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between the courts and the people, was the a striking example of this fact. Companies subject of prolonged discussion and of reso- organized for the purpose of exploiting these lutions passed by the Association. We await lands in Florida seized upon certain statethe receipt of an official report of these reso- ments issued under the approval of the Drainlutions before making comment upon them. age Division of the Department of Agricul

ture and circulated them in order to stimulate

the sale of these lands before they had been Trouble, like a cloud, drained. It transpired that these statements Another Disturbance

seems to hang over were made by the official in charge of the in Secretary Wilson's Department

the Department of field investigations that had been carried on

Agriculture. The Pin- by the Department, but had not been critically chot Ballinger controversy involved it in tur- examined by the authorities of the Departmoil. The Wiley case, affecting the enforce- ment. The report from which these statement of the Pure Food Law, revealed to the ments were culled was,

therefore held up. public the state of disorganization and con- As a consequence there was an immediate flict within the Department that deprived it protest om the people who were interested of a measure of public confidence.

in these lands. The investigation of the ComCommittee of Congress—the House Com- mittee has now apparently shown that Mr. mittee on Expenditures in the Department Wright, the official who made these stateof Agriculture—has made report regarding ments on the part of the Government, was an investigation it has been conducting on the financially interested in these lands. This work of the Department in relation to the was several years ago. Mr. Wright has for drainage of the Florida Everglades. This some time now ceased to be connected Committee has been holding hearings for with the Government. The Committee is some time and has collected a large amount divided in opinion concerning the relation of testimony. Its report, however, is very which Assistant Secretary Hays holds to brief. It consists of two parts, one express

this affair. The majority cite facts which ing views of the majority, signed by Mr. Moss, indicate that he knew about Mr. Wright's the Chairman, and two others; the other, transactions, and that he himself, though representing the views of the minority, signed not financially profiting by any transactions by Mr. Sloan, with the reported concurrence in the lands, took part in negotiations conof the other two minority members. There cerning those lands. The minority report

two great classes of reclaimable waste defends Assistant Secretary Hays, and cites lands in the United States. One of these testimony to show that he did not know of classes consists of the lands which cannot Mr. Wright's connection, and that he is in no be cultivated for lack of water. Immense wise culpable. One other subject is considtracts of such lands have been held by the ered in this report_namely, the methods Government and are now reclaimed or in the used to meet a deficit in one of the subdivisprocess of reclamation by means of vast irri- ions of the Department. The majority of the gating projects. The other lands are those Committee believe that, though the methods which are useless because they are largely used to meet that deficit were not justified, submerged by water. These lands can be the two men who have been subjected to reclaimed by a process just opposite to that discipline because of these methods were of irrigation--namely, drainage. Unfortu- unjustly treated. The minority do not deny nately, these swamp lands were allowed. this, but they do deny the authority of the years ago to pass out of the hands of the

Committee to express its opinion on this subFederal Government into the hands of the ject. There are two conclusions which the several States. It is of course obvious that ordinary reader will draw from the report. the Government of a single State is much One is that, coming after other revelations, weaker than the Government of the Nation. this one confirms the impression that the It is less able to deal with such enormous Department of Agriculture is not, and has for undertakings as are involved in the drainage some time not been, efficiently controlled or of such stretches of submerged lands; and it administered as a whole. The other concluis much less competent to cope with the great sion is that this report emphasizes the folly powers of special private interests that see of the Government in handing those swamp in such lands opportunities for speculative lands over to the State, and provides for the

, enterprise. The Florida Everglades provide wise legislator and for the intelligent citizen a

are

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new warning against the proposals so insist- are now imperiled," thus confirming the ently made that the Government repeat its statement of our Minister at Managua. former blunder by handing over other great Corinto the many foreigners, including all natural resources to the States. When first their women and children, have sought refuge made, such an error could be credited to igno- on our naval vessels, and the town is policed rance. If it is repeated with regard to water by all the available men from those ships. power, for example, it can be credited only The expected arrival of the cruisers Calito stupidity.

