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but the peace that will not disturb itself to save life or to liberate the slaves of tyranny— whether the perishing natives of the Congo Free State or of American child labor-is worse than war.

It is worse for the soul life of a nation to be content to be unjust than it is for that people to be putting forth every effort to win or preserve liberty.

Our experience in the Civil War should be remembered, and so heeded as never to allow the defenses and the army to be so scattered or so far below the highest point of efficiency as to be unready at any time to cope with any foe within or without.

History does not bear out the theory that a nation's poverty is a guarantee that it will not soon be willing to fight. Many a man and general besides Napoleon and Jack Johnson have gone to war for the sake of the gold as well as the glory.

As to the advisability and righteousness of bringing other races into a war with white people, I have nothing to say; but they might not be impressed by the disarmament in just the way the Peace Lady thinks. They are in the same scrimmage now, and will have hereafter to be borne in mind in all calculations as to probable war or peace.

There was a woman in Europe who did not prepare to guard her throne by force of arms-the beautiful young Queen of Luxemburg. We know how futile was her sweet, feminine appeal to the advancing Uhlans.

Early in the war I read in the morning paper that the Powers at war had decided to respect the neutrality of Switzerland. The editor had added to the despatch the pertinent remark that " doubtless the very efficient little army of Switzerland had been an effective argument for neutrality."

A short time ago I listened to the story of a young lady-a teacher who had spent several years teaching in a Spanish college-who told of her experience in a Swiss city at the time the war was declared.

She was unable to sleep that night on account of the steady tramp of men marching past her window in the wide street of the town. From twelve until five o'clock in the morning thousands of men on foot, silent as ghosts, marched by with their faces set toward the frontier. The next night the same scene was repeated, only they were the men of the heavy artillery and were accompanied by their great guns. The third night from twelve until five the street was again full of

stern-faced men-the Swiss cavalry-going toward the frontier.

They were the effective arguments for the nations at war to respect the neutrality of Switzerland. Those men did not want war; but what would have been the fate of their country had she waited to begin to drill her men until the fighting armies were at her door?

The United States has been fortunate in having had only wars with inferior nations or with England when that country was weakened and distracted by wars with other nations. Where would our chance to evolve a system of defense and drill an army be if we were to be pressed by a foe as formidable as Germany?

The Monroe Doctrine is not a dead letter, but it will need force to make the world respect it. The theory that the world has so far advanced that there will be no more war for conquest has been disproved. The mines of the Americans and their broad and fertile fields are as tempting to the lean and hungry as they were to the adventurers of Spain. They found a gentle, cultivated people who were too peaceful to dream that it was necessary for them to be prepared to defend themselves as long as they were at peace. Did the pleasant manners of the Aztec king avail to save him and his people?

And when the kings shall have shed their own blood and each other's there will still be the "Moabites" to deal with-and then "Moab for the spoil!" The forces of civilization will have the work of a century to do again to rid the sea of pirates, to protect the missionaries, combat the advance of disease, and carry relief to all parts of the earth.

There are prison doors yet to be opened, hungry to be fed, and the helpless to be protected. May the God of love bring peace!

I pray for peace, but I am afraid my faith is like that of the Scotch dominie whose parishioners insisted that he pray for rain when he did not think the signs were propitious for a shower. He announced the prayermeeting to intercede for rain, and added: "But ye'll na get it till the wind changes." The wind must change before we can look for universal peace. In the meantime it were well to advise Uncle Sam, if we are called on to do so, that he do as the prophet commanded: " Strengthen thyself, . . . and see what thou doest."

ELLEN STATA TAYLOR.

THE POSSIBILITY AND PERIL OF A HOLY

WAR

A PERSIAN VIEW

BY YOUEL B. MIRZA

AUTHOR OF "IRAN AND THE IRANIANS'

For

The

Since the following article was written Turkey has become a participant in the world war. What the author here speaks of, therefore, as a possibility has already come to pass. This fact adds to the interest and value of what he says. example, the author writes that “it yet remains to be seen whether Turkey will be drawn into this gigantic conflict. If she is, then a Holy War is inevitable.” author's prediction has come true. Almost immediately following Turkey's hostile acts the Sheik-ul-Islam declared the Jehad or Holy War, announcing that it was the duty of all Moslems in every part of the world to fight against Turkey's enemies. What does this Holy War signify? The writer of this article gives his answer from a Persian point of view. His home is in Urumia, Persia. He has been a student at Ohio Wesleyan University and at the Bible College, Philadelphia, and has received his master's degree from Johns Hopkins. In last week's Outlook Mr. Arthur Bullard gave reasons for believing that the declaration of the Holy War would not raise the whirlwind of death and terror of a Pan-Islamic revolt. The reasons for believing that such a general Mohammedan uprising is possible are given in the article here published.-THE EDitors.

T

HE probability of Turkey's joining in the European war has been frequently mentioned in the press and in diplomatic circles. If this should occur, the question arises: What action might Turkish authority take to cripple the power of her enemies in those countries ruled by England and France and inhabited for the most part by Mohammedans? Could Turkey proclaim a holy war, and thus light the torch which would mean the death of thousands of Christians in these countries?

