish people, apart leges allowed to foreigners which have made from Enver Pasha's following, do not wish the Turks feel that they were inferiors in the sight of the other nations. The spirit that And yet there are influences at work to brought about those earlier reforms and the bring popular support, if we may use that spirit that has impelled the Turks to abro- term of such a country as Turkey, to the gate these Capitulations is the same—the policies of the war party. Although economic desire to raise Turkey to a higher place of conditions in Turkey are at a bad pass, and respect. As one of the leading dailies of although the grip of the Mohammedan religConstantinople, the “Tanin," in an editorial ion is not as strong on the minds of the peoon September 10, said : “ The Capitulations ple as it once was, the stroke of diplomacy were to us an outrage and a humiliation and by which the Capitulations were abrogated a means to the most dangerous misery, at a was of the sort to enlist enthusiasm and patime when all other nations were going triotism; and while patriotism ran high and ahead. ... To-day we are happy; for the the Ambassadors were puzzled by this declaGovernment has wiped out the ancient black ration of independence from the Porte, it was stain. Henceforth we are free; we not difficult to get the Deputies in the Turkish labor and progress like the rest of the race. Parliament to vote funds for mobilization. Henceforth the Westerner must pay taxes Moreover, the German promises were plausilike ourselves; he will be amenable to the ble. In providing for the building of the same law courts ; in short, we can say hence- Bagdad Railway Germany has been acute. In forth that we too are men ! The date that order to persuade the Turks that this road marks the ending of the system of Capitula- was not a foreign incursion, articles were intions should be celebrated equally with serted in the German-Turkish treaty stating July 23 [the day of the 1908 revolution). that after ninety-nine years the road should Our sons must keep the day, and always pass into the hands of the Turkish Governremember that their fathers on September 9 ment, and that from the first the name of the definitely emancipated the fatherland. Long road should be the Ottoman Imperial Bagdad live free Turkey!"

Railway. Then, too, the Turkish war party It is this same spirit that has impelled the believes that is now Turkey goes with Germilitary element in the Young Turk party many at the hour of need, Germany in gratitoward open co-operation with Germany in tude will not ride rough-shod over Turkey's this war.

It is true that the Young Turk national rights and aspirations, but will recogparty is divided into two factions, the one nize Turkey as an ally, to be honored and interested mainly in internal reforms, the perpetuated as a nation. other interested mainly in outward prestige. Thus Turkey is divided in sentiment and But both factions are animated by the com- purpose. On the one hand, Enver Pasha mon purpose of raising Turkey in the ranks and the military party trust in German promof the nations.

ises, and hope that by entering into the war It must not be supposed, however, that Turkey will at least be enabled to maintain Turkey is a unit in this. The great mass of some semblance of sovereignty in her presthe Turkish people are not interested in na- ent territory and perhaps regain something tional prestige, just as they were not inter of what she has lost. On the other side is ested in the internal reforms. They know the Grand Vizier, who is opposed to the war, little about the issues in this war. One and has sought to prevent what he regards thing, however, they do know. They know as a catastrophe. Finally, Turkey is on the the hardships of military service, and to-day edge of bankruptcy. It has been finally they are suffering from the hardships of voted, for example, by the Deputies in Parmobilization. There are, it is reported, at liament to divert the entire appropriation for the present time more nien under arms than education for the coming year to pay the at any time during the Balkan War. There interest on the loan contracted to meet the are thousands without food. Soldiers in Balkan War expenditures. On the one side camp coming supplied with rations for five Turkey sees the oncoming power of Russia.

REDONDO DE
PUBLIC LBRARY

1914

THE PRESIDENT AND THE ELECTION

575

On the other side she sees a possible refuge ing more than the prejudiced organ of a political in the promises and inducements of Germany. party; but I can deny this contention no longer. There ought to be no surprise, therefore,

I believe I can truthfully state that the greater that Turkey's entrance into the war should be

part of the people of this city have a deep adsignalized by hesitation and contradiction.

miration for President Wilson. They feel that

his fight is their fight and his enemies are their The once great Ottoman Empire may be said

enemies. Believing this, what shall one do to be at its wits' ends.

who finds foremost among these enemies The By going into this war it would seem al

Outlook ? Surely he can at least register his most certain that Turkey had signed her own wish that The Outlook become again the advodeath warrant. But if she were not to go into cate of principles per se and not per any one the war, what chance of life would there be political party. He can protest against the use for her ? Rather than have other nations of the columns of the paper he honors for the sign her death warrant, perhaps she has purpose of insidiously attempting to destroy chosen to sign it herself.

an ennobling influence which a great man has justly earned over the hearts and minds of the

American people. THE PRESIDENT AND THE

We share in the admiration of our correELECTION

spondent for President Wilson's personality The elections throughout the country last

and character. He is a man of unquestioned week unmistakably register a setback for the integrity, intellectual superiority, and genuine

, Democratic party. In different localities patriotism. But his attitude of mind and his there were different subsidiary causes for

official action with regard to industry and this repulse. In New York State, for exam

business have already brought the country ple, thousands of voters were, in our judg

into serious difficulties, and, if pursued, are ment, actuated by a desire to strike Tam

likely to bring us into difficulties still greater. many Hall and ignored what the effect would Mr. Wilson appears to believe-certainly be on the National Administration. Connect- his policies are based on the belief-that icut and Pennsylvania, and to some extent

big business men are to be considered guilty the President's own State of New Jersey,

until they are proved innocent; that comare manufacturing States which have always

binations in business, sometimes miscalled been peculiarly susceptible to the appeal of a trusts, are evil and indefensible ; and that high tariff. It may further be said by those they should be broken up into their comwho contended that the repulse does not im- ponent parts or small units. ply a serious Democratic defeat that there

