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THE POSSIBILITY AND PERIL OF A HOLY WAR
Alict, there is great danger of an outbreak. decree would be a call to arms of all the Should this be started now, there is only one Mohammedans of the Sunna sect. His way by which it could be checked, viz., by the position is stronger than that of the Czar of command of the Caliph or of the heads of the Russia. To him every one bows whenever Mohammedan mosques, who
The believers mullahs. The mullahs are very numerous. swear by him, for they believe him to be In every village, no matter how small, there the descendant of the Caliph of Bagdad. is a mullah, who acts as a judge, a teacher, A writer in a recent book ? remarks as and also as an advice giver. The decrees of follows: “Might not the Sultan, properly these theologians are very effective, as they'inspired' in some way, be inclined to insticome from the heads of the Church. To gate or proclaim such a war at a time when show the power and the standing of these English and French authority in Africa and men it is necessary only to call the attention Asia might for all practical purposes be of the reader to the following incident which extinguished by it? An outbreak as general happened in Persia : A tobacco concession and as powerful might conceivably compel was granted to an English corporation by the them to send reinforcements from Europe to Persian Shah. When it was pointed out such an extent as to weaken them at home that the Persian Government had been out- and permit Germany to begin the final stages witted, and the people were to be taxed for of the war with every prospect of complete the benefit of the foreigners, the people sim- success. ply became panic-stricken. In the first place, The “ time” has come, and it remains yet the concession lessened the English prestige, to be seen whether Turkey will be drawn into and, in the second place, it diminished the this gigantic conflict. If she is, then a holy influence of Christianity among the people, war is inevitable. I believe that England for the concession was granted to the citizens and France are giving to their Mohammedan of a Christian nation. To the gratification of subjects the best form of government and the the natives, this obnoxious monopoly was par- kind of laws that punish the criminal and tially abolished. The great teacher Mullah reward the just. But that is not what they Hassam, from Shiraz, Chief of Kerbela, want. They want forgiveness for their misissued a proclamation forbidding the use of deeds, and they cannot get it under the English tobacco in any form as long as this monopoly law; and, further, they object to being puncontinued. The effect of this decree was ished by a stepmother, just as Christians in wonderful, and it worked like magic. Every Turkey would rather be judged and punished man laid away his pipe, and some maintained by some Christian power. that their desire for tobacco had disappeared Then, again, under the Mohammedan law entirely. All the women in the country, all the Mohammedans can be forgiven, but the the harems, closed their doors on the weed. English law knows no forgiveness. It is the The soldiers disobeyed their officers and law of the land, and every one is subject declared that they would obey the Chief of to its just rewards. Mohammedans abhor Kerbela ; and at last Nozeraldan, the Shah such a system. They want to be under the who had granted the concession, was assassi- Sultan and punished by their own law. nated. At this period the Christian popula- In conclusion, from what I have observed tion was in great danger, not knowing what in the Orient, where I have heard the Mokind of decree would be issued by the pope hammedans almost sigh for a holy war,
I of the Shies in the next few hours. He could persuaded that they would not hesitate to have played the death march of all the come back from Asia and Africa in answer Christians in Persia by saying, “Kill the to the call of the Sultan ; and, if that unfortugiaours !!!
nate day ever dawns, it will take a better genThis is only one instance, and a compara
eral than Charles Martel to defeat them, and tively insignificant one, of the danger to which there will be a greater battle than that of Tours. the Christians are exposed. The Caliph's Allah help us !
1 Concerning this concession see Professor E. G. Brown's work on the Persian Revolution."
i Dr. Usher's book on Pan-Germanism," pages 112-113.
