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recover for the nation- that unity which is this jøsue Germany must take the aggressive, lamentably deficient to-day ; to retain for as did Frederick the Great, and, in more Germany that strength of the German nation recent history, Japan in her struggle with which has been pouring into foreign coun- Russia. Germany must not wait until war . tries and lost to the fatherland; to secure for is forced

upon

her. To wait until war is Germany colonial territory where its increasing forced upon Germany, under conditions unpopulation may find remunerative work and favorable to her, is to court political downa German way of living; to protect Germany fall. “We must remain conscious in all such from Slavonic races which are ever dashing eventualities that we cannot, under any ciragainst her coast. If Germany is to succeed cumstances, avoid fighting for our position in guarding its present possessions and pre- in the world, and that the all-important point serving the German nationality in its present is, not to postpone that war as long as form throughout the world, it must not hold possible, but to bring it on under the most back in the hard struggle for the sovereignty favorable conditions possible.” In war the of the world.

advantages are with the attacking party: This necessity is accented by the rivalry of Germany must therefore during the period France, which has created for herself the of preparation raise the tactical value and second largest colonial empire in the world, capabilities of the troops

much while the conqueror of Gravelotte and Sedan possible, and then in the war itself “ act in this respect lags far behind her.

on

the offensive and strike the first which other nations attained in centuries of blow." natural development-political union, colo- In such a war Germany must expect the nial possessions, naval power, international hostility of the civilized world. The German trade-—was denied to our nation until quite Empire " is hated everywhere because of its recently. What we now wish to attain must political and economic prosperity:” The be fought for, and won against a superior Triple Alliance will probably break up by the force of hostile interests and Powers."

withdrawal from it of Italy.

Russia at War is not only a necessity for Germany, present has no inducement to seek an agit is a duty which she owes to the world. gressive war with Germany or to take part “ There is no nation whose thinking is at in one.”' But her policy of marking time once so free from prejudice and so historical can be only transitory. Germany will always as the German, which knows how to unite so find her on the side of those who try to cross harmoniously the freedom of the intellectual Germany's political paths. England, whose and the restraint of the practical life on the aim it is to repress Germany and strengthen path of free and natural development." France, will be Germany's chief enemy upon “ No nation on the face of the globe is so

the sea.

Specific protestations of England's able to grasp and appropriate all elements of politicians, publicists, and Utopians may be culture, to add to them from the stores of disregarded. A specific agreement with Engits own spiritual endowment, and to give land is a will-o'-the-wisp which no serious

' back to mankind richer gifts than it received.” German statesman would trouble to follow. " We often see in other nations a greater To England the neutrality of Holland or intensity of specialized ability, but never the Belgium would be a matter of no moment. same capacity for generalization and absorp- " That England would pay much attention to tion. It is this quality which specially fits the neutrality of weaker neighbors when such us for the leadership in the intellectual world, a stake was at issue is hardly credible.”. No and imposes on us the obligation to maintain very valuable results can be expected from a that position." Germans of every profes- war against England's trade. Nevertheless the sion are actively employed throughout the war against the English must be belligerently world in the service of foreign masters. prosecuted and should start unexpectedly. But this is not enough.

The fulfillment of The prizes which fall intɔ our hands must Germany's duty to the world will depend be remorselessly destroyed, since it will usuon two points: first, how many millions of ally be impossible, owing to the great English men in the world speak German ; secondly, superiority and the few bases we have abroad, how many of them are politically members of to bring them back in safety without exposing the German Empire.

our vessels to great risks.” It is, however, Thus the issue is presented to Germany : upon France that Germany's attack must first “world power or downfall.” In meeting be made. “ France must be so completely

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crushed that she can never again come across a world sovereignty, under which no small our path."

nation will have a right to live, and no great In such a conflict the other members of the nation until it has proved its greatness at the Triple Alliance will owe no duty to support mouth of the cannon and the point of the Germany, for “neither Austria nor Italy is bayonet. in any way bound to support by armed force a German policy directed towards an increase

REFUGES of power.” The neutrality of Belgium will not defend Germany from an invasion by the You are weary of the war. You would English, for “neutrality is only a paper bul

escape from it.

