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THE AMERICAN

elements in its population who, though they potent influence in keeping race prejudice have not the advantage of Puritan traditions, alive in American communities is religion ; have applied to their economic conditions and the deepening of religious activity may, some of the revolutionary spirit that the under certain conditions, increase the diffiPuritan fathers applied to the political situa- culties of the problem. There is demanded, tion of the eighteenth century.

therefore, constructive human fellowship bea time revolution was fashionable in Massa- tween the Christian churches and the immichusetts, but now anything that can be

The immigrant must be brought up regarded as a symbol of revolution must be to the standards and into the associations that so thoroughly put out of sight that the flag make American patriots. In a word, we must of the British merchant marine, and the Swiss make the immigrants our neighbors if we are Republic, and what the “ Harvard Bulletin " going to allow them to share our destiny. describes as the flag of the “ harmless,

Attention was called to the fact that St. sary auctioneer,” must be eliminated at the Bartholomew's Parish, in New York, has for same time.

many years maintained the work in Chinese, The difficulty is that these serious-minded Swedish, German, and Armenian congrega· legislators have thought that they could deal tions with foreign ministers in the churches; with what they regard as a disease by dealing but children trained in this way have not with its symptoms. They may have to learn come into the American Church. Bishop from their own experience, rather than from Greer is deeply interested in the use of the the experience of others, that the repression chapels at the Cathedral of St. John the of attempts to express ideas is sometimes the Divine as centers of work among the foreign best way to give those ideas wider currency. peoples of the city, with a definite object of

bringing the foreign children as quickly as

possible to membership in English-speaking CHURCH CONGRESS

parishes. The thirty-second session of the American The discussion of the religious problems Church Congress, recently held in New Haven, in schools and colleges evidenced the growing was especially interesting because the place of conviction that the religious element must in assembly was Trinity Church, of which the some way be emphasized in education in this Rev. Dr. Harwood, who was largely instru- country. The need of college churches in mental in organizing the Congress forty years the great academic centers, especially in the ago, was once rector. It was an outgrowth of universities of the West, was emphasized. the feeling among open-minded and broad- The “Relation of Christianity and the War" minded members of the Episcopal Church that brought out the expression that the war was there was needed an opportunity for the free “a stupendous example of misdirected, misdiscussion of matters vital in the life of the informed self-sacrifice.” The Rev. Mr. ShipChurch, and a platform from which laymen man, formerly chaplain at West Point, deas well as clergymen could be heard. It has clared that peace in the hearts of men and offered organized hospitality to new ideas as among the nations is one of the essential well as old ones.

features of the kingdom of which Christ laid The topics discussed at New Haven showed the foundations; but that he put righteousthe disappearance of most of the old ecclesi- ness first, not peace. There can be no peace astical questions, and the coming to the front while unrighteousness has the upper hand. of questions vitally affecting the joint life of the Church and the country. Especially THE PANAMA EXPOSITION valuable was the urgent appeal for closer President Morse, of the Panama-Pacific watchfulness over the immigrant, and a niore International Exposition, has asked the Mayor thoroughly organized service to him. The of New York to lend assistance in silencing widespread destruction abroad will send a rumors which have spread throughout the new wave of immigrants to this country; and country that, on account of the war, the we have not only to deal intelligently with Exposition is to be postponed. Mr. Morse these immigrants, but with the far-reaching says that, notwithstanding the war, the exhiimpulses of cosmopolitanism. Race preju- bitions from foreign nations will be as imdice continuing in this country may have a poi ant and as numerous as ever; that at very serious meaning for the Nation, and it is least ninety-five per cent of these nations impossible to escape the fact that the most have already completed their arrangements

1914

THE WEEK

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for exhibition ; and that their applications to a newer and more liberal philosophy of request the use of more space than can be punishment. Wardens and superintendents assigned to them. The rumors of postpone- vied with each other in St. Paul in the remeni are entirely without foundation.

counting of successful and even hazardous The Exposition ought to be more largely experiments with the honor system, and the attended than any of its predecessors. Travel dominant note of the Conference was, not to Europe will be reduced to a minimum. only that a “man's a man for a' that,” but Indeed, if the war continues, it is likely to that the man inside the walls deserves recreabe almost negligible in comparison with its tion within proper measure, consideration of volume in previous years. Many Americans his intellect and his loyalty, and, within reasonwho are familiar with Europe and unfamiliar able limits, a share in the minor governmental with their country out of their immediate affairs of the prison's daily life. neighborhoods will now have their attention The persistent and thorough study of indidirected to the scenery and civilization of their vidual inmates, with the compilation of perown country. The Exposition will be a focal sonal histories reaching back to early life point for Americans from every section from and continuing into and during the full Maine to California. Overlooking the su- period of parole, was urged particularly by perb Bay of San Francisco, it is in a way a representatives of the Massachusetts Reformkey to some of the most impressive scenery atory Prison for Women, where already very on the continent.

