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and foreign; and of a charity-school for poor children, who are admitted at an early age, and instructed in the labours of agriculture, and made progressively to cultivate the ground so as to defray in time the expense of their support. An experimental farm is annexed to the institution, and all the implements for the labour of the field, constructed after the improved methods, are made at Hofwyl. This agricultural institution is a nursery from which valuable labourers, carpenters, smiths, wheelwrights, &c. are supplied to the country around. In the approximation of these various establishments for different classes of youths, Mr. Fellenberg has had in view to foster the feeling of sympathy which ought to connect the two extreme links of society, not to mix and confound the two classes, but to prepare each for its respective condition, and to suggest to each motives of contentedness and satisfaction by instructing them in the arts and knowledge required to fill their respective stations in the world. The education of the poor necessarily differs from that of the rich; but, in both classes alike, it is an important part of the design to foster principles of equal justice and sentiments of mutual benevolence. Much more might be said about Fellenberg's institutions, but that would require a separate article,
Luzern has a gymnasium, frequented by about 150 pupils, a school of drawing, and a real-schule, divided into six classes for the youth of the industrious part of the population. In the village of Hizkirch, in the same canton, a school was established in 1826 for the further instruction of pupils coming out of the primary schools, in arithmetic, bookkeeping, the study of the cantonal laws, German grammar and composition, calligraphy, geography, the history of Switzerland, religion, natural history, the elements of rural economy, and vocal music. There are eight teachers, having at their head a member of the legislative council as president of the institution.
At Soleure, the gymnasium, which opened in 1825, reckons eight classes, from Latin language to theology inclusive, under the direction of five professors, and it is attended by about 200 students. A non-literary school also was opened as in the other above-mentioned towns; but owing to the old rooted prejudice of the people, who think nothing of a school in which Latin is not taught, hardly any pupils repaired to it.
Basle, a wealthy city, has done much of late years for the instruction of the people. Besides a gymnasium divided into six classes, and attended by above 200 students, there is a real-schule of three classes; an institution for girls divided
into five classes, where, besides the school teachers, three professors of the university give lectures on history, natural history, and French literature; and a school at Liestall for the country people, which, however, is little frequented, through the neglect of parents, who think they have done enough by sending their children to a primary school, till they are nine or ten years of age. It is remarkable that this district was repeatedly, during the year 1831, the scene of riotous and insurrectionary movements of a very mischievous nature.
The little canton of Schaffhausen has divided its gymnasium into two sections, in one of which belles lettres, Latin, Greek, &c. are taught, and in the other German and French, history, drawing, mathematics, and natural history. There are also German schools for boys and girls.
In Aargau, one of the most populous and industrious cantons of Switzerland, a council of instruction, with a member of the executive at its head, watches over the establishments for education, and receives reports of the conduct both of teachers and students. There are eight secondary schools, one in each of the districts into which the canton is divided. That of Baden is a regular lyceum, in which students are qualified for entering the university; there are courses of philology, mathematics, music, and drawing, besides German classes for those who do not study Latin. The school is endowed with a capital of 200,000 livres, about 12,000l. There is also a school for girls at Olsberg. In the town of Aarau two citizens have established a school for artisans, one of them bestowing on it 25,000 livres, and the other 50,000. The building was afforded gratuitously by the municipality. The institution is placed under the direction of Zschokke, the well-known writer, one of the first literary men of Switzerland. The instruction consists of arithmetic, mechanics and mathematics, chemistry and physics, drawing and modelling in relief, written composition, and such moral precepts as are best suited to the industrious classes.
Geneva, which is ever the foremost canton in useful institutions, has a college attended by 600 students. Female education, which in Switzerland is in general lamentably neglected, is here particularly attended to. There is hardly an illiterate female to be found who is a native of this city; and many of the middle classes are to be met with whose education is equal, if not superior, to that of ladies of the first rank in other countries. It has been observed, however, that their acquirements give them sometimes a tone of positiveness and dogmatism which strikes foreigners who frequent their society.
For those who devote themselves to the higher professional studies, there is in Switzerland only one university, that of Basle, which was founded in the fifteenth century, and attained considerable fame. It afterwards, however, fell into decay, but it has since been reformed, and is now in a better condition. It boasts the names of Erasmus, of Euler, and of the Bernouillis: a member of the last-mentioned family is a professor there at the present day. It has two considerable libraries, one of which once belonged to Erasmus, a collection of Holbein's paintings, a cabinet of Roman medals and other antiquities found at Augst (Augusta Rauracorum), a botanic garden, and a fine herbal.
Besides the Basle university there are four academies in the Protestant cantons of Zurich, Bern, Vaud, and Geneva, which are assimilated to universities. Zurich has its collegium Carolinum for philosophy and theology; an institute for jurisprudence and political sciences, with five professors; another for medicine and surgery, with fifteen professors and a theatre of anatomy; and, lastly, a technical school founded four years ago, with about twenty professors and one hundred students, in which courses of trigonometry, mechanics, zoology, botany, chemistry, commercial law, German, French, and Italian languages are given, every student being at liberty to follow whichever course he prefers. Zurich has a town library of forty thousand volumes, besides the College or Caroline Library, rich in historical MSS., and the library of the Economico-Physical Society, with a rich cabinet of natural history, and the herbal of the celebrated John Gessner, in thirty-six volumes folio.
