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With soften'd harvests every plain shall glow,
On the wild brier the grape's rich cluster grow,
And gnarled oaks with dripping honey flow.
-Yet of old guilt shall still survive some stain:
Still the bold ship shall tempt the boisterous main;
Cities with walls shall still repel the foe,
And earth’s torn breast be furrow'd with the plough.
Some Tiphys other chiefs again shall guide,
And other Argos bear them o'er the tide:

40 Fresh wars shall rise; and, eager to destroy, A new Achilles shall be sent to Troy.

• When now to vigorous manhood thou art come, O’er seas no more the laboring keel shall roam ; No more to distant realms shall Traffic hie:

45 Each land each produce shall, itself, supply. O’er the vex'd tillage shall no harrow sound, No pruner's hook the vine luxuriant wound: The sturdy ploughman shall unyoke his steer, The wool no counterfeited stain shall bear; But tinctured from the mead he crops, the ram Shall flush with scarlet, or in saffron flame, While native crimson tints the frolic lamb,

32 Soften’d harvests. Martyn very elaborately contends that mollis (as applied here to arista) must mean, not ripe or fertile, but soft and tender-bearded. The triticum of the ancients (see Georg. i. 219, and not. ib.) had a beard like vallum, or a prickly fence, to defend it from the birds. This was to be no longer necessary

42 That under Achilles is adumbrated Pompey, the opponent of Cæsar, who always publicly asserted his own descent from Æneas, as Rome sustained the poetical character of a new Troy, Penn contends, pp. 327-344. Thus Turnus, the adversary of the Trojan prince, is designated by the alius Latio jam partus Achilles of the sixth Æneid, and Pompey is said by Lucan to draw his supplies from Greece-Proxima vicino vires dat Græcia bello.

52 Scarlet, or crimson, Martyn conceives to represent better the color obtained from the Tyrian fish than purple. On cro* Flow, happy ages,' to their distaffs cried Th’harmonious Fates; "and pour your golden tide.'

• Those honors thou—'tis now the time-approve, 56 Child of the skies, great progeny of Jove! Beneath the solid orb's vast convex bent, See on the coming year the world intent: See earth and sea and highest heaven rejoice; 60 All but articulate their grateful voice.

O reach so far my long life's closing strain ! My breath so long to hymn thy deeds remain ! Orpheus, nor Linus, should my verse excel; Though even Calliope her Orpheus' shell

65 Should string, and (anxious for the son the sire) His Linus' numbers Phæbus should inspire ! Should Pan himself before his Arcady Contend, he'd own his song surpass’d by me.

“Know, then, dear Boy, thy mother by her smile: 70 Enough ten months have given of pain and toil. Know her, dear Boy,—who ne'er such smile has known, Nor board nor bed divine 'tis his to own.'

ceo, see his note. We are not, he adds, to infer from the word pascentes, that the flocks were actually to feed on the murer, the croceum lutum, or the sandyr (which he explains to be a composition made of the fictitious sandaracha, or preparation of white lead), but that they should have fleeces as beautiful as if they had been stained by those materials.

56 Those honors : i.e. the succession to the name and honors of his illustrious predecessor.-See Penn, ib. p. 361.

65. 67, 68 On Orpheus and Linus, as coeval with this prophecy, and the worship then more particularly paid to Pan, see Penn, ib. pp. 94—99.

70 On the peculiar propriety of the smile,' as applied to Attia, the mother of Augustus and the niece of Julius Cæsar (through whom alone flowed the traditionary descent of the former from the smiling goddess Venus), see Penn, ib. pp. 363_-369.



The triumvirs, having resolved to open the A. U. C. 712

with performing divine honors to the memory of Julius Cæsar, the Daphnis (which refers to this deification) must probably have been written about the beginning of the year : but, as Brutus and Cassius were still at the head of considerable armies, and Virgil had already smarted under the effects of civil fury, he cautiously veils the name of his hero under that of a Sicilian herdsman. Mopsus laments his death, and Menalcas celebrates his apotheosis. If ever Virgil intended in his Eclogues to introduce himself, it is probably as the latter. Philips bas imitated this poem in his third Pastoral, intitled “ Albino,' on the death of the Duke of Gloucester, son of Queen Anne.

