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appreciatively, about the fallen enemy. Even General of the army. Such a man was Adna in war moments occur when the fighter salutes

R. Chaffee, who recently died at the age of the enemy with the saber instead of striking

seventy-two. He was, as has been well him with it. Such a moment has arisen with

said, a composite of the volunteer of 1861 the departure of Lord Roberts.

and the cowboy cavalryman of the period of Lord Roberts's death of course empha- Indian warfare from 1870 to polished sizes the question of conscription in Eng- off by his experiences in China, the Philipland. Every word which he has spoken for pines, and Europe. years past about the menace of war has now He was not nineteen years old when the come true. Every warning he has given has Civil War broke out. He enlisted as a pribeen justified. Because it had not enough vate and served thrcughout the war with his trained men at the start, the war's extra regiment, being wounded twice. After the strain on the British nation has cost that war he was sent with his regiment to Texas nation thousands of lives and millions in to help watch the French in Mexico. He money.

was afterwards in the Comanche War in The voluntary recruiting system obtains in Texas, and then scouted and fought in the England. Its advocates point to the fact Indian Territory. The following fourteen that already not only have a great number years saw Captain Chaffee in Arizona and of men enlisted, but that because they have New Mexico engaged in hard Indian warfare. spontaneously done so and have not been dra- Finally, in 1890-91, Major Chaffee particigooned into it, there is a resultant quality of pated in the Pine Ridge campaign, the windenthusiasm which makes each volunteer up of Indian wars. From 1894 to 1896 Genworth any two conscripts. Is not this shown, eral Chaffee was instructor of cavalry tactics they urge, by the fact that the British turned at Fort Leavenworth, afterwards becoming the tide of German advance in France ? commandant at the cavalry school at Fort forgetting perhaps that there are ten times as Riley. In the war with Spain his coolness many French as British. Furthermore, these and intrepidity were especially noted in the advocates add, the Government's call for more capture of El Caney. men has a moral ring impossible to obtain by In 1900 General Chaffee was chosen to the conscript system.

lead the American forces of the Peking On the other hand, all Englishmen agreed Relief Expedition in China. Those who with Lord Roberts that it is the duty of accompanied him on this expedition tell of every man, high or low, rich or poor, to the impression made by the fine-looking, defend his country in case of national danger. straight, tall, long-limbed officer, whose vigAnd most Englishmen agreed with him that, orous expressions were in harmony with to prepare for this duty, there should be uni- his physique. Although at first some of the versal elementary training for military service foreigners did not understand him, he later in time of peace; that there should be not only was valued at his true worth by Count von physical training in all the schools, but that all Waldersee, the Chief of the expedition, and by boys up to the age of eighteen should undergo the other heads. General Chaffee was quite some sort of military discipline. But by no as frank with Waldersee as with any one, means all Englishmen have believed with and on hearing that some German soldiers Lord Roberts that for all able-bodied youths had taken the astronomical instruments from between eighteen and twenty-one there the Chinese National Observatory, he sent should be a continuous training of at least Count von Waldersee a sharp note, in which four months for the infantry, with longer he spoke of the incident as absolute vanperiods for other arms, and that after this dalism of the worst kind.” training the men should serve in the Terri- But the best bit of Chaffee frankness was torial Force for three years.

reserved for General Linievitch, the Russian The war came, the force was inadequate, commander. After the relief forces reached and Lord Roberts was magnanimous enough Peking there was a conference of the comnot to say, “ I told you so.”

manders to decide who should lead the

invasion of the “ Forbidden City.” 'The GENERAL CHAFFEE

Japanese claimed the honor, because their It is not every day that a man dies who force was the largest ; General Linievitch had the distinction of having risen from a insisted that it belonged to him, because the soldier in the ranks to that of Lieutenant- Russian troops were first on the wall in the




assault on Peking. That claim angered over for another man, and his recent promoChaffee. • You were first on the wall be- tion was deserved. cause you violated a binding agreement,” he General Scott has had a very active career, said to General Linievitch. It was decided He is a noted Indian fighter, having camthat there would be a general advance at six paigned with Custer; has seen service in the o'clock in the morning, and you advanced Philippines, and was for some time in comsecretly at ten o'clock the night before. mand on the Mexican border. While in the That is how you got there first.”