fornia, Colorado, Cleveland, and Denver,

with their marines, may convince doubters While Mr. Bacon, of Georgia, that our Government is in earnest in protectNicaragua

was introducing in the United ing our citizens and its property abroad, States Senate the other day a resolution for- especially when threatened by such barbarity bidding the use of American military forces as now reigns in Nicaragua. According to in Nicaragua, orders were being issued by the late information, one reason why General Navy Department for the prompt reinforce- Mena attempted to overthrow the Nicaraguan ment of those forces. There is need for such Government was because he fancied that reinforcement if we are to protect the lives ours did not “ mean business” regarding its and property of American citizens. The insistence upon the preservation of peace, attacking forces have been firing upon the protection of our citizens and property, churches and hospitals, and even upon the and respect for the pledges of our convenAmerican Legation at Managua, the Nica- tion with Nicaragua, requiring an open elecraguan capital, and have otherwise diste- tion of the successor of President Diaz. It garded the accepted rules of war. In the is now proposed that this election shall be five days' bombardment of Managua many properly guarded by our armed forces. victims were mangled with machetes beyond Whether this be necessary or not, the Monroe identification, among them being a large Doctrine implies our moral responsibility for number of women and over a hundred non- the conduct of the Latin-American republics, combatants. Our naval surgeons and the and, of them all, none has been more incorrimarines and bluejackets already at Managua gibly turbulent than Nicaragua. volunteered their services to the Government in caring for the wounded there, and were able to check a threatened epidemic of fever.

With the payment last week Mr. Weitzel, our Minister at Managua, claims

The Alsop Claim

of a large amount to the that our interests can be protected only by a Alsop claimants, attention is again drawn to force at a number of points competent to act international arbitration.

Several years ago in defense against such assaults. Accord- the Alsop claims threatened the friendly ingly, the Navy Department is sending a relations of the United States and Chile. force of upwards of two thousand blue- The firm of Alsop & Co. was an American jackets and marines into Nicaragua to pro

It dealt in guano, hides, and mintect foreign lives and property at the several erals. It did business in Peru, Bolivia, and points where there is danger and to keep Chile. Thirty years ago these three nations the railway communication open from Mana- were involved in war, in which some of the gua to the Pacific coast. This line, Ameri- company's property was destroyed. In consecan owned, runs from Managua to Corinto. quence, the company made claims against Since the revolution broke out it has been in the three Governments. Bolivia and Peru constant danger of interruption by the revo- settled with the company; but Chile did not, lutionists under General Mena, formerly the on the ground that the claims had to do with Nicaraguan Minister of War. Of course, if certain lands which meanwhile had been the revolutionists took possession of the rail- ceded outright by Bolivia to Chile. Thereway, all Americans in the capital would be upon the firm of Alsop & Co., by virtue of cut off from the principal seaport on the the American citizenship of its members, Pacific Ocean. The sending of an American demanded our Government's support.

Its police force into Nicaragua seems abundantly defense seemed within our Government's justified by the events there, and by the state- right; certainly this had been accentuated by ment of Señor Moncada, recently Nicaraguan the firing by some Chilean enthusiasts on Minister of the Interior, that “the lives and members of the crew of the United States property of many Americans in Nicaragua gunboat Yorktown at Santiago, the principal

concern.

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Chilean port.

Our Government proposed each of them proposes two candidates taken arbitration by the International Court of from the list of the members of the permaArbitration at The Hague, but this was not nent court, exclusive, of course, of the memwelcomed by the Chilean Government. It bers appointed by either of the parties, and finally consented to refer the claims to the not being o nationals” of either of them. good offices of Edward VII, King of Eng- The manner of determining the choice of an land, as arbitrator, or, as the French have it, umpire from these candidates is by lot. The

amiable compositeur." On the King's umpire presides over the tribunal, which gives death the dispute was submitted to his suc- its decisions by a majority vote. The first cessor, George V. Last month, acting on case was that of our Government versus the the report of Lord Desart, Lord Robson, Mexican in the Pious Funds of the Caliand Mr. Hurst, whom he had designated to fornias” controversy. We won. The second study the case, King George pronounced his case was that of Germany, Great Britain, and award, assigning a sum about one-third as Italy versus our Government, the French, much as the original amount of the claim to Dutch, and others in the Venezuela blockade the Alsops in full settlement. The news was case, in which the right of preference was received here with much satisfaction, not claimed by the first-named Powers, which only because of the decision itself, but also had blockaded Venezuelan ports. They because the British Government had enabled

The next case was that of Germany, ours to dispose of the only disputed question France, and Great Britain versus Japan on outstanding with Chile.

The case is gener- the question of Japanese house taxes. The ally interesting as being one of the few now- three Powers wen.