complete records are kept, not for the sake Either going to it or coming from it, of keeping records, but for the sake of most Americans will have the opportunity saving souls. of seeing the Grand Canyon, which in Finally, the question of the revision of point of scale and sublimity holds a place by prison architecture was raised, and it was itself in the scenery of the globe ; while the asked whether the huge cell block and the Yosemite Valley, less sublime, but on a great high wall are not passing, before the smallscale also and of a singular beauty, is easily group plan of housing inmates and the wallaccessible from San Francisco. These im- less prison camps with their healthier and pressive landscapes are only two features more cheerful dormitories. among the many things which Americans On one day of the session the most modfrom easterly points can see on a journey to ern and complete example of the American the Pacific Coast. Entirely aside from the prison of to-day was practically formally display which it will make of the art and opened at Stillwater, Minnesota, by the exindustry of the world, the Exposition ought: cursion thereto of several hundred members to be an immense educational influence in the of the Conference. development of National feeling and in familiarizing Americans with their own country.

It is gratifying to know that the Japanese DEMOCRACY AND MILITARY exhibit will be one of the most complete on

PREPARATION; THE IDEAL the Exposition grounds, and it is hardly necessary to say that it will be one of the Those who define a soldier as "a man most artistic and beautiful.

trained to kill some little girl's papa may

naturally contend that in a democracy there THE RAPID ADVANCE

can be no “ideal ” of “ military preparaOF PRISON REFORM

tion." On the other hand, those who conThe latest and most important testimony tend that war will always and rightly remain of the year as to the rapid advance of prison an inevitable corollary of human existence reform was presented by the recent meeting may as easily assert that a democracy is inof the American Prison Association at St. capable of scientifically preparing for war. Paul last month. This annual Conference Between the position assumed by the exbrings together the wardens of prisons, the treme pacifists and that taken by Friedrich superintendents of reformatories, and the von Bernhardi there is indeed a great gulf managers and directors of all manner of cor- fixed—a gulf, by the way, into which The rective institutions, both public and private. It Outlook sees no need of stumbling. We was very evident from the tone of the Confer- believe that as much is to be feared from what ence that many old and harsh theories of prison may be properly called “the religion of disdiscipline and administration are giving way honor as from what ex-President Eliot also

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castigates under the name of the “ religion of valor." No one has stated this more clearly than President Eliot himself, in his recent open letter to the New York “Times :"

“Extreme pacifists shrink from fighting hell with hell and advise submission to outrage, or at least taking the risk of being forced into resigned submission. The believers in the religion of valor, on the other hand, proclaim that war is a good thing in itself, that it invigorates a nation become flaccid through ease and luxury and puts in command the strong, dominating spirit of a valid nation or race. What is the just mean between these two extremes ? Is it not that war is always a hideous and hateful evil, but that a nation may sometimes find it to be the least of two evils between which it has to choose? The justifiable and indeed necessary war is the war against the ravager and destroyer, the enemy of liberty, the claimant of world empire. More and more the thinkers of the world see, and the common people more and more believe instinctively, that the cause of righteous liberty is the cause of civilization."

It is because The Outlook believes that righteous liberty in this world demands more than the mere lip service of our great democracy, that righteous liberty in the end can be obtained only through the spread of the democratic ideal for which this Nation stands, and that the spread of this ideal depends not only upon the desire and the will but also upon the power of our people, that we have long advocated the adequate military preparation of our American democracy. We believe that those who seek international righteousness through national impotence are brothers to those who might hope to abolish individual murder by.abolishing the civil police, or fires by the abolition of insurance.

If we grant, then, that in the present state of our civilization military preparation is a vital necessity to and a normal function of a just democracy, there remain two practical questions : What are the obvious demands which this military preparation must stand ready to answer ? How can we best harmonize this necessary preparation with the material means and the spiritual genius of our Nation? The first of these questions is one which in detail must be left to the decision of the technical experts in the two arms of the service. It is one, however, upon which The Outlook hopes in future editorials to present such authoritative information as it

The second of these two questions is one which more intimately concerns the individual citizens of this country, and one in the solution of which his political voice will have weight—and possibly value. Neither question can here, however, be intelligibly discussed without a brief definition of the problem that daily faces the military experts of our army and navy.

