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AMERICANS IN THE WAR ZONE

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more frankly as I had little to do with it. In the crowd that thronged these rooms at Indeed, volunteers were so numerous that, the Savoy Hotel, London, from ten o'clock although I offered my services, there was for in the morning to five o'clock in the afternoon several days literally no work at which I could one jostled against Western school-teachers be set, and the only work that I found to who had been traveling with a party of tourdo during the first week was to copy some ists, the president of an American college, names on cards. Every American in London the treasurer of a great corporation, the wellhad reason to be proud of the spirit of his known orchestra performer whose face is country and of the American faculty for self- familiar to every concert-goer in New York, government which this Committee demon- the executive secretary of an American charstrated.

itable organization, a college classmate, a Early in the second week the Committee business acquaintance who has an office in established a daily paper. The fact that the same office building with one's self, a there was no newspaper man on the Commit- fellow-townsman-one after the other. There tee that undertook the publishing of a paper were men there whose names were known did not deter anybody from the venture. all over the United States, and whose presA plan was drafted and the first issue made ence helped to inspire confidence. One of up by three men, two of whom were lawyers, these I have already mentioned, Mr. Oscar and the third the secretary of one of New S. Straus. Another was Dr. John H. Finley, York's best-known public men. I doubt head of the Educational Department of New whether any newspaper in London was more York State. There were well-known bankers thoroughly read than that one. The first and business men, such as Mr. W. North column of the first page of the first issue was Duane, who was indefatigable as secretary devoted to an editorial Foreword,” giving of the Committee and whose very presence general advice. Two columns were devoted there materially helped to give stability to the to general information-for example, a warn- organization. It seems invidious to name ing against bogus tickets and a notice that

any. 1 passports would not be necessary for em- To many of those who undertook responbarkation on steamships. Then there fol- sibility in this organization the opportunity of lowed a column of personal inquiries, which doing something was undoubtedly a relief. were continued on the next page. This news- Nothing could possibly have been harder for paper contained also a report with regard to them than to remain passive at such a time. lost luggage ; a schedule of the sailing of One young man had come abroad to get steamships, and other notices with reference relief from a great sorrow that had fallen to transportation ; an official directory giving upon him, only to face the horror of this war. the names of the Committee-men and the He found relief in being steadily occupied sub-committee-men, and the addresses of the day by day as the head of one of the most Embassy and the Consulate ; and a whole important of the departments established by page was given to a list of names registered the Committee. Others found in this a gratithe day before ; and, under the title Who's fication for their spirit of adventure; for Where?” a list of names of people whose there was adventure connected with it One present whereabouts was sought. The ex- evening I went with a friend to a hotel to pense of the publication was assumed, under carry some letters which an American had the guise of a last-page advertisement, by volunteered to take to Paris. This American Mr. Gordon Selfridge, the proprietor of a I found was a fellow of eighteen years or so great London department store, who took who was starting off to search for his mother this means of aiding the citizens of his native and sister in France. When we called upon country.

him to give him these letters, we found that Similar committees have been formed in he was engaged in learning from some girls other cities. I have learned from a fellow- French phrases which he might use on his member of The Outlook staff, Mr. Elbert F. journey. He was starting off in the greatBaldwin, who has been in Munich and is still est good spirits into France, the field of war, in Europe, that in that city two committees

"On another page is printed a picture of a group of the were established, one of relief and one of in- American Citizens' Committee. Others who served as formation, and that he, like myself, had been

members of the Committee but were not present when the

picture as taken are James G. Cannon. Francis M. helping to edit a daily paper for the benefit Wells, Lawrence A. Armour, Thomas J. Shanley, S. Stan

wood Menken, Robert W. de Forest, Chandler P. Anderof stranded Americans.

son, llarry E. Brittain.-THE EDITORS.

sense.

with no trepidation in spite of the fact that Americans for good nature and practical he did not know the language of the country, and rather in evident enjoyment of the adven- Among those Americans who had come turous prospect.

