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I take the liberty of dedicating this volume to your Grace as a small token of the admiration and gratitude which I feel for all that you have done for the suffering Christians in the Turkish Empire. When my dear friend, the late Dr. Liddon, and myself returned from South-Eastern Europe in the end of the year 1876, and felt the need of some visible proof of British sympathy for the suffering Christians, your Grace gladly accepted the presidency of an influential committee formed to assist the Russian and other sick and wounded in the war of liberation. And when the massacres in Armenia could no longer be concealed you disregarded your own convenience and, I fear,

your health, and readily agreed to become President of the Grosvenor House Committee, which has for its object to aid, in every way open to it, the Armenians and other Christians suffering under Turkish misrule. Under the shadow of the Grosvenor House Committee the Armenian Relief Fund—so admirably organised by its indefatigable Honorary Secretary and Treasurer, Mr. Atkin-has saved the lives of thousands of starving Armenians; and thousands more are still dependent on it for their lives.

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But while the Grosvenor House Committee has left to the Armenian Relief Fund the management-which it has so well executed—of relieving distress, there is need of another work, that of enlightening the public on the facts of the Eastern question, and the present volume is intended as a small contribution towards that end. As Honorary Secretary, jointly with Mr. Atkin, of the Grosvenor House Committee, I shall deem it an honour as well as a pleasure to be allowed to dedicate the volume to your Grace.

I remain, dear Duke of Westminster, with sincere gratitude and respect,

Yours very truly,

MALCOLM MACCOLL.

PREFACE

The first half of this volume consists of signed articles, revised and enlarged, which I contributed to the Daily Chronicle in the end of September and the first half of October. I received numerous letters from all parts of the country, as did also the Editor of the Daily Chronicle, urging that they should be republished. On re-reading them for that purpose, I saw that a good deal more was needed to elucidate the subject, and the result is the present volume.

I have tried to be fair all round, and have striven to obey the precept : 'Nothing extenuate, nor set down aught in malice.' It would have been more agreeable to me to praise instead of blaming men whom I admire, and from whom I have received undeserved kindnesses; and I can only plead-si parva licet componere magnisAristotle's excuse for criticising his great master's doctrine of Ideas. Where the interests of truth are actually at stake it is a duty to sacrifice in its defence the most valuable private possession, including precious friendships. Both are alike dear to us; but it is a religious duty to prefer truth.'

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In political matters I have generally found myself hitherto in sympathy with the Liberal party. A careful study of the Armenian question has convinced me that the late Government mismanaged it from the beginning, and I have said so, and given my reasons. ,

One of the evils of party Government is the too common tendency to condone in one's political friends what one would condemn, perhaps denounce, in one's political opponents. It seems to me, on the contrary, that one ought to be more severe on the delinquencies of one's own party than on those of the opposite party. First, because one has a right to expect more from it; next, because the exposure of its faults should serve it as a warning in the future. What I have condemned in a Liberal Government I should have condemned in a Conservative Government, and I am not going to belie my convictions in the interest of any party.

It is the helpless Armenians, after all, whom I am anxious to help—next to my zeal for the honour of my own country—and I care little for the convenience of any party in comparison, if so be that I succeed ever so little in my endeavour. Politicians and parties will find it easy to survive my criticism; but myriads of innocent Armenians will not survive this winter unless Europe can be roused immediately to the imperative duty of staying the hand of the assassin. He is still busy at his work. The crowds of Armenians

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