last position he formed an interesting and

more or less famous friendship or acquaintTHE ARMY

anceship with General Francisco Villa, of PROMOTIONS

Mexican notoriety, and it is credibly reported The promotion of Brigadier-General Hugh that he gave Villa lectures on the responsiL. Scott to succeed Major-General W. W. bilities and expected amenities of civilized Wotherspoon as Chief of Staff of the United warfare. He is a master of military routine States army and of Brigadier-General Fred- and theory, but is also exceedingly human and erick Funston to fill the vacancy in the practical and thoroughly understands the rank ranks of the major-generals left vacant by and file. the retirement of General Wotherspoon has been heartily approved by the army and ONE OF THE "PRESIDENTS" the public at large, as has also the promo- OF MEXICO tion of Brigadier-General Tasker H. Bliss to Eulalio Gutierrez, who was selected by the succeed General Scott as Assistant Chief of delegates at the Aguas Calientes Conference Staff and Chief of the Mobile Army Division. as the Provisional President of the Republic, General Bliss is now in command of the but is not recognized by Carranza, is the least forces on the Mexican border, in which known of all the leaders who have figured in position he succeeded General Scott when the last four years of revolution. Except in the latter was called to Washington last his own State, San Luis Potosí, Gutierrez is spring.

probably as little known throughout Mexico These promotions were announced by as he is in the United States. An interesting Secretary of War Garrison on November 13, portrait appears in our picture section. and went into effect when General Wother- Along the border the new Provisional spoon was automatically retired on account President is remembered chiefly as the man of age on November 16. The announce- who boasted that he would introduce and ment was also made that General Scott will use the guillotine in Mexico. Gutierrez also, become a Major-General next April upon the we are informed by a correspondent in retirement of Major-General Arthur Murray, El Paso who sends us other facts about and that General Bliss will assume the same Gutierrez, gained some fame in his native rank in November, 1915, when Major-Gen- State as being an expert at blowing up Federal William H. Carter retires.

eral troop trains, and it was claimed that his These retirements and promotions leave activities were chiefly responsible for the three vacancies in the rank of Brigadier- failure of the Huerta campaign around the General, which will be filled by Colonel cities of Monterey, Saltillo, and San Luis Henry A. Greene, of the Tenth Infantry ; Potosí. Colonel William A. Mann, of the Third In- Eulalio Gutierrez is forty-two years old. fantry, now in command of the First Brigade, He was born at Santo Domingo, State of stationed at Albany, New York; and Colonel Coahuila, but has lived in San Luis Potosí Frederick S. Strong, of the Coast Artillery. all his life. For a time he was employed in

General Funston, who is forty-nine years the mines near Corero, in San Luis Potosí, old, is the youngest major-general in the and later became a sort of mine boss. From army. He was the youngest brigadier-gen- this he branched out into the grocery busieral when he was appointed to that rank in ness, and finally became proprietor of a small 1901 from a similar rank in a volunteer regi- general store. He was engaged in this busiment as a reward for his services in captur- ness when the Madero revolution broke out. ing Emilio Aguinaldo, the troublesome and Prior to this time, however, the new Proelusive leader of Filipino revolutionaries. He visional President had been active in the has been at the top of the eligible list for some minor plots against Diaz, and as early as time, but has on several occasions been passed 1902 he was arrested by Diaz for fomenting

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a revolution in northern San Luis Potosí. in New York City, when experts on industry He was tried at Monterey, and was sentenced and labor, representatives of the unemployed to a long term in the penitentiary at Mexico themselves, and publicists of all descriptions City. At the end of a year, however, he came together and vowed that they would was released and returned to Corero.

never let it happen again. At the outbreak of the Madero revolution But it has happened, or rather it is hapGutierrez organized the miners and fought pening. In a statement to The Outlook Dr. against the soldiers of Diaz. Following the

Following the John B. Andrews, Secretary of the American triumph of the Madero revolution he retired Association for Labor Legislation, who is to private life and again entered the mercan- perhaps closer to the man-out-of-work ihan tile business. When the Orozco revolution any other, authority in the country, confirms broke out, he again organized the miners and this, saying: assisted Huerta in fighting for Madero.

Undoubtedly there will be far more unGutierrez had about eight hundred men employment this winter than there was last under his command when Madero was over- winter, which

the worst season in thrown, and with these he refused to recog- years.” nize Huerta, allying himself with Venustiano With the exception of one State, New Carranza. As his troops were poorly armed York, and a few scattered cities, very little and he himself was without funds, he was has been done to show that the public learned unable to make any stand against the Huerta anything from the example of a winter that forces in San Luis Potosí, and so contented provided the spectacle of municipal lodginghimself with harassing the Federals by blow- houses overcrowded and bands of the jobless ing up bridges and otherwise hindering their

roaming city streets and in desperation violines of communication. It is said to be lently invading churches in the hope of getting Gutierrez's boast that he blew up twenty- relief. seven troop trains during the time he was The general apathy of the public toward operating against the Huertistas.

