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tion to the Administration, the Committee Americans ; and the third most important rightly urged “that the matter of supreme thing was to secure opportunity for their importance is not to bring an end to hostili- return. ties, desirable as this is, but to obtain a set- The only vessels Aying the American flag tlement of the controversy, when the time which could be used for the transportation comes, on a basis which shall prevent here- of passengers across the Atlantic were six after the mistaken national policies and the steamships in the transatlantic service and hostile armaments which have caused the certain ships engaged in coastwise trade, present war.” And it also urges “that the small in size and mainly devoted to the carwhole civilized world is vitally concerned in rying of cargoes.

Two naval vessels were securing the right settlement of the ques- made ready to sail, and twenty-five or more tions which will have to be considered and army officers, headed by the Assistant Secredetermined at the close of the war."

tary of War, were detailed to go upon these The Committee also suggests that, while

vessels to lend their aid wherever necessary. we must wait for a favorable occasion before Arrangements were made for the sending of presenting such an offer of joint mediation, $5,000,000 in gold by bankers, and $1,500,it is desirable to secure as soon as possible a 000 was sent by the Government. In addiconcert of the neutral Governments in order tion there was money sent by individuals that they may be ready to act together when which was placed in the charge of these the time comes.

representatives of the Government. More

over, a half-million dollars. was sent to a FEDERAL RELIEF TO

designated English bank in Ottawa, and thus STRANDED AMERICANS

a credit to that amount was obtained at the It is estimated that at the outbreak of the Bank of England. The gold sent on the war a hundred and fifty thousand Americans naval vessels, the Tennessee and North were traveling in Europe. The mobilization Carolina, has since reached Europe. The of troops so deranged normal conditions that Board believes that with the resumption of it was beyond the power of individuals in sailings that had been suspended it is now America to help their friends abroad. Almost "a mere matter of a comparatively short at once Congress appropriated $2,750,000 time" before Americans in Europe can for relief, and on August 6 the President by secure transportation home. The Board executive order created a Board of Relief, adds that “wherever it was evident that there consisting of the Secretary of the Treasury would not be a resumption of regular sailings as Chairman, the Secretary of State, the sufficient to take care of the Americans, the Secretary of War, and the Secretary of the consulate agencies were directed to secure Navy. This Board has been administering ships; for this purpose. ' the appropriation made by Congress. On We are informed by the Chairman of the Sunday, August 30, there was published in Relief Board, Secretary McAdoo, in reply to the New York - Tribune a' summary of our request for information, that Amerithree weeks of work as reported by the Fed- cans in Europe who are without means and eral Relief Board. The opening paragraph need help can obtain assistance by applying of this summary should be reassuring to all to American diplomatic and consular offiwho have friends in Europe :

cers ; that through these officers the Board The situation is so greatly relieved at the endeavors, when so requested, to ascertain present time that Americans anywhere upon the the whereabouts and welfare of Americans, Continent can, by applying to the nearest em- make arrangements for their transportation, bassy or legation, get in touch with people in and


for such other help as may be this country, and get money if they need any, needed ; that under the Board's direction the and can get transportation and passage home if Treasurer of the United States, as custodian, they want it.

receives deposits from individuals for transThe Board reports that the most important mission to Americans in Europe ; that the thing it had to do was to place at the dis- relief expedition sent with the gold from the posal of marooned Americans the necessary Government is stationing officials at points money with which they could support thein- in Europe with funds from the Tennessee selves until they could start for home; that for relief work and for payments to indithe next most important thing was to get viduals of money deposited for them ; and information concerning the whereabouts of that communications for the Relief Board


may be addressed to its Chairman, the Secre- showed the Negroes' progress in the home, tary of the Treasury, at Washington, D. C. school, church, and various organizations;

fine specimens of horses, mules, and cattle,

and wagons containing cotton, grains, fruits, Every year Negroes engaged in bus ness and vegetables, showed what the Negro is assemble to exchange accounts of their ex- doing in agriculture ; and demonstrations by perience, and to get the encouragement: that Negro artisans showed: what the Negroes comes from knowing one another's success. were doing in industry. This year the annual session of this National Negro Business League was held at Mus- SANITATION FIRST kogee, Oklahoma.