from Germany there were many who testiHere too at the headquarters were gath- fied to the great service rendered by. Ambasered people who had had all sorts of experi- ador Gerard in Berlin. have already told, ences on the Continent. One young woman of my first-hand knowledge, of the foresight told me of being in Paris without money and and efficiency of Ambassador Herrick in without friends; a young man who had been Paris. in Germany told me of having had an English- I should like to add my personal testimony man who was traveling in the same railway to the efficiency of the American Express compartment dragged over his knees by sol- Company at this critical time. During the diers and carried off on the charge of being three extra bank holidays, when all banks, a spy; another, a friend, who was one of the were closed, this Company's banking departmost gifted of American composers, told me ment remained open and was cashing its of his experience in going to Leipzig, where checks, while its credit was so good that there had been an exhibition of the graphic hotels were also giving English money for its arts which had been arranged by a hundred checks. There may have been other conor more professors in German universities- cerns that did equally well—I do not know. a notable example of German scholarship- To any in this country who have friends and of his inexpressible horror at the thought abroad at this time I should say: Allay your that these very men whose extraordinary anxiety; if there is anything that you can do mental ability had just been shown would in to help them and you think they need help, many cases be sent to war, the prey of rifle do it; it will be a service not only to them, and cannon.

but to the Government and to the many Mingled with such Americans as these relief committees, who have their hands full. were also Americans of another and less If, however, there is nothing that you can admirable type.

One man, for instance, was do, there is no reason why you should believe insistent that the Government was not doing that nothing will be done. If your friends its duty unless it prevailed upon each of the are in any large city, they are in company belligerents to allow the enemy's merchant with others who are in the same predicavessels to convey Americans across the water ment, and what I saw of Americans in a to their homes. He evidently was firmly con- common predicament in London leads me to vinced of the fact that it was only necessary believe that they will show capacity for self-help to call the attention of Germany and France, and for mutual help. If you do not know of Austria, Russia, and England, to the where they are, you may be fairly sure that they supreme importance of his comfort in travel 'are making their way to the nearest place of and the comfort of others like him to insure security. Fortunately, this country now has the suspension of the operations of war. A the friendship of every nation engaged in woman one day appeared at the Committee's this war, and its good will is coveted. There headquarters demanding transportation home. is every reason why the quick passage home of When an opportunity was offered her of every American in the zone of the war should securing berths for herself and family on a be facilitated as far as possible. There are specially chartered steamship, she indignantly certain to be instances of hardship; but most rejected the proposition on the ground that Americans can take hardships with equanimshe had planned to have five staterooms, and ity, in the expectation that some day they five staterooms she would have. I personally will look back upon their experience as worth hope that she eventually returns by steerage. having In comparison with what the peoThere are a great many people returning by ple of the nations at war are suffering, steerage who do not need the experience, Americans in Europe are highly fortunate. and she does need it. Such Americans, how- One of the wonders of this war is the safety ever, were very scarce. On the whole, the and comparative ease with which the great Americans that I saw in London, and I majority of travelers caught in the midst of observed them by the hundreds, maintained the convulsion have escaped its dangers. by their conduct the proverbial reputation of

ERNEST HAMLIN ABBOTT.

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THE CASE
CASE FOR

FOR GERMANY

BY G. W. NASMYTH

It was at the special request of a representative of The Outlook that 11r. Nasmyth wrote the following article presenting the German point of vicw. Mr. Nasmyth was one of the delegates to the Church Peace Congress, which was to luave held its sessions at Constance, Germany, during the week beginning August 2. A member of the Outlook staff, Mr. Ernest Hamlin Abbott, was also a delegate to that Congress, but, as explained in his editorial correspondence, was unable to reach Constance before the outbreak of the war. Knowing that Mr. Vasmyth had spent several years in Germany, had learned during that time to know and appreciate the German people, was sympathetic with the German point of view, was an admirer of German achicvements, and had grasped the feelings of Germans, particularly of thie intellectual class of Germans, concerning this war, he asked Mr. Nasmyth to present this point of view in terms that would be plain to American readers. This request was made in London within a day or tivo after the declaration of war betrecen Germany and Great Britain ; but because of the delay in communication between England and the United States Mr. Nasmytli's article was received too late

for publication in any issue before this. It seems to us to be the strongest and most persuasive statement of Germany's case that we have seen. Mr. Nasmyth has been enabled by his experience to understand the point of vieru of miny nations. For some time he organized Cosmopolitan Clubs in foreign universities, and for a while was the head of the Association of Cosmopolitan Clubs in this country, which comprises clubs in many colleges and universities composed of students of different nationalities. He is now director of the International Students' Bureau of the World's Peace Foundation. Inasmuch as the Foundation is avoiding all appearance of partisanship, it should be distinctly understood that Mr. Nasmyth in this article is expressing his personal victv and understanding of the German spirit and is not speaking officially for the Foundation, Most of the statements in defense of Germany have been written from the point of view of the militarists. The distinctive characteristic of this article is that it is a defense of Germany written from the point of vietu of an anti-militarist and an active leader in the peace movement.THE EDITORS.