this important problem is deplorable when it Towards the close of the Huerta revolu- is considered that nineteen States with welltion Gutierrez joined General Jesus Carranza ordered systems of public employment buand General Alberto Torres in the siege of reaus have proved that the trouble is largely the city of San Luis Potosí. They besieged curable. The failure of Congress to act, the city for weeks without success, but when particularly in the face of the certainty that the division of General Pablo Gonzales moved the European war would greatly increase the in to assist him the Federals evacuated the number of men and women that might norcity. A message was sent out by the citizens mally be expected to be out of work, is inexasking that Gutierrez be placed in charge of cusable, especially when it is remembered that the city. This was done, and he and his an excellent bill providing for the establishforces have remained there since. Shortly ment of a Federal Employment Bureau, with after the occupation of the city Gutierrez was branches throughout the country, had been appointed Provisional Governor of the State introduced in the House of Representatives by Carranza. He has been considered a by Congressman Victor Murdock. strong Carranzista, but he owes his nomina- This bill had a favorable hearing before tion at Aguas Calientes to Villa influences. the House Labor Committee, but was pigeonPractically the Aguas Calientes convention holed when the Federal Industrial Relations was a Villa convention, just as the former Commission intimated that it was about to convention at Mexico City was a Carranza study the unemployment situation. Unforconvention.

tunately this Commission failed to present a

bill of its own, and the result is that Congress THE PROSPECT POR

adjourned with the Murdock measure still in EMPLOYMENT

committee and nothing accomplished to alleviLast winter many men were out of work. ate the certain suffering of the winter that is This winter there will undoubtedly be even now setting in. more. Last winter conditions were so grave As intimated above, New York State has owing to the wide extent of unemployment that established a thoroughgoing system of agenan agitation for a serious study of this serious cies to bring the job and the man together, problem sweptover the country and culminated under the charge of a thoroughly qualified in a National Conference on Unemployment expert, Mr. Charles Barnes. And New York


City is about to open the largest and most the place of another player. This new subfinely equipped employment agency in the stitute's face was almost covered with strips country, with another expert, Mr. Walter of adhesive plaster. It was noticed that this Sears, as superintendent.

new man played with special skill, and it The enterprising city of Duluth continues was later discovered that this fellow whose to set an example as to the wisdom of so face was so well covered was the one who arranging its public work that it will take up had been disqualified. the seasonal slack of unemployment. Authori- Sharp practice of this sort might in a certies all agree that one of the easiest ways of tain period of the past have been ignored and minimizing the extent of unemployment is to even considered praiseworthy. What haphave all public improvements undertaken at pened in this case, however, shows that that the time of year when normally jobs are

time is gone.

As soon

as the fact was scarcest, but Duluth is one of the few Ameri- discovered, an investigation by the athletic can cities that have pursued this wise course. authorities of the institution which the dis

qualified player represented was at once THE SUFFRAGE CONVENTION

begun. It was discovered that the captain The conclusion of the National Woman of the team was disabled for the time being Suffrage Convention at Nashville, Tennessee, and did not know what had happened, and left this organization under the presidency of that the student manager of the team was in Dr. Anna Howard Shaw. This is her tenth the field house.. The coach of the team, term in this important office. The result of · however, not only knew of it and acknowlthe Convention as a whole was to strengthen edged it, but said that he was responsible for the hands of the more conservative mem- it, and justified himself because it accorded bers of the Woman Suffrage Association. with his standards as a professional. The

It has long been the policy of the Associa- Athletic Committee, consisting of three memtion to keep clear from affiliation with any bers of the Faculty, acting in conjunction of the organized political parties of this coun- with the Student Council, immediately distry. Contrary to the spirit of this policy, an missed the coach. The big game of the year attempt was made at this Convention to

was yet to be played—the game with Rutestablish a blacklist of Congressmen who gers; but there was no hesitation on the through party ties or personal desire were part of the authorities or the representative fighting the cause for which the suffragists undergraduates in this action. This happened stand. This proposition was met by the .

at Stevens Institute, the well-known technical adoption of the following resolution :

college at Hoboken, New Jersey. The unResolved, That the National American dergraduate paper, in the course of its comWoman Suffrage Association is absolutely ment on the game, had this to say under the opposed to holding any political party re

A Protest :" sponsible for the opinions and acts of its indi

Stevens may not be able to have a winning vidual members, or holding any individual football team. She may not be able to have public official or candidate responsible for many victories in lacrosse, baseball, or track, or the action of his party majority on the ques- be rated as a power in the college athletic tion of woman suffrage.”

world. But there is one thing Stevens can have, Resolutions were also adopted urging Con

has had, and, it is to be hoped, always will have gress to take up at once the pending Consti

as long as the red and gray is worn-clean ath

letics. tutional amendments for the enfranchisement of women, and to enact immediate legislation In the course of this action Dr. Humphreys, to protect the rights of women citizens who President of Stevens Institute, put aside his marry unnaturalized foreigners. Women class-room work until the thing was settled. were also urged to encourage such .indus- The occurrence has served a very good tries and institutions as adhere to the prin- purpose, and has been of greatest credit to ciple of equal pay for equal work regardless Stevens Institute. of sex.

