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surveyed and charted down to the minutest the Swiss frontier. In only one place have detail. The maps of the General Staff indi- the Germans been able to drive the French cate the artillery ranges from every hillside. back to their line of barrier forts. At St. Every bridge and ford and swamp and by- Mihiel they have forced their way across the path is indicated, and its military significance Meuse. They have not been able to advance noted.

farther, but they have been able to bring up In times of peace the standing army was their great siege guns and demolish the maneuvered back and forth over all this French forts within range. With the exception frontier territory until the officers and men of this one point, the French lines are on or near were familiar with every foot of it. The their own frontier. Their infantry and field moment war was declared they dashed out of artillery, with the help of these “semi-pertheir barracks and advanced till they were manent field defenses,” have checked the stopped by the enemy, and then they "dug Germans. As far as we know, the heavy themselves in " on lines previously surveyed. guns of Verdun, Toul, Épinal, and Belfort

Inevitably we have heard most about the have not fired a shot. The Germans have fighting in northwestern France, where the not yet been able to get within range. When English contingent is engaged. They have the fog of war lifts, we shall probably find that been faced by stiff work and have added the fighting and loss of life have been as severe many a glorious page to the history of British here as anywhere else in the entire campaign.

It is not their fault that their part in The reason why the Germans did not this war has been vastly over-advertised. It enter France by the short routes from Metz is possible that the English force actually and Strassburg was that they could not. engaged at present numbers 300,000. The 1,250,000 men whom Lord Kitchener referred to in his Guildhall speech are still in training At the very end of the week included in at home. It is doubtful if there are more this survey, in the afternoon of November 18, than a quarter of a million at the front. There came the report from Captain Decker, of the are ten times as many Frenchmen. We hear United States cruiser Tennessee, that the very little about them, because our correspond- vessel, or perhaps her launch, was fired upon ents are not allowed at the front, and almost the previous day by Turkish forts at Smyrna. all the details we get come from the English The cause and significance of the fact were papers.

not reported, and until they are known it is But in this stupendous western campaign useless to debate the various surmises sent the French have been fighting desperately all

out from Washington. along the battle front from the North Sea to i New York, November 18, 1914.

arms.

THE TENNESSEE AT SMYRNA

THE WEEK

THE NEW BANKING
SYSTEM

The new Central Bank of the United States began business on Monday of last week with apparent smoothness and efficiency. We are aware that it is neither technically nor sentimentally correct to call the new Federal Reserve Board and the affiliated twelve regional reserve banks under its jurisdiction a United States Central Bank. It is not technically correct, because the new bank is not so denominated in the Act of Congress which created it. And it is not sentimentally correct, because the people of the United States have been terrified at the bogey of a United States Bank, and have avoided the issue in an ostrich-with-its-head

in-the-sand sort of fashion by adopting the principle of a Central Bank and rejecting the name. As a matter of fact, the new Federal Reserve Board, together with its advisory council, constitutes a very real central bank. It has, to be sure, twelve self-governing or partly self-governing branches, but as time goes on, in our judgment, the tendency will be to strengthen the power, authority, and responsibility of the Federal Reserve Board in Washington so as to make it more and more a central bank.

As we have often said before, the ordinary bank depositor and the ordinary business man or merchant will not be aware, so far as his personal relations with his own bank are concerned, that there has been any change in

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mercial paper.

our National banking system. He will sim- countries, Great Britain has, according to a ply breathe in an easier financial atmosphere. report in the New York “Sun,” brought its The dangers of currency stringency and of charges to the notice of the United States. financial panics (as distinguished from eco- The reason for doing this, it is stated, is that nomic industrial bankruptcies) will be greatly under the Monroe Doctrine the United States lessened. This will be due partly to the has assumed responsibility for the fulfillment larger amount of currency released for circu- of obligations on the part of the republics in lation, because the new law requires the banks this hemisphere toward the nations of the to carry a smaller amount of cash reserve, Old World. Inasmuch as the United States and partly to the considerable volume of new does not regard as an act of friendliness any “ Federal Reserve” notes which can be interposition on the part of European counissued as the proceeds of discounted com- tries with the governments in this hemisphere

for the purpose of " oppressing them, or The twelve new regional banks are now controlling in any other manner their destiny," open, and their opening has been celebrated it is argued that the United States must see in various ways by the cities in which they that such governments fulfill obligations so are situated. The newspapers announce that that their conduct will not invite such interthese banks are doing large amounts of busi- position. So in this case Great Britain, it is ness; and the facility with which they have understood, has turned to us. begun their work is gratifying both to bankers If reports can be believed, this alleged and to the Administration. The new regional action on the part of Great Britain has not banks, however, will not do business with been welcome to the State Department. A individuals, but only with member banks and strong desire for peace naturally brings with with the Government; the deposits which it a desire for freedom from those problems they are receiving are deposits of the Gov- that threaten controversy. Therefore, any ernment, reserve from other banks, and pay- new problem of this sort must be unwelcome ments of subscriptions to their capital stock to a Secretary of State who, like Mr. Bryan, by member banks.