Your spirit responds to the wark." But if invasion of that neutrality is cry, Othat I had wings like a dove, that attempted, it will be the duty of the other I might fly away and be at rest! We recomPowers to intervene, for by the treaties of mend to you two retreats to which you may London of November 15, 1831, and of April fly. 19, 1839, on the part of the five great Powers, Read a good love story. You will rise it is made “the duty of the contracting Powers from reading it refreshed, with a new convicto take steps to protect this neutrality when tion that “ love is the greatest thing in the all agree that it is menaced ;” and “ each indi- world." Love's silences will outlast the roar vidual Power has the right to interfere if it

When the blare of the trumpet and considers the neutrality menaced.”

the boom of the cannon cease, love will

spring up again in the hearts of young men Our object in the foregoing résumé of and maidens, of mothers and children. l'or General Bernhardi's book is not to criticise hate is of the Evil One and short-lived ; love or comment upon the platform of the war is of God and immortal. The birds sing and party of Prussia, but only to report it to our mate on the field of Waterloo. readers as it is interpreted by one of the rec- Then read the Forty-sixth Psalm in the ognized leaders of that party. We complete version of the Book of Common Prayer : that report by adding that there is not in the God is our hope and strength. volume any suggestion that either the Latin,

A very present help in trouble. the Slav, or the Oriental races can add any- " Therefore will we not fear, though the thing to the world's development; that any- earth be removed, thing has been added to music, art, literature, And though the hills be carried into the science, or human freedom by Italy, France, midst of the sea, Russia, or Japan, though there is a conces- “ Though the waters thereof rage and swell, sion that England has done something for “And though the mountains shake at the commerce. Nor is there any suggestion that tempest of the same. it is either possible or desirable to secure an 6. The rivers of the flood thereof shall make opportunity for Germany's free national de- glad the city of God, velopment by establishing friendly relations “ The holy peace of the tabernacle of the with either England or France. There is no

Most Highest." suggestion that a strong nation owes any Chaos leads to creation. The travail of duties to a weaker nation, and it is almost the world is the promise of a new life. The explicitly stated that a small nation has no Napoleonic campaigns delivered Europe from right to exist. There is only a remote sug- the rule of irresponsible monarchs.

The gestion that Germany needs to defend her- present campaign may deliver Europe from self or Europe against a Slav aggression, and, the rule of the armed man.

66 All the armor on the contrary, it is frankly affirmed thai of the armed man in the tumult, and the Russia has at present no inducement to seek garments rolled in blood, shall be for burning, an aggressive war with Germany or take part for fuel of fire." in one.

Is this terrible war the fire that is conSuch are the spirit and purpose of the Prus- suming them? That is not an impossible, sian war party which has brought on this not an improbable, hope. European war. Imbued with the spirit of The love romance may revive your threatFrederick the Great, that party calls on Ger- ened faith in love. The psalmist and the many to challenge the nations to a world prophet may re-establish your threatened faith conflict in order that she may crush a hated in God. rival, dominate Europe, and win for herself Love and God are the two refuges.

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swear.

LETTERS TO UNKNOWN 4. Do you believe in a personal God who FRIENDS

directs our lives, and, while not actually sending

troubles to us, yet allows them to come, since Why is there so much profanity in the world ? they are all in his plan? Are we not rather What is the psychology of it?

put here with minds and wills of our own, and What various effectual methods of quenching if we break any of his laws or use poor judg. it do you know of? What legal ways ?

ment in utilizing all his facilities—why, we pay It is difficult for me to understand the

the price? If things go wrong, it seems to me,

it is "up to us " to struggle valiantly, asking psychology of profanity. I can easily see

God to make us brave and strong, but not askwhy men should steal, should kill, should

ing him to perform miracles and change the commit adultery, should slander their neigh

thing itself.
Am I right?

S. bors. These sins are explicable. It is very

I cannot answer definitely your first quesdifficult for me to see why they should

tion. I can only say that the question of the It seems to be a perfectly useless

Virgin birth does not seem to me to be one transgression, not only of the divine law,

of the first importance. It is never referred but of the rules of cultivated and refined

to by Christ or by the Apostles either in society. It never adds anything to a man's

their preaching or in their epistles, nor is it reputation, and it often detracts from his

mentioned in the Gospels of Mark and John. reputation. Probably a great deal of it is

To regard the Virgin birth as of the same due simply to stupid, unthinking imitation, a

importance as the Resurrection of Jesus good deal of it to a habit formed the swearer

Christ seems to me to put upon it an emhardly knows how, and continued when the

phasis that neither Christ nor the New swearer is hardly conscious of it.