In connection with this we cite another in

stance, which we like to believe is expressive of FOOTBALL MORALS

a growing spirit in American athletics. In the A football player recently was ruled out game between Fordham University, an imof a game for slugging. A little later a portant Catholic institution in New York City, man was sent out from the side lines to take and the University of Vermont, each side


title bi





made a touchdown. To the uninitiated it to organized government, or which is sacrileshould be explained that after a touchdown, gious, or which may be derogatory to public which is reckoned as six points, the side that

morals, shall be carried in parade within this makes it is allowed the privilege of a try at

Commonwealth. goal, which, if suc

uccessful, adds one more The significance of this law lies in the fact point to the score. After the touchdown that the red flag is supposed to be the symmade by Vermont the goal kicker was suc- bol of Socialism, and the black flag the symcessful, and seven points went to Vermont's bol of Anarchism. A Socialist society in credit. After Fordham's touchdown, how- Fitchburg was preparing for a rally, and its ever, there was a difference of opinion whether members had started a parade, one of them the goal kicker had sent the ball between the carrying the society's flag, which bore the goal posts or not. One of the officials de

inscription, “S. S. O. Saima, Fitchburg, clared that he had, the other that he had not. Mass.,” meaning in English the Finnish Most, if not all, of the reports of the game Socialist Branch, Fitchburg, Massachusetts. gave the score as a tie.

At the first oppor

The bearer of the banner was arrested, tried, tunity a mass-meeting of the Fordham stu- and convicted under this law. The Sudents was held, and it was unanimously preme Court of the Commonwealth upheld voted that the game should be recorded as a the conviction. In rendering its decision, victory for Vermont. The Fordham students Judge Rugg declared that the statute “ propreferred to accept defeat than to have re- hibits the carrying of red and black flags corded against them any discourtesy to a visit- absolutely, and does not make this proing eleven, or any uncertainty as to their hibition dependent upon the nature of the right to a point credited to them.

inscription,” and further explains that “the Minor matters these, perhaps, from one carrying of flags red or black in color is forpoint of view, in the news of the day; but they bidden, and also the carrying of other objects are really not minor in any real sense. The having the inscriptions or characteristics demen who follow sharp practice in athletics are scribed.” The fact that a flag has merely a the men who are willing to escape moral obli- red background, with a harmless inscription gations in business provided they can avoid upon it, does not relieve it from the prohibilegal compulsion, who turn sharp political tion; for, says the Court, “ if the flag is of tricks provided they can do so without pen- the forbidden color in its essential and domialty, and who make of treaties "scraps of nating characteristics, then the mere circumpaper.' .” The men who follow the other

stance that it bears also an inscription or depractice, illustrated by the undergraduates vice of another color is not enough to prevent and authorities at Stevens and Fordham, its being a red flag." According to this law, are the men on whom must depend busi- then, no people parading in Massachusetts ness confidence and business morals, from can carry the merchant flag of our friendly whom alone the country can expect any neighbor Great Britain, or the flag of Morocco, progress in political honesty and public serv- or the flag of our Eastern friend Japan, or ice, and to whom the world has to look for the flag of the peaceful Swiss, or the flag of the substitution of international confidence Turkey, or Siam, or Egypt, or, what is most and co-operation in place of war.

ironical, the original flag of the American colonies. If an auctioneer wishes to advertise his

business by instituting a parade and carrying · The question whether it is a criminal his symbol, he is stopped by this statute, and offense to carry a Harvard banner in parade of course the crimson banner of Harvard has recently become acute in Cambridge." College is banished from the streets of its This sounds jocose ; but whatever joke there own city. is in this quotation from the “ Harvard Alumni To the credit of the spirited undergradates Bulletin " has been supplied, not by the ed- of Harvard, acquiescence in this remarkable itors of the “ Bulletin,” but by the Legisla- law has been complete on their part. When ture of Massachusetts. By an Act passed their football team defeated Princeton, a body in 1913, this dignified and serious body wrote of undergraduates marched under a white into the laws of the Commonwealth this pro banner with a crimson “ H." vision :

Of course the staid old Commonwealth of No red or black flag, and no banner, ensign,

Massachusetts has been in recent years much or sign having upon it any inscription opposed disturbed by finding that it has to deal with


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