T is clear that, if we are to form a just 67,000,000 German people sincerely believe opinion of the issues involved in the that they are in the right in this matter, and

European struggle, we must try to real- if at the end of the war Germany should be ize the point of view of both parties. It is crushed and the German people “ stamped possible that America will be called upon to into the mud," as one of her historians explay the rôle of mediator at the end of the pressed the conditions of a hundred years conflict, and, if a permanent peace is to be ago, no real peace could be established, but established, it will be America's duty to see only a breathing-spell until Europe could that no humiliating or crushing terms are gather its forces for another Armageddon. imposed upon the side which suffers defeat. The one factor which seems to be forAt present the people of the United States gotten in the conflict is Russia, and this are getting practically all their news of the promises to be the most important of all. European war through English sources. It Long after England, France, and Germany seems worth while for us to make a special are weary of the fruitless struggle Russia effort to realize the German point of view in will still be gathering her forces and throwing the struggle, and I shall attempt to put the millions of peasants into the theater of war. essential facts of the case as I gathered them An agricultural country, with almost no forfrom close association with leading Germans eign commerce or highly organized indusduring three years of study in the Ger- tries to be destroyed, Russia can keep up man universities. It is unquestionable that the war for months after the highly organized

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nations of western Europe have been com- ravaged our country again and again, and peiled to yield to the pressure of economic actually, literally, cut our population in half, forces.

stamped it into the mud. Try to get the “For Germany it is the struggle of Western perspective. Picture a score of your finest civilization against Russian barbarism ; the cities wiped out, not merely that the houses conflict between enlightened Europe and the were destroyed, but that every man, woman, half-Oriental Slavic powers of darkness was and child within those places had perished, inevitable,” said Professor Rudolf Eucken and this in not some distant past, but so near at Jena University on the day that the to you that your great-grandfather could Russian order for a general mobilization put have told you the story, having got it from an end to the Kaiser's efforts to maintain the mouths of those who witnessed it. peace; and this is the keynote of the public “Of course you cannot conceive, no man opinion of educated Germany. The recent can conceive, what the destruction of ten law for the reorganization of the Russian million human beings means. Yet by that army and navy, the calling of 600,000 addi- number of beings was the population of tional soldiers to the Russian colors next Germany decreased during these wars. A fall, was considered throughout Germany as state as populous as England when Queen the preparation for the coming attack on Victoria came to the throne was in one war Germany by Russia. Since the conflict was reduced to the population of Holland. What inevitable, according to the German point of has any civilized country to compare with this, view, the German nation must prepare herself to set beside it? When, indeed, has any civilfor the inevitable and, instead of waiting with ized nation had to watch vast uncounted resignation for her fate, must gather together multitudes of its women and children driven all her power and go out and meet the foe forth homeless, their corpses massed in the without giving it time to concentrate its over- country roads, with grass in their mouths, whelming forces.

the only food the invader had left ? And The tragedy of the conflict, from the Ger- these same invaders, who have poured in man point of view, is that Europe, instead of devastating floods over our land to-day, boast realizing that Germany is fighting the battle that again they will invade us if and when of civilization against barbarism, is uniting to they can. I say boast. Can you find me crush the last obstacle to the Slavic advance. one French public man who will say that But yesterday England was preaching that France should abandon the hope of attackthe standing menace of the Western World ing us? It is their declared, their overt was Russia, with its 170,000,000 of semi- policy. barbaric people, of whom seven-eighths can- So that is our situation : on our right. not read or write, governed on absolutist and on our left enemies from whom we have methods by a reactionary bureaucracy which suffered as no other civilized country has is frankly militaristic. Although a Russian suffered in modern times. The history of soldier has never set foot upon English both is a history of conquest—in one case shores, England has fought one great war to passionate, insatiable conquest-whose ambistop the progress of this nation, to check her tions England and Germany have had to march towards English possessions. But it resist shoulder to shoulder in the past, and is not in a distant possession that she threatens that Power which was the enemy of England Germany ; it is on her own soil.

