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required to know how to read and to write in German and Roman characters.
In the first class were taught German, the elements of Latin grammar, as far as the declensions and the regular conjugations, the four rules of arithmetic, general geography, general history, and natural history. Almost all the lessons were given in the form of a continued conversation between the professor and the pupils. The professor also read to them anecdotes and little stories on the subject of the lesson. The school-hours commenced at eight in the morning, and continued till twelve; they began again at two, and continued till five. The lessons were so arranged that the professor changed every hour; for instance, from eight to nine, German, from nine to ten, geography, &c. When the professor gave instructions in geography or history, he amused the pupils with anecdotes, geographical or historical, explained them by his remarks, and thus made the lessons easy and agreeable.
To facilitate still further the instruction of beginners, the class had a large black board, on which the professor daily wrote, in large characters, the subject of the lessons; for example, history, geography, Latin, arithmetic; and under each subject he wrote a word which served as a kind of guide in the lesson; under history, for example, he wrote Julius Cæsar, under geography, France, for the Latin language, amare, and in arithmetic some question to solve, &c. In the historical lesson he related anecdotes of Julius Cæsar, and endeavoured to combine with it every thing that could be useful to the children, and so on in the other lessons.
In the second class they proceeded as far as the doctrine of proportions, geometry, plain trigonometry, the syntax of the Latin language, the reading of some Latin author, and they continued their history, geography, and natural history. In this class, the instruction became more systematic. The professor wrote the subject on a black board, dictated paragraphs to his scholars, and afterwards developed and explained them. At the beginning of each lesson, he made a short recapitulation of the preceding, and twice a week he examined the pupils and made them repeat what they had gone over.
The third class studied algebra, spherical trigonometry, the elements of optics and mechanics, continued geography, history, natural history, statistics, the reading of Latin authors, and commenced the Greek and French languages. In the fourth, the same subjects were continued and developed: the exercises were multiplied; and the professor always sat in
his chair, the form of instruction being assimilated to that in the universities. The fifth class was entirely preparatory for the university, and to the subjects already mentioned were added Hebrew for those who were going to be theological students, and for others, English and Italian.
The method of teaching the languages was the following. The first boy read aloud a sentence of an author and then he explained the first word fully; the second boy did the same with the second, and so on. To translate into another language, the following method was adopted. The master gave such words as pater, amare, filia, which the pupils explained as we have just described. Then he made them put two words together in their proper case and tense, then three, four, and so on, until a complete period was formed. To have all the effect of this method, one pupil must follow another immediately without hesitation, in explaining the words and forming the phrase; in this way the attention of the whole class is kept alive.
This school had a good library and museum. Each class also had a small select library of its own, and a collection of instruments and models for the use of the pupils. In the first three classes a certain order was observed. The class was divided into two parts, one on the right and the other on the left of the professor; those on the right were the pupils who distinguished themselves by their diligence; on the left were placed the less attentive pupils. Each division was also subdivided into two benches, the first of which was occupied by the better pupils. Besides this, each pupil had his number, and the first on each bench exercised a kind of authority over the rest of the bench; and also the first in each division had authority over the whole division; and the first in the first bench of the first division was the superintendent of the whole class in the absence of the professor, and the representative of the class on public occasions. These places were assigned by the professor at the close of the weekly examinations. Every year there was a general examination in the great hall, which lasted about eight days, and was attended by all the civil and military authorities, the principal citizens of the towns, the clergy, and the parents of the pupils.
The rector opened the ceremony by an address, in which he stated what the pupils had been doing during the year, and he generally took this opportunity of proposing something beneficial to the establishment, and recommending it to the notice of the authorities. After the opening speech, the professor of the first class read a report on the state
of his class; then the examination of that class commenced, and at the end of it, one of the pupils delivered an address the other classes followed in the same order. The pupils who were ready to leave school for the university were then addressed by the rector, and also delivered declamations on certain subjects, which had previously been given out to them by the rector. The whole was concluded by the rector's announcing the names of those who had distinguished themselves during the year by their good conduct and diligence, and who were in consequence either promoted to a higher class, or rewarded with gold or silver medals, or books, instruments, and certificates of honour.
Though the lyceums were organized after the model of the school of Riga, they did not produce the same effect. Being ill endowed, they could not afford to pay for the best professors; besides this, it was impossible to find qualified teachers in Russia, and foreigners being ignorant of the language, were unable to convey information to the pupils. At the commencement of the present century, when the universities were established, all the lyceums and schools were re-organized. The instruction in each government was put under the care of a director, who was the head of all the schools in the government, and who received his instructions from the commission for schools of the university district to which the government belonged. In general, the lyceums and schools of this kind, which took the name of gymnasia, have been improved by this new organization; but, as every thing that is new is not therefore good, the schools in the Baltic provinces have lost all their original character, and during the last thirty years, since their change into gymnasia, we have not seen such men as Snell, Schlegel, Storch, Herder, and others come out of them.