So far as Testament writers put upon it. There is, there is any ostensible reason for it, it is a

however, nothing either in the condition of desire to emphasize one's veracity ; it is a

the manuscripts or in the literary quality of kind of travesty on the taking of an oath in a

the narrative to indicate that it is an addition court of justice. As to the remedy, an ap- of a later date. peal to the law may sometimes be made,

Your second question involves another : but profanity is one of those vices which the

Saved from what ? If a patient has faith in law can do very little to correct. Example

Example his doctor, he is saved from the apprehenand instruction in childhood will do much

sions which beset a patient who is skeptical more, so will public opinion in society con

of his doctor's ability. If a merchant has demning profanity as ungentlemanly and

faith in his bank, he is saved from the fears vulgar. There are a good many persons which beset a merchant who has heard and who are more afraid of bad form than they

believed a report that the bank is about to are of immorality. The fundamental remedy

stop payment. He who has faith in a divine is the development of a real religious rever

Saviour willing to help and able to help all ence, inculcated in children by the home,

those that come to him seeking his help is and in the community by the Christian

saved from the spiritual burden of those who Church.

are trying to live a righteous life without any

assurance of forgiveness for their failures or 1. What is your opinion of the “ Virgin

of help to enable them to realize their spiritual birth"?

desires. I admire the courage of my agnostic 2. How do you interpret the statement that

friends who adhere to a path of personal to be saved one must “ believe on the Lord Jesus Christ”? I know many people who cer.

virtue and unselfish service while professing tainly fulfill the second of Christ's command- that they know nothing of any divine Helper ments-to love our neighbors as ourselves; yet, here or any future life hereafter, but I am according to the orthodox belief, they fail in the sure that my own faith in a divine Helper first, of loving God, for they are, not atheists, here and in a future life hereafter, when but agnostics, honest and troubled doubters.

much that now seems dark will be explained, Do you really think that they will be lost, and

saves me from much sorrow which would that others who have accepted Christ and fail

fall upon me without this faith. to a greater or less extent in living up to his

To your third question I will answer in the practical teachings of brotherly love will be

words of Paul : God“ will render to every saved ?

3. Do you believe that no orthodox Jew will man according to his deeds; to them who by be saved, no matter how sincere his belief nor patient continuance in well-doing seek for how upright and helpful his life?

glory and honor and immortality, eternal life.”

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CHRISTIAN SCIENCE AGAIN

73

To the fourth question I reply: My whole resorted to in our time, were almost imposreligious faith rests upon belief in a personal sible, and exile often meant slavery or God who is my father and my friend, who death at the hands of the nation into often throws me on my own resources and which the criminal was driven. Often the leaves me to fight my own battle because this only way in which the community could is the best way to develop my character, but protect itself was by putting the criminal to who is alike my friend when he is aiding me death. The right of self-protection is a funand when he is apparently leaving me to fight damental right, and whenever in any commy battle unaided.

munity no better method of self-protection

against certain criminal practices is possible Our minister says that capital punishment

.

But as comfor crime is entirely wrong, according to the capital punishment is justified. New Testament, and that officers of the law

munities grow in civilization curative punishwho enforce this form of punishment are

ment takes the place of punishments which responsible to God for taking life, and that in are vindictive. States where it has been abolished crime has Whenever a community becomes so far been less prevalent.

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civilized that it can protect its citizens I think your minister has fallen into the from the more heinous crimes by methods of same kind of error as do those who declare that reform or cure, capital punishment should be the abolition of capital punishment is wrong abandoned. Whether it is true that in the because in the Old Testament it is said, States where capital punishment has been *** Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man shall abolished crime has been less prevalent we his blood be shed: for in the image of do not know. There is, however, no doubt God made he man.” The object of punish- that with the diminution not only of capital ment is the protection of the community and punishment, but of all forms of merely vinthe reform of the wrong-doer.

It is not,

dictive punishment, and the substitution therehowever, the reform only of the individual for of reformatory or redemptive punishwho has done the wrong, it is also the reform ments, crime has been diminished. But this of the community to which he belongs. What diminution of crime is due not merely, and kind of punishment is best fitted to accom- possibly not at all, to the cessation of capital plish this double end depends upon the cir- punishment, but to the general moral develcumstances and condition of the community. opment of the community and to the success In the primitive condition of the early of the reformatory methods of dealing with Hebrew people fines and imprisonments, crime.

LYMAN ABBOTT.