FOR RAILWAYS The stories of struggle and success which At the Convention of the American Mediwere told there will be retold again and again cal Association in Atlantic City recently by the delegates to Negro youth in the emphasis was laid on the importance of South and elsewhere, and will be the means securing a higher standard of “railroad saniof starting into new life many who find con- tation" in the United States. The railways ditions hard. Negroes who had started with offer a comparatively new field for the efforts nothing but their bare hands and their ambi- of the sanitary expert. tion to achieve and had succeeded were Some of the precautionary measures which cross-questioned by their hearers. They told the Association urges are the ventilation and of hardship, but also of persistence; of pri- fumigation of cars, the examination of railvation, but also of thrift. They told also of

way employees for contagious and infectious the willingness of good white men to stand diseases, the examination of all food and behind the struggling Negro and give him water offered to the traveling public, the aboadvice and help.

lition of the common drinking-cup and the Oklahoma and the five adjacent States- roller-towel—which have already been abolKansas, Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, and ished by many State Legislatures—the saniTexas—offer their two million Negroes re- tation of railway lavatories, and the adoption markable opportunities in cattle raising, gen- of ordinary health measures in railway camps. eral farming, truck gardening, and poultry The Treasury Department has already raising. These six States have one hundred established a regulation that on trains only ice and thirty million acres of unimproved land. and water shall be used for drinking purTo one who has seen the fields of France, poses which have been certified by the State where every inch seems to be utilized, this or municipal health authority within whose statement is full of significance for the future jurisdiction they are obtained ; and as far as of this country, and for the future of the some of the other reforms urged by the convenpoor of all races here. In those six States tion of physicians are concerned, many of them there is, as Dr. Booker T. Washington said have already been adopted by some railways in his address before the League, room for —much to the credit of the wisdom and hu

a thousand more grocery stores owned by manity of the officers controlling these lines. Negroes, five hundred additional dry-goods For instance, the Illinois Central, the Chicago, stores, three hundred more shoe stores, two Burlington, and Quincy, the Chicago and hundred more good restaurants and hotels, Northwestern Railways, and the Pullman three hundred additional millinery stores, two Company each already employ a man called hundred additional drug stores, and forty a “ sanitarian," who serves as general health more banks." Dr. Washington's address officer for each of these corporations. For was, in fact, a convincing statement of the some time dining-car employees on the New opportunities that lie before the colored peo- York, New Haven, and Hartford, the Pennple of that region, and a summons to the sylvania, and other large systems have been Negroes to overcome their evils with good subjected to periodical examinations for signs works and with a constructive policy in busi- of tuberculosis or other diseases that might ness, industry, education, moral and religious be communicated to diners, and the Lehigh life, and conduct generally.

Valley—which has been a pioneer so far as In connection with this meeting there was health measures are concerned-employs a a spectacular industrial parade to show the physician whose sole duty it is to examine Negroes' progress in Oklahoma. Decorated employees for indications of disease. floats carrying men, women, and children Some of the signs indicating that “sanita

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of war.

tion first” is becoming a railway watchword as principal, a position which he held until are the disappearance of the old germ

his retirement from active life two years ago. catching carpet in favor of the cement floor, He was knighted in 1909 in recognition the adoption of up-to-date car ventilating sys- of what he had done for the men and tems, of separate freight cars for separate women who, like himself, lived in constant commodities, and of cleaning platforms with shadow. hot-water connections at terminals for freight The great contribution of Sir Francis and live-stock cars. In this last particular Campbell to the education of the blind lay the apex of reform has been accomplished in his insistence on the principle that the by the Baltimore and Ohio, which has estab- sightless should have a training at least equalto, lished - shower baths for hogs,” to keep and if possible better than, that given to the down the odor from stock cars, usually so seeing. An athlete himself, he realized the annoying to citizens who dwell close to lee- importance of physical training in getting ward of railways.