has pledged himself to preserve a state of Some criticism has been made of the Fed- international tranquillity so far as he is coneral Reserve Board in Washington because cerned. it has been too exacting in ensorcing the The Outlook has attempted to obtain condiscretionary rules and regulations which are firmation or denial of these reports, but as within its power to make. It is true that yet we cannot inform our readers what measat the opening of this new system it is the ure of truth there is in these rumors. Secreduty of the Federal Reserve Board to pro- tary Bryan is quoted as applying the term ceed cautiously and to guard against unknown "misrepresentation ” to the view that the and unseen dangers of administration. On United States had no business to make any the other hand, it is equally its duty to inquiries on the subject of the neutrality of make the new system as facile, simple, and Ecuador and Colombia. useful as it can be made within the limits of Whether these charges have been made reasonable safety. One of the valuable func- by Great Britain or not, the United States tions of the Federal Reserve Board at this ought to be prepared to take up the questime is to make the new system likable and tion in case such charges should be made by welcome to the country. The unavoidable any of the belligerent Powers. Mere allegafriction of new machinery is inevitably irri- . tions that Ecuador and Colombia have altating, and those who are running it ought to lowed to one belligerent privileges that neutral apply the lubricant of common sense and nations are not supposed to allow are not human understanding.

evidence, any more than the indictment of a grand jury is evidence for conviction. But if such allegations are responsibly made, the

question remains whether it is the duty of Suspecting that the republics of Ecuador the United States to inquire into their truth, and Colombia had failed to prevent violations and whether, if such allegations are supported of their neutrality, Great Britain is reported by evidence, it is the duty of the United to have taken measures to protest and to States to take any action in the matter. have the failure rectified. Instead of dealing The Outlook believes that in a situation directly with the Governments of those two like this the duty of the United States is to

THE WAR AND THE
MONROE DOCTRINE

1914

THE WEEK

655*

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LORD ROBERTS

do what it always ought to do when the of the fighting in the long lines at the front in Monroe Doctrine is involved: to invite the their own country, and who therefore rightly co-operation of the three great Republics of

have the decisive vote as to what should be done South America--Argentina, Brazil, and Chile.

in the way of the appointment of war correThe Monroe Doctrine, whatever it may have spondents.

. been in the past, is now no longer something The French Government is excluding all that merely concerns the United States. It war correspondents, and in this apparently concerns as well these three South American enjoys the entire sympathy of Lord Kitchrepublics. If the Western Hemisphere is ener, British War Secretary. The papers are to be freed from the consequences of the quoting, however, Lord Roberts's statement mutual jealousy and mistrust of European as he was leaving England for the ConPowers, it is essential that the policy of the tinent : United States be one of co-operation between

I naturally approve the proposition that all the stable governments of the New World. military movements, whatever they may be, Every citizen of the United States must hope should be kept absolutely secret from all our that in such a policy of co-operation the war correspondents; but it seems to me that United States will be expected to lead. they should be allowed to receive at least a fair Leadership in that form can never be a modicum of information. Why not allow them source of jealousy.

to write, for instance, in detail, of the glorious action fought by our troops-several days, it

goes without saying-after these actions have THE BRITISH

taken place? PARLIAMENT The Parliament of Great Britain is again

Why not, indeed! in session. Its great event so far has been the Prime Minister's request for a vote for another million soldiers, and $1,125,000,000. England has lost her most distinguished The House of Commons granted both of soldier. It was appropriate that he should these requests without a dissenting voice. die at the front. He died at the head

As to the numbers of men engaged in the quarters of the British Expeditionary Army war, Mr. Asquith stated that since the out- in France, whither he had gone to visit break of the war more than 700,000 re- the Indian troops. The day before he had cruits had joined the regular army and nearly viewed the fighting. It was a cold day, and 300,000 Territorials. Apart from the Terri- Earl Roberts took a chill which developed torials, about 1,100,000 men are under arms. quickly into pneumonia.