In answering this question it must be remembered that the restraining influence exercised by European nations in times of peace is now demoralized, and Europe itself is furnishing only too many examples of atrocious destruction of life and property.

Another very important factor should be borne in mind: the Christian population in Mohammedan countries is, in the minds of Mohammedans, "undesirable." The life of the Christians who live among those we call "heathens" is anything but happy. The Mohammedan never calls his Christian neighbor by his name, nor does he ever call him a Christian. The name for a Christian is heard from the lips of boys in the street as

'giaour," which means "unclean." This word is in the youth's mind from childhood, and as he grows up he begins to hate the Christians and to hold himself aloof from them. A Mohammedan would not eat with a Christian nor eat bread mixed by a Christian. As a matter of fact, however, the Christians ought to thank the Prophet for not permitting his followers to eat the Christians' bread, for if they did the Christians would be starved.

If a Christian touches the garment of his Mohammedan neighbor with wet hands, he is not only made to pay the cost of the garment but he receives also a good clubbing. Of course this custom is practiced mainly by people who live in villages and are, for the most part, the ignorant class.

In general, the Mohammedans refuse absolutely to use anything made by a Christian.1

Speaking generally, the Christian is the servant of the Mohammedan. He is his peasant, and his livelihood depends on his Mohammedan neighbors. All the land and

Some years ago it was said that the sugar the Mohammedans used was brought from France; to that a priest added that the sugar was made from the boiled bones of animals. It was a long time before the Moham medans were convinced that they had been misled.

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villages are owned or leased by the Mohammedans. There are only a few Christians who can call as much as seven acres of land their own. But at the same time the Christians enjoy the utmost toleration. Their churches are open on Sundays, or on any other day if they feel like worshiping. Their meetings are not disturbed by the Mohammedans. The only restriction put upon the Christians is that they must not insist that their religion offers the only means of getting true salvation and that the Apostle Peter has the only key that can open the gates of heaven.

In his interesting book on "Pan-Germanism "Dr. Usher, in speaking of the Balkans, says:

"

For centuries the Balkans have been the seat of the most intense religious hatred, and are the only states where active warfare still exists between the Christian and the infidel and between the Latin and Greek Churches, and these different races live so near one another as to result in constant reprisals which keep the community in a condition of alarm and anxiety."

The same feeling exists in Persia and Turkey, but, the Christians being so few in number, little attention is paid to them. Often the Mohammedans content themselves with maintaining order among the rival sects of Christians. In fact, whenever you see a Christian in prison he is usually accused by his fellow-Christians. A Mohammedan would never bring suit against a Christian. If a Christian swears at a Mohammedan and insists on calling him names, the believer will then club him on the back or head and let him go to his home with a few bruises.

Under an Oriental form of government it is absolutely impossible for the people to take an interest in political affairs. The masses are down on the government and the government is down on the masses. To say that the Christian population get the worst treatment is hardly true. They believe they do because the officials are all Mohammedans, and to them a Mohammedan government and the Prophet himself are the greatest curse God ever placed on mankind. Should the Christian population have an opportunity, I believe they would drink . the blood of the Mohammedans as if it were a luxury. It is all religious hatred.

Of course we know that the form of government referred to is not perfect; but show us anywhere a perfect government! A perfect government, as Rousseau explains it, is

in heaven, and the kingdom is far from being upon the earth.

To say that the Christians are not in danger in Turkey is out of the question. They really are in great danger of being massacred should Turkey enter into this war. In the first place, the Christians would rather be killed by the Turks than fight against Chris tian nations; and, in the second place, it is very improbable that the Mohammedans would go to war and leave the healthy Christians in the land among their unprotected women and children. We do not say positively that Christians have not been sent to the front by the Mohammedan Government, but when the attempt has been made thè results have been very bad; it usually has taken a regiment to keep them from rebelling against their officers. This was proved in the Russian and Persian War in 1877, and also to some extent in the recent Balkan War.

We now find England and France bringing the Mohammedans from their colonies, and they are making a good showing, but it is hardly probable, should Turkey enter into this war, that the Mohammedan population would fight against Turkey. They regard themselves as governed by a stepmother, so to speak, and no matter how well they are treated they feel that they are under a foreign power, and they cherish the expectation that one day they shall be governed again by the descendants of Mohammed, Abu Beker, and Osman.

The Armenians, who form the greatest number of Christians living under the Turkish Government, are not interested in the political aspect of the country. Their chief aim is to increase their trade and business, to which they are very devoted, and in which they meet with great success, no matter where they are. Nothing can be more pitiable than the condition of these poor people. They are plundered unceasingly in the most arbitrary manner by the tax collectors, and are constantly exposed to the robberies of the Kurds. The Kurds do not consider a man's religion and standing; they would rob a Turk or a Persian as well as an Armenian or a Greek. The Ottoman Porte has not the power to interfere.

There are times when the condition of the Christian becomes more serious than at others; for instance, when the Mohammedan nation is at war with a Christian nation. the present time, owing to the European con(Continued on page following illustrations)

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