This problem has been defined by our military authorities somewhat as follows: The geographical position and the political responsibilities of our country indicate that to maintain our policies and protect our interests at home and abroad we require both an adequate navy and a well-organized and sufficient army. The function of the first is to secure and maintain the command of the sea. To accomplish this, its strategic value must not be destroyed by depending upon it for the immediate defense of our coasts. The use of any part of our fleet for this local purpose defeats the chief object of naval power. A fleet unsupported by an army is unable to secure the fruits of naval victory; a fleet defeated at sea is powerless to prevent invasion. The solution of the problem of national defense lies, therefore, in the provision of suitable land and sea forces and in a due recognition of their co-ordinate relations. Furthermore, in determining the organization of the land forces of the United States, it must be borne in mind that these forces are, and must be, divided into two distinct parts. First, the army on service beyond the territorial limits of the United States, in Panama, the Philippines, and Hawaii ; second, the army within the territorial limits of the United States. The first, since in time of war it cannot be reinforced, must be constantly maintained at a strength sufficient for its expected task, and upon a full war basis. The standing army within the territorial limits of the United States mustobe prepared to meet the first threat of an invasion, and must furthermore be definitely organized with a view to ultimate expansion into such a system of trained reserve forces as our National interests in war time may require.

In loyally supporting the officers of our army and navy in their efforts to find a solution for these difficult problems, the question which The Outlook raised in its editorial of last week may again be properly asked—Will the solution of this problem require us to depart from the traditional military policy of the United States ? Unless a fulfillment of this

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1914

DEMOCRACY AND MILITARY PREPARATION: THE IDEAL

665

never

our

It may

policy may be defined as a departure from it, are timid and ready to fly from their own the answer must be, No. In theory we

shadows." have given our coasts to the protection of a After five years of experience Washington navy adequate to the safeguarding of our voices his opinion as to the cost of our devoNational interests. In practice we have de- tion to the idea that a man plus a gun equals pended upon a navy of fluctuating impor- a soldier.

He wrote: Had we formed a tance and efficiency. In theory we have permanent army in the beginning which ... voiced our belief in a small standing army and had been capable of discipline we the ability of our citizens themselves to bear should have had to retreat with a handful of the ultimate brunt of foreign aggression. In men across the Delaware in 1776 trembling practice we have at times permitted this small for the fate of America. We should not standing army to lapse into innocuous insig- have been under the necessity . . . of fightnificance, and have failed, with a consistency ing Brandywine with an unequal number of worthy of a better cause, in providing for the raw troops, and afterwards seeing Philadelorganization of our constitutional militia into phia fall

prey to a victorious army. We any kind of a definite and dependable mili- should not have been at Valley Forge tary reserve.

destitute of everything, in a situation neither It is to be remembered (a fact sometimes to resist nor to retire. .. We should not forgotten) that all able-bodied men between have been the greatest part of the war the ages of eighteen and forty-five are by inferior to the enemy, indebted for our Constitution subject to military duty, and safety to their inactivity, enduring frequently theoretically a part of our National defense. the mortification of seeing opportunities to Those who are at all familiar with our military ruin them pass for want of a force which the history, however, know all too well how re- country was able to afford, and of seeing the mote is this theory om the fact.

country ravaged, our towns burnt, the inhabinot be too much of a digression in this con- tants plundered, abused, murdered with imnection to quote from some of Washington's punity from the same cause." letters to Congress during the Revolution. In remedying such a condition as WashThe problem that confronted him at this time ington thus described in words that still ring was one which confronted the Union and

true after the passage of a century, there exists Confederate commanders at Bull Run, a for the United States not only a paramount battle which left the victors only less disor- duty, but a paramount opportunity and inganized than the vanquished. It is one spiration. which would confront any present-day gen- Through the solution of this problem and eral who should attempt to repel an invasion the realization of an ideal often professed with our still legally existent, but still largely but never fulfilled, there exists for us a mine unorganized, militia.

of character development that until to-day Washington wrote September 2, has been left virtually untouched. 1776, to the President of Congress as to Through the effort to obtain for our counthe causes of defeat at the Battle of Long try a vertebrate military policy there can be Island : “ The militia, instead of calling forth likewise obtained for our people a social their utmost efforts to brave and manly efficiency, a discipline, a sense of internaopposition in order to repair our losses, tional responsibility that, guarded and guided are dismayed, intractable, and impatient by our instinctive faith in the ultimate triumph to return. Great numbers have gone off- of justice, will do much to hasten the day of in some instances almost by whole regi- “the parliament of man and the federation ments, by half ones, and by companies at a of the world.” time.And again, later, he writes : “ To Though it is by this larger ambition, perplace any dependence upon militia is assur- haps, that the plea for military preparation edly resting upon a broken staff.