Together with the sum voted last August, Frederick Roberts was an Irishman. So the present demand brings the total up to an was Wellington. But there was a great increase of more than fifty per cent in the difference between tlfe two. Wellington did national debt. The money is to be spent not sympathize with the land of his birth. mostly for British army and navy expendi- Roberts, though born in India, was proud tures in the war. They amount to nearly of the country which his ancestors had $5,000,000 a day. But a large item repre- made their home since the Battle of the sents loans of money to others for war pur- Boyne. poses. For instance, the Government's loans There was another difference between the to the self-governing dominions of Canada, two men. One was the embodiment of arisAustralia, New Zealand, and South Africa tocratic reserve; the other, of warm-heartedaccount for over $150,000,000 of the new

One was the “Iron Duke;" the other, credit. But the most discussed items are the idol of “ Tommy Atkins." the loans to Belgium of $50,000,000 and But there was also a great likeness between to Servia of $4,000,000, on which no in- the two; for both spared their men in war. terest is to be charged until the end of the And there was another more striking likeness;

for each man came to the British Empire's Not the least interesting part of the Pre- aid at a critical moment. mier's speech was his reply to the plea that Frederick Roberts had his education at a skilled war correspondents be permitted at grammar school at Carrickmacross, in County the front. He said :

Monaghan, Ireland, and his later education We must regulate our proceedings by the pro

at Eton, where it is said of him that he was ceedings of our Allies, who do the chief share too small to take part in the games, although

ness.

war.

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he became a magnificent horseman. About force, he carried the enemy's strongholds, took this Mr. Kipling wrote many, years later : Kabul, the capital, and relieved Kandahar. “ There is a little red-faced man,

He received the thanks of Parliament; he Which is Bobs.

was loaded with degrees from English and Rides the tallest 'orse 'e can,

Irish universities, made a baronet, and later Our Bobs.

a peer under the title Baron Roberts of If it bucks or kicks or rears

Kandahar and Waterford. 'E can sit for twenty years,

In 1881 the South African Boers had With a smile round both 's ears

utterly routed the English forces sent against Can't you, Bobs ?”

them. Majuba Hill became à name of sinisRoberts went thence to Sandhurst, the ter meaning to Englishmen. England was training school for young officers, and there- humiliated. She turned to Lord Roberts after to Addiscombe, the special training and made him commander of the British school for soldiers taking service under the troops in South Africa. But when he reached East India Company.

In 1852 he set sail the Cape of Good Hope he found that the for Calcutta with a second lieutenant's com- government of the day had already made mission in his pocket.

peace with the Boers. The next forty-one years of his life, except He was destined to return to South Africa for a few short leaves of absence, were spent under poignant circumstances. In 1899 in India, and Lord Roberts's description of England was again humiliated at the hands them in his book “ Forty-one Years in of the Boers. The British troops had met India” is probably as good a soldier's story

disaster after disaster. Lord Roberts, now as was ever written.

a field marshal, was again placed in command The lad was only nineteen years old then. of the forces, with General Kitchener as his He went to Peshawar, where his father was Chief of Staff. Just as the commander-in-chief commanding a division, and the father's in- was about to sail, however, the news came Auence' proved the best part of the son's that his only son had fallen at Colenso. education, for from the elder Roberts the Lord Roberts was then sixty-seven years boy learned the value of sympathy in dealing old. Staggering under his burden of intense with savage races, and the importance of private grief, he went again to serve his country. trying to control men by love rather than by His sound strategy instantly proved its worth. fear.

The young man was destined to be a Almost with the rapidity with which he had type of the handful of Englishmen who are carried out the march from Kabul to Kandadirecting the administration of a country of har, he pressed on, relieving Kimberley, denearly three hundred million inhabitants. feating Cronje at the Modder River, winning

the fight at Poplar Grove, and then entering FORTY-ONE YEARS

the capital of the Orange Free State. In IN INDIA

twenty-nine days he had moved forty thouYoung Roberts was still at Peshawar when sand men, twenty thousand horses, and a the Indian Mutiny broke out. He im- large convoy across a barren stretch of counmediately took the field, first on the staff of try seven hundred miles from his base. The Neville Chamberlin, and then on that of John entry into Pretoria followed. So did the Nicholson. He joined the besieging force at thanks of Parliament, a grant of $500,000, Delhi. He had three horses shot or sabered and an earldom. under him, and was himself wounded. The British were enabled to enter Delhi, however, because Roberts had successfully brought up THE PRESENT WAR ammunition. Then Lucknow had to be Owing to his great age Lord Roberts did relieved. Cawnpore had to be reoccupied. not undertake active service in the present Young Roberts took a prominent part in the But he was constant and effective in desperate fighting, and won the Victoria his recruiting propaganda. This, together Cross.

with his record of distinguished military Another achievement came when, while service, called forth the following tribute General Roberts was in command of the Pun- from a foe. The Berlin "Lokalanzeiger" jab Frontier Force, the Afghan War broke out. says : He was sent to subdue the Amir. Though On the occasion of the death of Lord Roberts there were inore than ten to one against his the whole German press expresses itself alike,

LORD ROBERTS AND

war.

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