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE AGAIN
The article in The Outlook for July 25 by Di. Lyman Abbott, entitled " IVhy I
Am Not a Christian Scientist,'' ended with the following sentence :

But I frankly confess to my Christian Science friends that I dread the encroating influence
on the human race of a philosophy which denies the reality of evil, alls men off from con rage-
ous, patient, and intelligent campaign against it, and bids them regard evil, whether moral or
physical, as only a mortal thought to be vanquished by a process of spiritual thinking.
This article has called out many letters both defending and criticising the doctrines
anl practice of Christian Science. We print below two representative letters, one
pro and one con ; with these weinust conclude the discussion in our pages for the
present.THE EDITORS.
PRACTICAL IDEALISM

good and evil come in contact 30 that the

one can be used to overcome the other ? In the Bible we are admonished to "

In the same book good and evil are somecome evil with good.” What is the nature times personified, but they are oftener defined of good and the nature of evil by which the impersonally in mental terms. Some of the one is superior to the other ? Where do Scriptural names for good are "mind,”

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ki mind of the Spirit,” “ spiritual understand-: relative to the illusion back of it. Sin is ing,” also“ truth." Some of the Biblical thing of thought-false thought, it must be names for evil are Aeshly mind,”? “ carnal overcome on that basis, and this can be mind,” also “

error,deceit,” and the like. done most effectually at the point of its incepChrist Jesus defined evil-as “evil thoughts.” tion. Detected and rejected there, the evil He resolved all of “the things which defile a neither enters into character nor is expressed man" into thoughts that are evil. Nor did in action. he leave the subject there. If evil thoughts Can it be said, then, that Christian Science were not different and separate from true calls men off from an intelligent campaign consciousness, there would be no deliverance against evil ? from them. Hence we have his further de- Christian Science changes its students into scription of evil as a liar or lie, and his em- better men and women, not only by giving phatic statement that there is no truth in it them true motives, pure desires, and abso(John viii. 44).

lute ideals, but also by discovering to them Such being the nature of good and evil, the the deceptive nature of evil impulses and scene of the warfare between Spirit and flesh the source and power of good thoughts. must be the so-called human mind, the con- In like manner this Science equips its sciousness of both good and evil. This must students for the cure and prevention of disbe the meeting-point where evil can be over

It teaches them to analyze the concome with good. Here is where the errors flicting elements of human consciousness of material sense can be corrected with the and to maintain the true sense of being · truth of spiritual sense.

against the false sense of disorder, thus deThe Hebrew proverb is scientific: "Keep

Keep stroying the essential cause of disease and thy heart with all diligence, for out of it are establishing the conditions of health. the issues of life.” Evil appears and dis- So also the power of divine Mind, acting appears only in the so-called human mind. with true thoughts or truth, is found to be The kingdom of God is in the consciousness available in every case of human need. As which he creates—that is, the consciousness the Psalmist said, His truth shall be thy of absolute good.

shield and buckler." It was nothing less, therefore, than the In a word, the aim of Christian Science practice of Christian Science which Paul and is to induce and enable men to realize their Peter summed up in their precepts : " Let rightful freedom and God-given manhood. this mind be in you which was also in Christ

CLIFFORD P. SMITH, Jesus ;” “ Arm yourselves likewise with the

Of the Committee on Publication, same mind.” This true mentality, this spirit

First Church Christ Scientist. ual thinking, is godliness itself, and we are Boston, Massachusetts. warned in the Bible against denying the power of godliness. Doing that, we are told, IMPRACTICAL IDEALISM is resisting the truth.

Your article in The Outlook of July 25, Finally, brethren,” says Mrs. Eddy, on

entitled "

Why I Am Not a Christian Scienpage 6 of “ Christian Science Versus Pan

tist," seems to me so just and reasonable that theism, 6 let us continue to denounce evil

I desire to have it constantly by me until I as the illusive claim that God is not supreme have memorized the argument. In my perand continue to fight it until it disappears,

sonal experience the Christian Scientists seem but not as one that beateth the mist, but

to lay reason completely aside from the very lifteth his head above it and putteth his foot

beginning of their investigation of the matter.

They learn later that the words used by the. To illustrate : An act that culminates in

cult do not mean what they do mean to others, murder must first take form in human

i. e., a to cure is not to heal, but to make thought. The gist of sin, as pointed out in

one resigned and cheerful in that state of the Sermon on the Mount, is the yielding to

body which we call sickness. a sinful impulse. The temptation or incen

Will not a diligent study of the Bible do tive to sin is always mental ; it is almost

the same ? I thank you sincerely for your always a false sense of pleasure in evil.

L. S. WATERMAN. The only positive cure for sin is the truth

article.

Newbury port, Massachusetts.

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upon a lie.”

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