the usually poor physique of the blind up to par, and at the Royal Normal College to-day,

where preparation is given for several vocaTAUGHT THE BLIND

tions, the importance of physical training is As an example of the power of the spirit constantly emphasized. of man to triumph in the battle of life in the face of tremendous physical obstacles, the career of the late Sir Francis Campbell,

LOUVAIN teacher of the blind, and for many years Principal of the Royal Normal College and The destruction of Louvain by an unknown Academy of Music for the Blind in London, German military commander is an act of is an inspiration to every one.

brutality absolutely unjustified by the rules William T. Stead said of Francis Joseph

Nor is it any excuse for this act of Campbell: " He is American by birth, Scotch brutality to say that war is brutal. Civilized by origin, English by residence ; but his real war is cruel, but not brutal. The difference fatherland is the Kingdom of the Blind.'' between a man and a brute is that the brute Sir Francis, however, was not born to this acts under impulse, guided only by his inkingdom, but became sightless at the age of stincts, while the man guides his action by four, after having one eyeball pierced by an intelligence. The cruelty of civilized war is acacia thorn on his father's farm in Franklin an intelligent cruelty—that is, it is cruelty County, Tennessee, where he was born in directed by intelligence to a definite purpose. 1832. This affliction seemed to act as a spur Any cruelty in war not so directed is justly. to the boy's tremendous will power and arnbi- termed brutal. We do not attempt in this tion, for, in spite of his handicap, he worked article to judge acts in war by the ethical with his brothers on the farm, and, later, standards accepted in times of peace. We

\ when a school for the blind was opened at judge warlike actions by war standards. Το Nashville, he began to attend it, specializing all Americans familiar with military literature in music, and becoming so proficient that at the volume of General W. E. Birkhimer, of the age of eighteen he was made instructor the United States General Staff, on “ Military in music in this institution.

Government and Martial Law” will be recogThe blind youth was never idle, and had nized as an authority. The principles assumed soon sufficiently educated himself to enter in this editorial are derived from and based Harvard. From college he returned to on this volume. Tennessee as director of music in a large The object in war is the destruction of girls' school, and then went to Boston, where

the enemy's army. Any military acts necesfor eleven years he was in charge of the sary for the destruction of the enemy's army musical department of the Perkins Institute are in general justified by military lawfor the Blind.

that is, by the customs of civilized nations. While in London in 1871, at a blind tea Any acts not directly tending to aid in party,'' Dr. Campbell met Dr. T. R. Armitage, the destruction of the enemy's army are who had founded the National Institute for unjustified. the Blind, and as a result of this meeting the The destruction of Louvain had no tendRoyal Normal College and Academy of Music ency to promote the objects which the for the Blind was founded, with Dr. Campbell German army has in view. It was an unin

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telligent act of vandalism. Therefore it was The wave of indignation which has swept an act of brutality.

over America because of this criminal act The destruction of Louvain did nothing to cannot be regarded as an anti-German prejuaid the army of invasion. For Louvain was dice. Our soldiers when in occupation of not a strategic point which might be of ad- Vera Cruz were shot at and killed by vantage to the armies of the Allies if it was civilians. By vigorous police measuris this left intact.

"sniping” was speedily stopped. If the The destruction of Louvain did nothing to American troops had burned Vera Cruz, the weaken the army of the Allies. It added American indignation would have far exceeded strength to them ; for it has filled the Bel- any indignation which Americans have thus gians and the French with an enthusiasm of far expressed at the act of the German troops wrath, and enthusiasm of wrath adds greatly in Louvain, and yet the loss to the world in to the fighting force of an army.

the destruction of the beautiful city of LouThe destruction of Louvain did nothing to vain far exceeds any loss that would have protect European civilization from the Slav. been suffered by the destruction of Vera On the contrary, it has aroused in the Slav a Cruz. And if the Russians should reach spirit of revenge, and Germans are fleeing Berlin and should do work of destruction in from Berlin in fear of Russia's retaliation. that city in any respect resembling the work

The destruction of Louvain has done done by the unknown commander in Louvain, nothing to aid Germany to make herself a The Outlook would condemn such act of world power. By that destruction she has reprisal as vigorously as it here condemns the aroused the indignation of the civilized world, destruction of Louvain, and we believe it an indignation which will outlast this terrible would be equally condemned by all civilized

This is not the way to secure a world peoples throughout the world. power.

