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prefixed on physical geography, and if the terms north, south, east, west, and a calculation of distances by measurement, were substituted for Dr. Butler's favourite terms, above, below, right, left, somewhat, near, and other generalities. We object to such terms, as well as to such epithets as immense, astonishing, wonderful, celebrated, ever-memorable, which are plentifully scattered through the book, and often left for the learner to explain for himself. We may remark, also, that the omission of exact notices of the commercial and colonial connexions of countries is not compensated by the record of famous battles, the tale of which is generally told in a truly English spirit. But enough of general remarks. We shall now point out a few errors and omissions of a more particular nature :
p. 6. Every degree contains sixty geographical miles, or sixty-nine and a half (sixty-nine one-fifteenth more correctly) English miles.' It is obvious that a degree of latitude only is meant here, though not expressed. The degrees of longitude vary from sixty geographical miles to nothing as they approach the poles from the equator. With this exception we see nothing to censure in the chapter on the globe and maps.
p. II. -The map of the world is said to be divided into two hemispheres-the right or eastern, and the left or western.' No explanation is given of the term hemisphere; some reason also should certainly be assigned for the distorted figure of the globe when represented as in a map, on a flat surface. A few remarks on the projection of maps are necessary to make them intelligible to learners.
p. 14. It is said that the kingdom of Poland was divided in 1793, between Prussia, Russia, and Austria. The fact is, that Poland was divided no less than three times, and differently at each time: first, under the Empress Catherine of Russia, in 1772; secondly, in consequence of the attempts made by the Poles under Kosciuzko, between the Russians and Prussians, in 1793; and thirdly, at the dethronement of the nominal king Stanislaus, and after the campaign of Suwarrow, between the Russians, Prussians, and Austrians, in 1795.
p. 12. On either side of the Gulf of Bothnia is Sweden.' Finland, a province on the East side, was wholly ceded to the Russians in 1809 (and it continues to be theirs), and not partly as Dr. Butler seems to suppose.
p. 19. In the description of the Rhone, its course is given correctly, with the slight exception that no notice is taken of its passing through the lake of Geneva. In another part, how
ever, p. 26, this omission is supplied. These disjecti membra poetæ are the result of the general arrangement.
p. 21. At the mouth of the Mayne-Mentz*.' It is (according to its correct position in Dr. Butler's map) on the west bank of the Rhine, just below the influx of the Mayne. 'In Bavaria—Manheim.' This place is at the confluence of the Neckar and the Rhine, in the Grand Duchy of Baden. If the latitude and longitude had not been given, we might have supposed a misprint for Munich, the capital of Bavaria, which is altogether omitted.
p. 22.-In the description of the Elbe, it is not stated that it flows through the curious basin of Bohemia, and that Prague is on its banks.
p. 23.-The account given here of the German states is too short to be of any value. Brevity should not be allowed to interfere with perspicuity.
p. 24. In the Austrian dominions-Cracow.' This town was declared a free city at the first pacification of Paris in 1814.
p. 30.-Sea-ports of Spain- Cadiz, Malaga, Barcelona, Corunna, Carthagena, Alicant.' We would ask Dr. Butler whether chance or intention suggested this order? The same remark applies to the mention of most towns.
p. 31.-Cities of Spain, Seville, reckoned the wonder of Spain.' What is the use of such a remark to a learner when he is not told why it is a wonder?
p. 34.-Cities of Prussia, Warsaw.' This mistake is corrected by Dr. Butler's own admission immediately after, that it is a duchy (which it is not) belonging to Russia. The kingdom of Poland yet exists as subject to the Russian Emperor, who takes among his titles that of King of Poland.'
p. 35.-Principal cities of European Russia. Odessa is omitted.
p. 38.-Towns of Sweden. Stralsund, in Swedish Pomerania.' At the peace of Kiel, in 1814, Pomerania, formerly belonging to Sweden, was given up to the Prussians in exchange for Norway, which previously belonged to Denmark. Stralsund is in Prussia both physically and politically. Abo, in Finland, is, of course, according to our correction of p. 12, not in Sweden.
We have thus pointed out some of the mistakes in Dr. Butler's Sketch of Modern Europe. The accounts of Asia, Africa, and America, are also not free from errors, which ought to be corrected by teachers who use the book. The
* In Dr. Butler's map of Germany he places Mentz in its true position, and Mayence on the Mayne, though they are, in fact, only two names for one place.
last chapter on statistics contains some useful and, as far as we have examined it, tolerably correct matter. The statistics, in short, are the best part of the book.
II. Geographia Classica; or the Application of Ancient Geography to the Classics.' Such is Dr. Butler's title to his sketch of the Antient World.' This part of his book calls for particular notice, on account of its almost universal reception as an instrument of classical education. It will accordingly be best considered under three points of view; arrangement, selection of matter, and correctness in particular statements.