IX-FRENCH REPUBLICS AND FRENCH PRESIDENTS
BY ALBERT BUSHNELL HART
PROFESSOR OF GOVERNMENT AT HARVARD UNIVERSITY
RENCH Republican Ideas. A favorite The First Republic of 1793. The main doctrine of old writers on the American difficulty in putting these great ideas into
Revolution is that it was partly due to operation was the monarchy, which had been French democratic ideas, imported into the established ten centuries. This was swept United States by Franklin and Jefferson, away by a decree abolishing royalty, issued backed up by the democratic writings of September 21, 1792, by the Convention Voltaire and Rousseau. The France of the elected as
a representative body for all ancien régime felt a literary interest in the France. Unfortunately for peace and con
. republics of Greece ard Rome; and in the cord,“ Louis Capet, ci-devant King of salons people talked of “republican sim- France,” remained a prisoner. If George plicity" and "republican virtue" and "re- III had fallen into the hands of the minutepublican government;" but Americans knew men at the battles of Lexington and Concord, little of that fashionable discussion. Rous- they would hardly have known how to disseau's “ Contrat Social,” which was an epoch- pose
of him. The French found their way making book in France, was little known and out of such a dilemma by remembering read in America. Franklin certainly did not Charles I, and guillotined their ci-devant need to go to France to learn democratic monarch. That act, combined with the
ons of government, and Jefferson never relentless persecution of the former nobility, saw France till after our Revolution was all divided France from top to bottom into a
royalist and a republican faction, which
a The influence was all the other way. continued in one form or another until about Franklin was accepted by the French as a 1910. standard proof that popular government Other troubles were the lack of experience could produce men of wisdom and of literary of government by a deliberative body and gifts. The French Revolution must have the immediate and pressing danger from forarrived before long, because the country had eign enemies. The result was that the new outgrown its form of government; but it republic drifted straight into the hands of a was hastened by the American Revolution. self-appointed and constantly changing body Lafayette, who learned some of his liberal called the Committee of Public Safety, one principles at the table of Washington, became of whose instruments was the Revolutionary a striking figure in the French Revolution. Tribunal. The Republican Government The American pamphleteer who did most to treated the royalists exactly as the royalists fire the hearts of our forefathers was Thomas would have treated them had they been sucPaine ; for a time he sat in the French Con- cessful—with a blood bath. The guillotine
— vention. Indeed, that body once enacted for worked first upon the royalists, then on the France the New England system of town moderate republicans, and finally on the meetings, which worked about as well as a extreme radicals. The late Professor von Connecticut town meeting would work if the Holst used to compare the French Revmoderator were a prefect sent down from olution to * Saturn devouring his own Hartford by the Governor. The French children.” Declaration of the Rights of Man and the It must never be forgotten that, notwithCitizen was a conscious attempt to repeat the standing the tyranny and the brutality of the bills of rights found in the American State French Republic, it was victorious against all Constitutions. Our Declaration of Independ- the armies that attacked it; and that it ence, penned by Thomas Jefferson, became accepted a lively naval war with Great Britain. a kind of state paper for the French. Ameri- There was at one time a party that wished can democracy, American simplicity, Ameri- to make France a federation on the model of can popular government, were parts of the the United States ; but the plan of a highly foundation of French republicanism.
centralized government divided into about
THE HISTORICAL ROOTS OF THE WAR
eighty departments, each of them exactly like was the first one in France to be submitted every other department, won the day. When to popular vote, and the return as announced the Terror was passed ; when the Juggernaut showed 3,000,000 votes in favor and 1,567 Convention, tugged by the Parisian mob, votes against. It was practically the restorarolled over its own conductor, Danton ; when, tion of monarchy. In 1804 the last trace on July 27, 1794, Robespierre went to the of the Second Republic disappeared when scaffold, France breathed freely again and Napoleon made himself Emperor of the began to prepare for a better organized Re- French. public.
The Third Republic of 1848.
In 1830, The Second Republic of 1795. The Second when the Bourbon monarch was overthrown, Republic is commonly called the Directory, there was a Republican party in France, but from the Executive Council which was the they could not prevent the acceptance of active part of the Government. By a formal Louis Philippe as King. This effort to written constitution a Council of Five Hun- create a popular monarchy supported by the dred was established, with co-ordinate middle class was successful for eighteen Council of Elders and an Executive Directory years; and then the whole thing collapsed. of five persons. The royalists attempted to The royal Government was not tyrannical raise the people of Paris against it, and the nor Bourbon in sentiment; Louis Philippe Directory appointed a brilliant young officer brought home the bones of Napoleon I and named Napoleon Bonaparte to defend the solemnly interred them in the Invalides. new Government. In the famous “Day of People simply got tired of a weak but the Sections” he broke up the opposition, respectable government, and in February, and the new Government went into undis- 1848, after three days' fighting in the streets puted operation on October 27, 1795. of Paris, a Third Republic was proclaimed.
The Councils were of little significance ; The state tried the experiment of guaranteethe decisions were made by the Directory, in ing employment to every comer. The burwhich Reubell, Barras, Carnot, and Sieyès den was too much; the national workshops are the names best remembered. Siéyès were shut, and again there were days of was the statesman who once wrote to a friend street fighting in Paris. asking him to send him a copy of some written Meanwhile three monarchical parties were constitutions, because “ he had to draw up a contending for the lead: the old Bourbon constitution for France and present it the Legitimists ;” the " Orleanists,” who supnext morning !” Another school of constitu- ported the house of Louis Philippe ; and the tion-makers was represented by the genius Bonapartists." In December, 1848, Louis who summed up his political principles in the Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of the great following complete document:
Napoleon, was elected President. Three ". Article One. No one in France is obliged years later, December 2, 1851, he suddenly to do anything
arrested and imprisoned the members of the “ Article Two. No public authority is au- Assembly who were hostile to him, declared thorized to enforce this constitution.”