for centuries makes no secret of its intention - Allied with this Slavic power on to renew the aggression upon us when it can. eastern frontier,” says the educated German, It is in the creed and blood of Frenchmen “ we have an enemy on our west, from whom that they will attack us at the first opporwe have suffered as no other civilized people tunity. Oh, yes, we are a military people. have suffered at the hands of enemies. You Do you wonder ? But we have fought on know the story of the wars of Napoleon, of our own soil, or returned to it as soon as the the invasions of Louis XIV, who cut off with invader was repulsed.” the sword German-speaking Alsace and Lor- The facts in the history of the crisis leadraine from the German body, of the Thirty irig to the present conflict which are given in Years' War, and all the rest of them ; how the official documents should be more widely our cities have been destroyed by the invader, known if the position of Germany is to be mainly by the French and the Russian, or understood. The documents show that the his hirelings and allies. You know how they German Emperor, by threatening to tear up

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1914

WAR NOTES

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the Treaty of Alliance with Austria, compelled against the other countries of Europe, blindly Austria to reopen diplomatic relations with allied with the greatest peril. Russia after they had been broken off, and to The great issue of the conflict, which will adopt a more conciliatory attitude towards become clearer to the outside world as events Russia's demands. The negotiations between proceed, is whether the civilization of western Russia and Austria had practically reached Europe shall continue to exist or whether an agreement, on the basis that Servia should Germany, the last obstacle to the Slav adrender satisfaction to Austria, without, how- vance, is to be crushed and the German ever, sacrificing her autonomy or endanger- leadership in education, science, and social ing her independence. Then, like a bolt out organization is to be replaced by the domiof the blue sky, came the Russian order for nance in Europe of Russia, with its mediæval a general mobilization, producing such a panic social conditions, with its autocratic Governin Germany that the Kaiser was compelled ment at the head of 200,000,000 ignorant to surrender the control of affairs to the and superstitious Slavs, with its Tartars and military leaders. And now Germany is figlit- Cossacks. This is the choice which Europe ing the battle for European civilization, not and the world must make, and this issue only against the oncoming Slavic tide, but the great conflict will decide.

This article will be followed next weck by one on " Germany's Struggle for Eristence," by H. C. G. von Jagemann, Professor of German Philology in Harvard University.THE EDITORS.

WAR NOTES

Thousands of starving actors and actresses in Paris are being given two meals a day by the French theatrical societies. The war has closed every theater in Paris.

War is evidently a good crime cure. Since August 2, when the French began to mobilize, there has not been one case of burglary reported in Paris.

The British War Office and the British Football Association are considering the enlistment of the seven thousand football players who be. long to the Association. It is believed that charges by them on the battlefield would help their country more than their rushes up and down the football field.

Boy Scouts and school-children are helping greatly in getting in the harvests of Switzerland. The Germans have ordered the men of Belgium to aid in getting in the crops of Germany, it is reported, and many Belgians have fled to Holland to avoid this service.

American moving picture men who were abroad when the war began have lost many thousand feet of expensive film. Camera men have been looked upon with such suspicion in the war zone that most“ movie" photographers have been only too glad to get away alive, leaving films and machines behind.

According to the latest reports of the Census Bureau, there are 9,865,479 persons now living in the United States who were born in the countries at war. About one million and a half of

these are men more than twenty-one years of age, most of them liable for military duty.

The view of England's duty in this war held by the military correspondent of the London “Times” is to “ keep our wicket up while Russia makes the runs."

A number of big Massachusetts textile mills have shut down for one month because of inability to get materials from Europe.

It has been a case of "walk right in, turn around, and walk right out again,” for American correspondents who chose Belgium for the scene of their efforts. Many of them have been unable to get any

“stories" in Belgium, and those that did get them in most cases were obliged to go to London to send them out.

On account of the war the rule of the Red Cross Society of Russia refusing admittance to Jewish doctors and nurses has been indefinitely suspended.

The payment of the forty-million-dollar war tax levied upon Brussels by Germany has been guaranteed by the four richest men in Belgium, according to a despatch to the London “Daily Express." These men are Ernest Solvay, the “ Alkali King ;" Baron Lambert, who represents the Rothschilds in Belgium ; Baron Empain, a railway. magnate ; and M. Waroque, who owns many mines.

Uhlans, who looted the town cash box at Alost, Flanders, left a tip for the local police and an I O U reading, “Received for Emperor Wilhelm II.”

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