The fourth case was adays for which the good offices of the Inter- between Great Britain and France with renational Court of Arbitration at The Hague gard to their respective treaty rights in Muscat were not successfully invoked. Chile, though in Arabia. Great Britain won on the main evidently willing to have matter settled point. The fifth case was between Germany by arbitration, would not accede to our Gov- and France with regard to deserters from the ernment's request to submit the case army of occupation at Casablanca, Morocco. the Hague Court. Doubtless the Chileans The decision left honors easy with each side. thought that they might come off with better The sixth case was between Norway and grace by submitting to more old-fashioned Sweden with regard to their maritime frontier. and more elastic arbitral methods. At all

Sweden won. The seventh case

was beevents, Latin-American pride seemed ruffled tween ourselves and Great Britain with regard at a suggestion of The Hague's supposedly to the Newfoundland fisheries and the intersterner justice. The old order naturally pretation of the treaty of 1818.

le von persists, especially among emotional peoples. on most of the points. The eighth case was

between ourselves and Venezuela in the case

of the Orinoco Steamship Company. We If the Alsop case calls

The next case was between Great The Hague Court's Record

attention to the Hague Britain and France concerning the arrest of

Court, it also calls atten- Savarkar, a Hindu. Great Britain won. The tion to what that Court has accomplished next case was between Russia and Turkey since its establishment in 1902 following concerning arrears of interest on Russian favorable action by the Hague Peace Confer- indemnity. The award has not yet been

1899 in authorizing its •creation. rendered. The eleventh case was between Powers in controversy may establish special Italy and Peru concerning the so-called tribunals or mixed commissions, or, as in the Canevaro claims.

Peru won.

The latest Alsop case, may refer the case to a single case before the Court is between France arbiter. But if they choose the Hague and Italy, and concerns the seizure by the Court, they must choose the judges from its laiter during the Turco-Italian war of three general panel or list. To that list each signa- French ships. The court to inquire into this tory Power may contribute, if it likes, as many seizure has only recently been formed. We as four persons, to be appointed for a period of learn from an interesting statement just put

From among these members of forth by the “World Peace Foundation ” of the permanent Court each party in dispute Boston that a thirteenth trial will shortly come appoints an arbitrator. The two arbitrators before the Hague Tribunal. The contestants choose an umpire. If they do not agree, are Russia and Japan. Last year, it appears,

Won.

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six years.

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when the Russian Government determined to development of the country. These men extend the boundary of its territorial waters financed party campaigns and were always in the Sea of Okhotsk—east of Siberia and on the inside when 'party policy was to be north of Japan—the Japanese Government determined. . . . Everything went as they immediately lodged a protest. The question, suggested, while the rank and file of us fared it appears, has now become so acute that as we might and were happy if we had any three Japanese cruisers have been sent to the small share in the prosperity which they north. Without the Hague Court this con- organized for themselves. They were the troversy might have serious consequences. trustees, we were their wards and took part In view of past international dissensions the in the common life as they planned and record of the Hague Court is impressive. directed. What. went

on in the trustees' meeting we were very seldom allowed to

learn-learn, indeed, only by impertinent In the political campaign last inquiry, only by Congressional investigations The Political Campaign

week Governor Wilson invaded or trials in court, which the trustees com

Pennsylvania and Mr. Roose- plained sadly interfered with the regular velt Vermont, while Governor Marshall and course of business." Governor Wilson dea number of other Democratic campaigners clared that the whole method and spirit of conwere busy in Maine. While Mr. Roosevelt ducting our Government should be changed, was making a hundred-and-fifty-mile automo- that the people should insist on being actual bile journey through the Green Mountain partners again and upon knowing how their State, speaking to attentive and enthusiastic business is being conducted and in whose crowds, Governor Wilson went into the Key- interest. In referring to the tariff, which he stone State to make a speech at the picnic of has made perfectly evident that he considers the members of the State Grange. On his the most vital issue in the campaign, Mr. way to and from Williams Grove, where the Wilson gave an adroit turn to a phrase which picnic was held, he was compelled by large Mr. Roosevelt has used in many speeches. and expectant crowds to make a number of Mr. Roosevelt has repeatedly said that what subsidiary talks. In his speech to the Gran- he was after was " a better distribution of gers Mr. Wilson declared that, whether he the prize money.” Governor Wilson in his was elected or not, he was going to have speech said that Mr. Roosevelt has projust as much fun one way as the other. He claimed himself a convert to the protective continued :

policy, has also said that, while no doubt I would like to have the fighting advantage

some duties were too high, on the whole the that that great office would give me, but, having policy pursued by Republican Administrabeen born of a fighting breed, I do not have to tions had been the right one, and thought have the office to do the fighting. I have enlisted for life, and I do not have to be an officer,

the prize money which had been received I can shoot just as straight as a private. More

under that system by the manufacturers of over, I was born of a talkative race, and the only the country was legitimate booty." Mr. thing necessary in our day is to bring the facts

Wilson continued : out in the open and talk about them frankly.