Is this interpretation of Mr. Wilson's view always is in the middle of the term of a new

unjust ? Consider the following passages President a reaction against him.

from Chapters IX and XI of Mr. Wilson's But the reduction of a Democratic major

" The New Freedom," published only a year ity in Congress of nearly one hundred and ago, and up to the present moment unconfifty to the slenderest of margins can be

tradicted by him : explained only by the fact that the country at We have come to be one of the worst-ruled, large was determined to record its protest one of the most completely controlled and domiagainst some policy of the Administration. nated, governments in the civilized world-no

We believe that it is the policy and attitude longer a government by free opinion, no longer of the President and his Administration a government by conviction and the vote of towards business, or, if you choose, “big

the majority, but a government by the opinion business,” which has thus been singled out

and the duress of small groups of dominant for protest. The Outlook has steadily pro

If the Government is to tell big business men tested against it since the inauguration of

how to run their business, then don't you see Mr. Wilson in 1913, as is indicated by the

that big business men have to get closer to the following letter received some time before the

Government even than they are now? Don't election from a correspondent in Minnesota :

you see that they must capture the Government, For several years I have been a firm believer

in order not to be restrained too much by it? in The Outlook. For a long time I have denied

Must capture the Government? They have the contention of several of my friends that

already captured it. The Outlook was no longer an impartial paper in whose columns one could look with all con- What most of us are fighting for is to break fidence for guidance, and that it was now noth- up this very partnership (that is, the industrial

men.

Commission proposed by the Progressive party] SHALL AMERICAN CHILDREN between big business and the Government. We call upon all intelligent men to bear witness

PAY FOR THE WAR ? that if this plan were consummated [that is, the

The Chicago “ Daily News” prints two plan to regulate industrial combinations] the

pictures which convey the very essence of the great employers and capitalists of the country would be under a more overpowering tempta

tragedy of the war. In the upper picture tion than ever to take control of the Govern

war is represented by a massive figure with ment and keep it subservient to their purpose.

a treasure chest in front of him to which poor peasants are bringing their coins, with the

figures $55,000,000 a day. Below is a picWe ought, nevertheless, to realize the serious

ture of an army of children embarking for the ness of our situation. That seriousness con

United States, and over them is the placard, sists, singularly enough, not in the malevolence

“War debt, $???,000,000,000, to be paid by of the men who preside over our industrial life,

the coming generation." but in their genius and in their honest thinking. These men believe that the prosperity of the

That is only part of the story—the EuroUnited States is not safe unless it is in their pean part. There is an American part also; keeping. If they were dishonest, we might put

for the war has touched, or will touch, the them out of business by law; since most of pocket of every man, woman, and child in them are honest, we can put them out of busi- America. It has diminished income; it has ness only by making it impossible for them to vastly increased obligation. Every country realize their genuine convictions. I am not in Europe holds out invisible hands of need afraid of a kuave. I am not afraid of a rascal. to this country; and this generous, fruitful I am afraid of a strong man who is wrong, and continent has no choice nor desire save to whose wrong thinking can be impressed upon

respond to the utmost. It has been the ideal other persons by his own force of character and force of speech.

of America to be the helper of the human race, and now in the most direct way it has

the greatest opportunity in its history. Every The small men of this country are not deluded, and not all of the big business men of this coun

American ought to feel it not only a duty but try are deluded. . . . And we—we who are not

a joy to help Europe in this fearful crisis ; great captains of industry or business—shall do but a good many people are saying that the them more good than we do now, even in a

demand for help for those who are actually material way.

suffering must take precedence of all other

needs, and that money must be diverted from The reasonable interpretation of these educational uses in this country to feed the passages is that the President discriminates starving peoples' abroad. In other words, between the big business man and the small American children must pay for the Eurobusiness man, between the “great captains pean war. of industry or business and the rest of us.” Is it just to lay this appalling burden on the

With this policy of class discrimination in children in America, who must depend for industry and business we wholly disagree, education and care on the generosity of the and the result of the election leads us to country? Is it fair to make the poor chilbelieve that the number of those who share dren of Arnerica pay the price of lessened in this disagreement is increasing.

opportunity for education?

Must they, too, Badness is not a necessary element of bear this load in the years to come ? No. bigness. A big business man may be one of Not one dollar ought to be withdrawn from the the most efficient and useful of citizens. The support of schools and institutions which are whole tendency of civilization is towards com- caring for American children ; not one donor bination and co-operation, and no amount of to this pressing need ought to withdraw his legislation, however sincere and well meant, support in this crisis. Here, for instance, is the can force us back into the bygone era of com- New York Kindergarten Association, spendpetitive individualism. Industrial combina- ing nearly eighty thousand dollars a year to tions

may be of the greatest public service. take the children of the slums out of the They should be regulated and controlled, not street and in the most sensitive and critical destroyed. The country, we believe, wishes years sow the seeds of integrity, decency, and strict regulation, but it wishes impartial regu- intelligence in their lives. Ought these chillation. This, it seems to us, is the chief dren to pay for the European war? There lesson of the election.

are thousands of children in charitable

« PredošláPokračovať »