"My great maxim," said Napoleon, "has The destruction of Louvain has done always been in war, as well as in politics, nothing to unite Germany against a united that every evil action, even if legal, can only Europe. On the contrary, it has brought be executed in case of absolute necessity ; from the Berlin Socialist“ Vorwaerts

whatsoever goes beyond that is criminal.” test which warns the Germans against put- We do not believe that any great number ting the struggle in a wrong light in the eyes of German-American citizens, we shall not of all the world and which calls upon the believe without conclusive evidence that the working class who are fighting at the front majority of Germans in Germany, or that the to remember their brethren on the other side Kaiser himself, justify what history will call and behave toward them in chivalrous man- the crime at Louvain.

It is safe to assume that no paper in Germany would venture to suggest such a protest if it did not voice the sentiment of a considerable section of the German people. GERMANY’S OBJECT IN THE The defense offered for this act of vandal

WAR ism is that civilians, after Louvain was occu

AS INTERPRETED BY A PRUSSIAN pied by the German army, shot German sol

MILITARY OFFICER diers, and the city was destroyed as an act of reprisal. The shooting of soldiers in an Mr. Wile, in his interesting article in last occupied town by unorganized civilians is an week's Outlook, told us that sixty-five million act of murder, and should be treated accord- of the sixty-six million Germans did not want ingly. But the criminal acts of a few indi- war; but that the other one million not only viduals do not justify the destruction of a wanted war but got it. Among the names city. Says the Hague Conventions (Section 3, of the leaders of this war party given by him Article I): “No general penalty, pecuniary or is that of General Bernhardi. General Bernotherwise, can be inflicted on the population hardi wrote in 1911 a volume entitled “ Geron account of the acts of individuals, for which many and the Next War." The forecasts of it cannot be regarded as collectively responsi- this volume have been so singularly fulfilled ble.” And in this declaration the Hague by the action of Germany under the leadership Conventions simply affirmed concisely a prin- of the war pa

that the book may properly ciple recognized by the customs of civilized be regarded as an authoritative interpretation nations in warfare.

of that party's spirit and purpose.

a pro







tered struggle in the markets of the world, and war is required to enable the nation to create colonies which will take the products of its industries.

War is also a moral necessity. It is political idealism which calls for war, while materialism—in theory, at least—repudiates it. It is only the State which strives after an enlarged sphere of influence that creates the conditions under which mankind develops into the most splendid perfection. When the State recoils from every war which is necessary for its expansion, each individual becomes cramped, selfishness and intrigue

riot, and luxury obliterates idealism. Wars are terrible but necessary, for they save the State from social petrifaction and stagnation.

War is also a Christian necessity. It demands the exercise of constancy, pity, magnanimity, heroism, and absolute selfforgetful devotion to one's country.

" Christian morality is based, indeed, on the law of love. Love God above all things, and thy neighbor as thyself.” But " this law can claim no significance for the relations of one country to another, since its application to politics would lead to a conflict of duties. The love which a man showed to another country as such would imply a want of love for his own countrymen. Such a system of politics must inevitably lead men astray. Thus, according to Christianity, we cannot disapprove of war in itself, but must admit that it is justified morally and historically."

Any action in favor of collective humanity outside the limits of the State and nationality is impossible. Such conceptions belong to the wide domain of Utopias."

Arbitration treaties are detrimental to an aspiring people which is bent on extending its power in order to play its part honorably in the civilized world. The efforts directed towards the abolition of war must not only be termed foolish, but absolutely immoral, and must be stigmatized as unworthy of the human race. . . . A one-sided, restricted, formal law is to be established in the place of the decisions of history. The weak nation is to have the same right to life as the powerful nation. The whole idea represents a presumptuous encroachment on the natural laws of development, which can only lead to the most disastrous consequences for humanity generally."

War is a peculiar necessity for Germany at the present time.

It is necessary to

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