In all the towns of the empire there are elementary schools for the purpose of religious instruction, and for teaching reading, writing, and the elements of arithmetic. These schools are intended to be preparatory to the gymnasia. The Lancasterian method of instruction is generally followed. Still, it is only a very small part of the inhabitants of this vast empire who participate in the instruction given in such establishments. The children of the nobility never go to them, being educated by foreign masters in their parents' houses, or in the boarding schools of St. Petersburg, or in military schools; and the peasantry, as we have said, are slaves, and have no instruction at all. It is only, then, the middle classes who derive any benefit from them; and even
in this class, the rich merchants and the higher kind of government officers, the rich manufacturers, &c., follow the example of the nobility, and educate their children at home or in boarding schools. Now, as the middle class, taken all through the empire, does not amount to more than 4,500,000, and the whole population is about 50,000,000, we may estimate the proportion between those who derive benefit from these establishments and those who do not, as about one to eleven.
In all the Baltic provinces, Courland, Livonia, Esthonia, there were established, about twenty years ago, elementary schools in the country parishes, in which the children of the Lettonian and Esthonian peasants are taught to read and write on Sundays, after the Lancasterian method. In the interior of Russia also, some noblemen have established, at their own expense, elementary schools for the instruction of their slaves; but, in general, innovations of this kind are looked on with a jealous eye both by the government and the nobility; for it is quite clear that the poor peasant can work the bidding of his master quite as well without being able to read or write.
Among the establishments for education in Russia the boarding schools deserve a particular notice. Before the organization of the universities, any person might establish a boarding school and adopt any method of instruction that he thought best; but since education has been placed under the surveillance of the universities, every individual who wishes to establish a boarding school must himself undergo an examination before a commission of the university, and submit to them the plan of his establishment. There is at present in the two capitals and in some other large towns a great number of boarding schools belonging to Frenchmen, Englishmen, and Germans. All these schools are compelled to follow the methods introduced into the public schools. They are required to hold public examinations annually, and to make reports to the university commission of all that passes in their schools. At St. Petersburg there were lately thirtytwo and at Moscow twenty-eight boarding schools. Among the schools of Moscow that of the Lutheran church is most worthy of notice; it owes its origin to the celebrated anatomist Loder, councillor of state, first physician to the emperor, and professor in the university of Moscow. M. Loder, as president of the council of the Protestant church, made considerable sacrifices to accomplish the object of founding the school. The funds of the church being unequal to its support, it is maintained by voluntary contributions, by public subscriptions, and the sums which are paid by the rich
boarders. Youths are received into the school from the age of seven to twelve, and are prepared for the gymnasia by four masters and a rector. The method of instruction very nearly resembles that which we described in speaking of the public school of Riga. Above a hundred boys are taught free of expense, and above forty are lodged, maintained, and clothed at the expense of the establishment; but besides those who pay nothing, there are generally about forty youths who do pay. Youths of all religious sects are freely admitted both to the school and the boarding establishment, and this causes no disagreement or difficulty. On the occasion of an annual examination, divine worship was solemnized in the great hall of the school, and as there were many scholars of the Greek faith, the Russo-Greek and the Lutheran minister performed the service alternately, prayed together, and united in giving their benediction to the scholars.
ROYAL NAVAL SCHOOL.
A Plan for conducting the Royal Naval School, respectfully submitted to the Consideration of the Council of Administration and the Service. By a Subscriber. London. Charles Knight, Pall-Mall-East. 1831.
OUR attention has been drawn to the Royal Naval School, now in progress of formation, by the above-named pamphlet, which is written in the best spirit, and contains valuable suggestions. The author has views on the subject of education, many parts of which, particularly those concerning management and discipline, meet with our cordial concurrence. With great respect for the writer, and earnest wishes that the right feeling which he has brought to his subject may regulate the discussions and proceedings of the governing body, to whom his ideas are presented, we proceed to discuss some points contained in his little work, of which we do not pretend to give a full review. The author proposes that the institution should be divided into three schools, in the lowest of which should be taught English reading, spelling, grammar, and etymology, as connected with signification,-writing, arithmetic,-elementary geography, including history and the practical use of the globes-perhaps the first books of Euclid, so as to give an insight into the nature of mathematics, and a knowledge of its principal terms, and the Linnean system of botany.' He also recommends that drawing should be taught here. He proposes that in the first school the memory and observation should be principally exercised, while in the second the judgment should be more