the Constitution of no force, and shot down Within a few months the strongest power innocent people right and left in the streets. in France became the General Bonaparte For his sins he managed to include Victor who was winning such amazing victories in Hugo among the captives, and later the great Italy. The Directory was therefore relieved writer pilloried the Little Napoleon in his when, in 1798, he went out to Egypt, and book “ The History of a Crime." was correspondingly depressed when he The Fourth Republic of 1870. returned to Paris in 1799 and broke up the effort to establish the Republic of France the Republican government. One of the last decision was made at the capital. If the acts of the Directory was to seek through people of Paris insisted on a government or Talleyrand a bribe from the American com- were driven by grapeshot into accepting it, missioners, Pinckney, Gerry, and Marshall, there was no center of resistance elsewhere a transaction comm
monly called the “X Y Z in France to gainsay them. France did not Incident."
want either Louis Napoleon or the Second Napoleon Bonaparte then set up a Con- Empire which he established; but they put sulate, in which, by a singular coincidence, up with him, and he had nineteen years in Napoleon Bonaparte was First Consul and which to show the fearful harm that can be practically head of the state. This document done by an unprincipled monarch. In 1852
he “ went to the country,” as the English say, and received eight million votes in favor of his Empire, against two hundred and fifty thousand. Such a vote meant little more than that seven million people did not wish to be in the black books of the Government. A wit dubbed this so-called plebiscite device for voting yes.” As late as 1870 a majority of nearly six million people expressed their satisfaction with the Empire.
That Empire, however, was honeycombed with corruption and weakness. July 15,1870, the legislative body voted for war against Prussia. September 2, 1870, Napoleon III was a prisoner of the Germans at Sedan, and never again set foot in France. A handsome street in Paris, Quatre Septembre, commemorates the moment, two days later, when a Republic was again proclaimed in France.
The difficulties in the way of this new Government were terrible. German armies moved down and in a few days invested Paris. The city was soon so beleaguered that Gambetta, one of the most active spirits in the new Government, made his escape from the city in a balloon and began to organize resistance in the provinces. The Republic inherited the humiliation deserved by the Empire. Its first National Assembly met February 13, 1871, sixteen days after the surrender of Paris, and was obliged a few weeks later to agree to give up Alsace-Lorraine and to pay a thousand million dollars to the conquerors.
Before the final peace was signed the Parisian populace formed a Commune, seized the city, and it had to be taken by a second siege, during which the leaders of the Commune deliberately set fire to many of the public buildings.
At the beginning, the majority of the voters in France were against a republic and looked upon it as only a temporary affair. More than three years passed before it was even likely that the Republic would endure. The Legitimists, represented by the Comte de Chambord, the Orleanists, whose head
the Comte de Paris, son of Louis Philippe, and the Bonaparuists, who stood by Napoleon III or his son, the Prince Imperial, united against it. The Assembly offered the crown to the Comte de Chambord, and he refused it because kings of France flew a white flag, and he could not reign under the tricolor, which recalled the Revolution. Marshal MacMahon was then made President, with the expectation that he would bring about a monarchy; and it was not till
February 18, 1875, that a republican constitution was adopted and the new nation fairly took its place under the standard of popular government.
Presidents of the French Republic. The heads of the state ever since 1871 have been called Presidents, and the list of those who have held this office is as follows: I. 1871, Feb. 18. Louis Adolphe Thiers,
Chief of the Executive Powers.” (Re
ceived a new title.) 1871, Aug. 30. Louis Adolphe Thiers,
“President of the French Republic."(Re
signed under pressure.) II. 1873, May 24. Marie Edmé Patrice
Maurice de Mac Mahon,“ President of the French Republic."(Received a new designa
tion.) 1973, Nov. 19. Marie Edmé Patrice
Maurice de MacMahon, President of the Republic for seven years. (Resigned un
der pressure.) III. 1879, Jan. 30. Jules Grévy, First Presi
dent under the permanent Constitution.
(Term expired.) 1885, Dec. 28. Jules Grévy, re-elected.
(Resigned under pres
sure.) IV. 1887, Dec. 3. Marie François Sadi Car
not, descendant of Carnot, member of the Committee of Public Safety in the French Revolution. (Assassi
nated.) V. 1994, June 27. Jean Paul Pierre Casimir
Périer. (Resigned.) VI. 1895, Jan. 17. Felix Faure. (Died in
office.) VII. 1999, Feb. 18. Émile Loubet. (Term ex
pired.) VIII. 1906, Feb. 18. Clément Fallières. (Term
expired.) IX. 1913, Feb. 18. Raymond Poincaré.
Of these men the only one of world reputation is Thiers, who was the ablest of several literary statesmen. Dry, undemonstrative, cold, Thiers steered the bark of the Republic through perilous waters, raised the five milliards necessary to bring about the withdrawal of the German troops, and was hailed from his place in the Assembly by the acclamations of the members as “the Liberator