Prize money is generally acquired by capture He reminded his hearers that when he was

and not by any process of earning, but Mr. running for Governor in New Jersey he told Roosevelt is always frank and says that his only the people that, while he did not know what objection to the system is that too much of the he would be able to do when he got in,

“ prize money” remains in the hands of the officers and

too little of it is distributed to the there was one thing he could promise them :

His own object he avows to be to see to “Only let me inside and I will tell you every- it that more of the prize money gets into the thing that is going on in there." Governor pay envelopes of those whom the freebooters

employ. The interesting point I wish to raise Wilson declared that instead of conducting the

now is, Who supplies the plunder? From whom National business along the lines laid down is the prize money taken? I suspect that a vast by Jefferson, as Americans had supposed they proportion of it comes out of the pockets of the were doing, as a matter of fact they have farmer, unwillingly enough no doubt, but inevibeen conducting it along the lines laid down

tably, for I see in him that great helpless class,

the unbenefited “consumer. by Hamilton. The leaders of the Republican party, he said, "have called into consultation Governor Wilson has put his finger on what in every vital matter only those who had is unquestionably the chief danger in a prothe biggest material stake in the economic tective tariff. The difficulty is that as long

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The second session of the SixtyCongress

second Congress began on December 4, 1911; it ended on August 26, 1912. It lasted 267 days. Only seven times before in our history has a session exceeded it in length. The Sixty-second Congress is Republican in the Senate and Democratic in the House. Much of the legislation passed at this session is good ; some is bad. The more important measures which are to be classed as good include :

The Children's Bureau Act.

The Direct Election of Senators Amendment.

The Phosphorus Match Act.
The Parcels Post Act.
The Russian Treaty resolution.
The Eight-Hour Government Work Act.

The Federal Regulation of Wireless Companies Act.

The Wireless Operators Act.
The Alaskan Civil Government Act.
The Industrial Bureau Act.
The Fur Seals Act.
Amendment to Food and Drugs Act.
The Panama Act.
The Act against prize-fight moving pictures.

The Act to prevent filibustering on the Mexican border.

Several good laws for the army and navy.

To offset these, there are few pieces of legislation against which to write the word " bad” save emphatically the Sherwood Pension Act. The events on the “bad" side are mostly sins of omission, not of commission. Congress's sins of omission are its failures

To pass needed tariff legislation.
To pass needed trust legislation.
To pass needed monetary legislation.
To pass needed naval legislation.
To abolish the involuntary servitude of

gress, were vetoed, and were repassed by the House but not by the Senate.

The Chemical Bill was killed in the Senate.
The Cotton Bill died in conference.

The Sugar Bill passed by the House was rejected by the Senate; and the Sugar Bill passed by the Senate was blocked in conference by the House.

The Excise Tax Bill, to replace the revenue to be lost if the House Sugar Bill had passed, died in conference.

More than a hundred thousand dollars has been actually expended, and as much more appropriated, by the House in a programme of investigation.

The Democratic maEconomy--of a Kind, and Riders—of all Kinds

jority in the House,

according to the statements of its leaders, set out to make a record for economy. But we doubt very much if the means which it adopted to this end will commend themselves to the country at large. They included depriving the navy of a battle-ship, attempting to cut down the army, trying to eliminate some necessary bureaus in the Department of State, parsimony in making appropriations for the Government service, and abolishing the bi-partisan Tariff Board. On the other hand, the Democrats did not hesitate to pass a dollar-aday service pension law involving additional expenditure of about $75,000,000, afterwards reduced by the Senate to $25,000,000 annually. The record of this session was further marked by an unprecedented use of “riders.” The “ rider" involves an endeavor to get through legislation, by attaching it to another piece of legislation, which could not be passed if the attempt were made to pass it by itself. Riders were attached to the appropriation bills for the army, pensions, the post-office, the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial, and the Sundry Civil Bills. It was also the case with the Panama Bill. Some of the “ riders ” proposed were good, as, for instance, the parcels post provision in the Post-Office Bill and the free ships provision in the Panama Bill; and some, like the latter provision, were more cognate to the general subject of the bills to which they were attached than were others. But the principle of legislation by " rider," especially when attached to an appropriation bill, is thoroughly bad. By the courageous use by the President of the veto power, there were prevented such spiteful pieces of mischief as Congress intended to perpetrate

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To pass a workmen's compensation bill. To extend agricultural education.

To act on the President's civil service recommendations.

The record of the session on the tariff may be summed up in the following results :

A Wool Bill and a Steel Bill passed Con

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