Menalcas. And why not, Mopsus, since we're met to

You skill'd to pipe, and I to trill the lay-
Here seat us, where the elm and hazel blend
Their quivering boughs ?

Mopsus. The elder you, my friend, Just what you please prescribe, and I obey :

5 Whether, where Zephyrs 'mid the branches play, We court the checquer'd shade; or choose yon cave, Where thinly bunch'd the wild-vine's tendrils wave.

Men. None but Amyntas on our hills may try To match your art in sylvan minstrelsy :

10 Mops. And he would strive e'en Phæbus to outvie.

Men. Begin, then, Mopsus ; if or love's fierce flame By beauteous Phyllis felt, or Alcon's fame,

Or Codrus' tuneful strife inspire your reed-
Begin: your kids young Tityrus here will feed. 15

Mops. Rather those numbers let me now rehearse,
Which on the beech's rind in measured verse
I carved, and sung alternate as I lay :
Then bid Amyntas bear the palm away!

Men. Far as the willow olives pale o’erpass, 20 Or glowing rose-beds dim the spiked grass, So far dost thou, Amyntas, in my thoughtMops. Hush, shepherd ! see, we've gain’d the grot

we sought.

* The nymphs their Daphnis wail'd, by fate austere To death consign’d: ye hazels, witness bear, 25 And you, ye streamlets; when, with fond embrace, Clasping the darling corse, in wild amaze The frantic mother pour'd her piteous moan, And charged on gods and stars her ravish'd son. That day, no shepherd drove his flock to drink 30 The cooling wave; upon the river's brink No steed or sipp'd the flood, or cropp'd the green: Even Lybian lions, melting at the scene (As the wild hills, and savage woodlands tell), Wept o'er thy doom, and howld their sad farewell. 35 First Daphnis o’er th’ Armenian tiger's mane Strapp'd the strong harness ; first the bacchant train

21 The saliunca is a plant not certainly known at present. It may be the same as the nardus Celtica, French spikenard, or a species of valerian growing abundantly on the mountains between Italy and Germany, and also about Genoa near Savona. This the Tyrolese peasants are said still to call ' seliunck ;' whence the saliunca of Virgil and Pliny, and the αλιουγγια of Dioscorides. .

28 Mother : i. e. Venus. Compare Ov. Metam. xv. on the same subject.

36 Servius informs us that Julius Cæsar first brought the solemnities of Bacchus to Rome. This De la Rue, arguing


To lead their orgies to the god enjoin'd,
And the slight thyrsus with soft foliage twined.

As vines of trees, and grapes of vines the pride, 40
And bulls of herds, and corn of champaign wide,
So thou of thine : now nought of thee remains--
Pales and Phæbus both have fled the plains.
Where to the furrow bulky grain we gave,
Darnel and barren wild-oats idly wave;

45 And, for the daffodil and violet's bloom, Thistles and briers in rank luxuriance gloom. Scatter the ground with leaves; around each spring Let wreathed flowers their sacred freshness fling. -So Daphnis gives command—and rear his tomb; 50 And grave this verse, memorial of his doom :

« Pride of the woods, I Daphnis here am laid : Fair was my flock; but fairer I, who fed.''

Men. Sweet to the ear, blest bard, thy tuneful reed, As sleep to wearied shepherds on the mead : 55

from a passage in Livy, denies, Perhaps he restored them, after they had been abolished for their enormities, on a purer and more magnificent scale.

38 Thiasus is a solemn singing and dancing used at festivals. The thyrse was a spear twisted round with branches of vine and ivy, and borne in the hands of the bacchanals.

47 The paliurus has been a subject of some controversy among modern writers. By Theophrastus and Pliny it is called a shrub. Columella recommends it for a quick-hedge, as one of the strongest thorns; whence Martyn concludes it to be the rhamnus folio subrotundo, fructu compresso C. B., now cultivated under the name of Christ's-thorn;' which grow's abundantly in desert places in Italy, and is very common in the hedges

54 This imitates, and surpasses, a similar passage in the eighth Idyl of Theocritus (who supplies many parallels to the present Eclogue), and is itself copied by Philips in his fourth Pastoral ;

Not half so sweet are midnight winds, that more
In drowsy murmurs o'er the waving grove;

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