The academy of Geneva, founded by Calvin, is divided into four faculties, auditoires, viz. literature, philosophy, jurisprudence, and theology, containing fifteen professors, many of whom lecture gratis, being men in easy circumstances. The faculty of medicine is wanting, and the students who devote themselves to this science have hitherto repaired chiefly to Edinburgh or Paris. A new faculty of theology is now being instituted by a private society, who complain that the lectures at the academy have become decidedly Arian in their principles, as it appears from various pamphlets lately published on subjects of dogma by one of the professors, to the great scandal of the orthodox or pure Calvinists. Geneva has a library of fifty thousand volumes, a botanical garden under the direction of M. De Candolle, and a museum of the arts, the recent gift of two sisters of the name of Rath.
Bern has an excellent academy, with twenty professors,
who lecture on jurisprudence, mathematics, philosophy, theology, mineralogy, natural history, medicine, surgery and the veterinary art, drawing, &c. It has a museum of anatomy, two botanical gardens, one of which bears the name of the celebrated Haller, a public library of thirty thousand volumes, a cabinet of ornithology, consisting of all the species of Swiss birds collected by Sprungli, a splendid mineralogic collection by M. D'Erlach, and a rich collection of medals.
Lausanne has also its academy for theology, belles lettres, natural sciences, law, &c.
The Catholic cantons have no university establishment. Luzern has a lyceum for philosophy and theology, and Fribourg one for canon law, ethics, mathematics, logic, and metaphysics and theology, which is in the hands of the Jesuits, whose discipline has lately been the subject of much controversy. The appearance of the college and schools is satisfactory, the young boarders seem contented and well behaved, but we believe their education is too constrained, and not practical enough for the times in which we live*.
The smaller or mountain cantons have no establishments
for superior education. They had before the revolution twenty-nine places for alumni in the Helvetic College at Milan. But the Austrian government in Lombardy, since the restoration, does not seem disposed to admit students not natives of the empire. A negotiation has been going on for some time on the subject, which perhaps will be settled by a sum of money being given to the Swiss in lieu of the boarders' seats. Many young men meantime repair to Germany or Italy to complete their professional education; but there, away from their country and from all control, and perhaps stinted in their means, they often leave their course of studies incomplete, and return home half instructed. Accordingly, observes a Swiss writer on statistics already mentioned,
'We have a multitude of half lawyers, half physicians, half engineers, half priests. And these men are afterwards called to fill the situations of magistrates, councillors of state, curates, &c.—to them is entrusted the execution of our civil and criminal laws, which are proverbially defective in Switzerland, and they are perhaps called upon to judge of the merits and defects of our institutions.'Franscini, Statistica, p. 361.
We have heard that the punishment of flogging is inflicted by a lay brother, who assumes for the occasion a disguise or mask, in order to secure himself from the odium attached to his office. On one occasion, a boy concealed a penknife with the intention of wounding the man, and obliging him to reveal himself. This occasioned some uproar in the establishment. The boys cannot write to or receive letters from their friends, without the superior's previous inspection.
One great obstacle to the progress of general education in Switzerland, is the diversity of languages, or rather dialects. German is the language of the great majority of the confederation, it is the language of the diet and of the federal government, it is spoken exclusively in fourteen cantons, and by the greater part of four others; whilst French is the language of only three, Geneva, Vaud, and Neuchatel; and Italian only of Ticino. But the spoken German reckons between thirty and and forty dialects, many of them unintelligible to the people of other districts; and the French, although spoken very well by people of education, is nothing but a mixture of patois in the mouths of the country people. A fourth language exists in the Grisons, and this is the Romansch, in which a few books have been printed, and this again is subdivided into dialects, of which the ladin prevails in the extensive valley of Engadina. In the mountainous districts few books circulate except prayer books and almanacs. Newspapers, which are now commonly taken as a criterion of the intellectual state of a country, are printed in almost every considerable town, to the number of about twenty, and published generally twice in the week. If from the quantity of these publications we proceed to examine their quality, we shall find about half a dozen perhaps above mediocrity. The best written are, the new Gazette of Zurich, lately edited by Paul Usteri, now dead; the Swiss Messenger, published at Aarau; and the Nouvelliste Vaudois, edited by Professor Monnard of Lausanne. The Swiss papers are sadly deficient and incorrect in their foreign news and general politics. People who wish for better information subscribe to the Allgemeine Zeitung of Augsbourg, or to some of the French journals. The literary journals are, the Swiss Chronicle, a monthly publication at Zurich; the Quarterly Scientific Journal of the University of Basle; and the Bibliothèque Britannique, published in monthly numbers at Geneva. The latter consists, in great measure, of extracts from the English reviews and magazines. This publication was established at a time when English literature was among things forbidden by Napoleon on the continent, and when some degree of both courage and caution was required to undertake such a work. It then helped to keep alive the knowledge and taste for English literature; but since the peace it has lost this incidental value, yet it continues a sort of substitute for those who cannot read English, although the selections might at times be made with greater discrimination.
Reading rooms and club libraries exist in the principal towns of Switzerland. The literary society of Geneva is