With respect to the arrangement of a manual of this kind, it must be acknowledged that it is attended with some difficulties; and the reader will, therefore, make every allowance that he pleases for any defect of this nature, which we may point out. Geography, in the language of logicians, is an instrumental art, and its chief connexion is with history. History is progressive, and geography must be progressive in many of its features also. Ancient geography necessarily embraces a great extent of time; and a teacher should be enabled to give his pupils such a knowledge of this subject, as will aid them most in the study of ancient history, and the ancient writers in general: he must, in short, adapt the matter of his instruction to his pupil's wants. The classical student will desire to be informed about Greek and Roman geography. He will wish his geographical instruction to be such as will enable him to underderstand the historians of Greece; or if he goes back to the age of Homer, he will desire a course of instruction of a different kind, that will show what was the Greece that sent forth its well-manned ships to the walls of Troy. If he is studying the history of Rome, he will require an exact knowledge of Italy, the vicinity of Rome, the most striking local features of the city, and a general view of the extent and distribution of the Roman provinces. He will desire, in short, to have a synchronous view of geography, as well as of history. The student of Greek literature will require a book of geographical instruction that will illustrate Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon; the student of Roman history will seek to be supplied with one that will illustrate Polybius, Cæsar, Cicero, Livy, and Tacitus, and the allusions of the poets. Such a book Dr. Butler's is not. The student of Herodotus will find it almost useless; and those who pay attention to the geography of a later date, will find the book so full of useless, and so empty of useful matter, that they will be obliged to follow some safer guide, or else to track OCT.-JAN, 1832.
out their own road. Dr. Butler has aimed at supplying the wants of all classes in a single treatise, and he has, necessarily, failed in satisfying the wants of any.
We before expressed ourselves to the effect, that the chronology of geography should be observed. This Dr. Butler has not attempted at all. His book contains geographical details belonging to many various epochs, jumbled together without explanation, or even any intimation respecting their different ages. As a specimen of this, let any one read the chapters entitled Germania,' and the countries south of the Danube.' It may be asked, how is such a defect to be remedied?
We shall propose an approximation towards a better arrangement. Greece and Rome are the two centres of the antient world; the great æra of the former is antecedent to that of the latter. Let there be two courses of instruction, each calculated to give a competent knowledge of the geography of the world, relatively to each nation or country when at the height of its power. This plan being laid down, the instructor may wander occasionally from the beaten track, wherever such wanderings are decidedly and fully declared. The view of general geography in its relation to some powerful country, is very useful and highly interesting, and it brings into play a rational, and not an accidental principle of association, which will assist the memory in the recollection of geographical facts. The only order observed by Dr. Butler, and that not always, is the order of position in the map of the world from west to east. Independently of any principle before laid down, it is obviously necessary, that, wherever a large number of individual facts. are presented to the learner's mind for its reception, some grouping or classification of them should be adopted, that will aid the memory in retaining them and calling them up at pleasure. The principle of classification is acknowledged, and, to a certain degree, adopted in the manuals of modern geography. Dr. Butler has complied with common usage in his sketch of modern geography; but in that part of the book, which is peculiarly his own, he has either overlooked its utility, or deemed its introduction unnecessary. The usefulness of the book is greatly diminished by this defect alone.
We are next to speak of the sketch of antient geography, with respect to the selection of matter. The compendium is entitled the Application of Antient Geography to the Classics.' It is scarcely necessary to say that the principle is correct. Let us see how our author applies it to practice.
Instead of storing the mind with historical information, and short notices of the most striking natural phænomena, or architectural remains, found in a remarkable spot-instead of showing how various places were connected by colonies, language, and common origin-instead of giving that information which will aid the student in comprehending the Greek and Latin books which he daily reads, Dr. Butler makes it his principal object to give vague and scattered notices on mythology, for the purpose apparently of introducing quotations from the Latin Poets. It is fair, however, to give Dr. Butler the credit of occasionally introducing matter of a higher and more useful character; but, unfortunately, so mixed up with false statements, that a student can scarcely distinguish between them. A few instances may be cited to explain what has been said above, and to establish its truth. On opening the first page in the more minute description of Græcia Antiqua,' (in English, Antient Hellas,) we see the following statements:
In Argolis, east of Argos, is Tiryns or Tirynthus the favourite residence of Hercules, who is thence called Tirynthius.' The place is evidently mentioned to make way for the legend it contains, however, curious Cyclopian remains, indicating it to have had an existence, and to have held an important station at a very early period, certainly before the Homeric age. In the same page we are told that Epidaurus was celebrated for its worship of Esculapius.' Good physicians probably attracted crowds to the shrine of the God. The notice, in this sense, is useful, as it tells us that Epidaurus was perhaps a school of medicine but few junior students would understand the real meaning of Dr. Butler's allusion. Other topics however might have been noticed while speaking of Epidaurus, viz. its early connexion with the fonian colonies of Asia Minor (Her. i. 146.), its colonization of Ægina (Her. viii. 46.), &c. So likewise, in the description of Arcadia; Tegea, a city of importance, mentioned by Homer, regarded as a city of political influence in the time of Herodotus and Thucydides, and still looked on as a flourishing community in the time of Pausanias, appears on the stage seemingly for the sole purpose of ushering in a quotation from Virgil's Georgics Adsis, oh Tegeæe favens!' The Gods, we are told, loved Arcadia. Dr. Butler has certainly a pious reverence for their godships, which he shows in this no less than in many other parts of his book; for in the description of a country about forty miles square, we find nine reverential notices of them. If the author of the sketch thinks that the regular notice of