Men just

may ultimately find its most adequate justifidragged from the tender scenes of domestic cation, the more immediate effects of such an life, unaccustomed to the din of arms, totally effort are not to be lightly ignored. The unacquainted with every kind of military sense of social solidarity that comes from the skill (which is followed by want of confidence assumption of a just responsibility, the mental in themselves when opposed by troops regu- training, the physical benefit that will result larly trained, disciplined, and appointed, from a proper and democratic utilization of superior in knowledge and superior in arms), our potential resources for defense, all these

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are phases of the question that crowd forward As we write the future of Vera Cruz is as for discussion, and most of which form an doubtful as that of Mexico at large—and that inevitable corollary to the production of an is saying a great deal. Even if last week's adequate military reserve. The principles apparently opéra bouffe proposal is carried and methods by which this reserve can and out, and Villa and Carranza, whose forces are must be organized we leave to a later drawing ominously nearer one another in bateditorial.

tle array, should leave the country and meet in Havana—even if this comes to pass (and no

one dare predict what may not come to pass in THE PROBLEM OF VERA Mexico), the fate of Vera Cruz is uncertain.

The real and sound reason for continuing CRUZ

our forces in Vera Cruz after the fall of The chaotic condition of Mexican affairs, Huerta is as forcible to-day as it was on July political and military—and, unhappily, the two 17, when Huerta resigned. It is that our terms are in this case almost synonymous- Government ought not to relax its hold or will soon compel the United States to face influence on Mexico until a government is the large question of formulating a consistent established there which it is willing to recogtheory regarding its future policy toward nize at least as the de facto ruler of the counMexico. Meanwhile the immediate, specific try.

We have an enormous responsibility as question as to our withdrawal from Vera regards Mexico—under the Monroe Doctrine, Cruz has demanded solution.

for the security of our own citizens in Mexico, Almost four months after Huerta's resig- and because it is of vital importance to our nation it was officially announced at Washing- own future that Mexico should be at peace ton that our troops would be sent home on and should advance toward self-government. November 23. Unless for the second time In particular, we are responsible for Mexico a change is made in the plan of withdrawal, because it is due to our influence that Huerta the evacuation will have taken place before has gone and that Mexico is in the hands of these lines are read.

the so-called Constitutionalists, divided as they What reason justified or made necessary are between rival leaders. Vera Cruz is an our continued military occupation of Vera outpost of American influence; to abandon Cruz for those four months which does not it under the present condition of turbulence exist now? The fall of Huerta admittedly and factional warfare is a blunder. did away with our demand of reparation for an insult to our flag. It also removed the argument for retention of troops in support

A SOCIALIST BISHOP of the Administration's “ Huerta must go policy. If the presence of troops at Vera Bishop Spalding, of the Episcopal MissionCruz has been of use in protecting American ary District of Utah, who was recently killed and foreign life and property, what good reason by the reckless driving of an automobile in is there to suppose that such need has ceased Salt Lake City, was in the prime of his life, to exist ? The same question may be asked a man of unusual vigor, of courage and deas to the Administration's proper demand for votion. He was near-sighted, and was crossassurance that Mexican authorities shall not ing the street in front of his house to mail reimpose taxes on Vera Cruz already col- some letters when a powerful motor driven lected by the United State and that Mexi- by a young girl struck him and killed him cans who have helped in local government instantly. The manner of his going was in under our authority shall not be persecuted. a sense a matter of indifference to him ; but Carranza has given this assurance in a re- it has involved a tragic loss, not only to the luctant and half-hearted way, but who knows Church, but to the country, and especially to whether he will control Vera Cruz next week ? Utah. Gutierrez, recognized as Provisional Presi- At a memorial meeting recently held in dent by Villa, but denounced by Carranza as Salt Lake City men of every creed expressed a “rebel,” has made an excellent general their gratitude for the service which he had statement of his purpose to protect life and rendered, one of the most appreciative tribproperty ; but if he or Villa has made specific utes coming from a prominent Mormon. pledges on the points raised by our Govern- The character of Bishop Spalding may be ment, we have failed to see those promises. inferred from the statement that he was the

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