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66 tors, that it was enjoined to them of old time in "the Law of Mofes, That they should not commit Adultery; and provided Men govern themselves "as to the external Acts of the Sins of Uncleannefs, these Doctors mind not any further Tranfgreffions of this Commandment; but I fay unto you, whofoever either outwardly looks on a "Woman with a luftful Eye, or inwardly contemplates her in his Mind with a luftful Heart, he " is already guilty of the Breach of the Seventh "Commandment with her." This I take to be the genuine Sense of the Words. But for our more diftinct Apprehenfion of it, I fhall particularly enquire into these two Things, which are plainly contained in the Text.


1. What was the Opinion of the Jewish Doctors concerning the Sin or Sins prohibited in this Seventh Commandment?

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2. What further Improvement our Saviour has made in the Interpretation of this Commandment?

I. What was the Opinion of the Jewish Doctors concerning the Sin or Sins prohibited in this Seventh Commandment?

It must be confeffed that the Original Word pov, fignifies commonly to commit Adultery: But fometimes it is ufed in a larger Acceptation, for Whoredom in general; fo as to comprehend both Fornication and Adultery, and all the other more abominable Species of Actual Uncleanness, fuch as Inceft, Sodomy, and the like; at leaft by a Synecdoche the chief Species is put for the whole Kind; and I am apt to think in this Place it is to be taken in this larger Senfe; both be-. cause it is very plain that all these were exprefly forbidden in the Law of Moses; and therefore

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fore not likely that the Jewish Doctors would limit the Tranfgreffions of this Commandment to the fole Sin of Adultery; and because we find fome of the Jewish Doctors (a) interpreting it in this wider Senfe; And if they had limited it to the narrower Senfe of Adultery, 'tis probable our Saviour would have corrected this their Mistake; whereas the only thing he faults in their Doctrine concerning this Commandment is, that they contented themselves with prohibiting the grofs external Acts of Uncleannefs, but let pass the inward Luftings and Uncleannefs of the Heart.

II. This brings me to the next Thing I propofed to confider, namely, what further Improvement our Saviour has made in the Interpretation of this Commandment? But 1 fay unto you, fays he, that whosoever looketh on a Woman to luft after ber, (b) bath debauched her already in his Heart. For fo I think the Words fhould be rendred, agreeably to the large Notion of the Word, in which I just now fhewed you it ought to be taken. For finding out our Saviour's Meaning then in this Improvement, we are to confider and explain these two Things:

1. What is meant by looking upon a Woman to luft after her?

2. Why this luftful Look fhould be interpreted the Debauching her in the Heart?

1. First, We are to confider what is the Meaning of this looking on a Woman to luft after her. As to the Act of Looking it is worth obferving, that the Original Word Bar is ufed not only for beholding with the Eyes of the Body, but for mind

(a) Aben Ezra. (b) Stupravit eam. Eral

ing, regarding, and confidering with the Eye of
the Mind; as Matt. xxii. 16. Thou regardest not
the Perfon of Men. It is the fame Original Word
which we tranflate here looking upon. So Matt. xiv.
13. Therefore I speak to them in Parables, becaufe
they feeing, fee not, i. e. though they fee with their
Bodily Eyes, they fee not with the Eye of the
Mind; they do not confider nor understand. And
1 Cor. i. 26. Ye fee your Calling Brethren, how
that not many Wife Men after the Flesh are cal-
led: Ye fee, i. e. ye obferve your Calling. And
in the beginning of this fame Chapter, what we
tranflate Seeing the Multitudes, might be as well
tranflated Looking upon, or Confidering the Multi-
tudes; for it was really the Confideration of their
Circumftances, that gave Occafion to this excel-
lent Sermon. And I obferve our Saviour ufes thefe
Words of Beholding, or Looking upon, and Confide-
ring promifcuously, as what is in one Place, Matt.
vi. 26. Behold the Fowls of the Air, is presently
afterwards Confider the Lilies of the Field. But now
for the Senfe of the Word here tranflated to look
upon; I think it will very conveniently in this, as
in many other Places, bear both thefe Senfes, both
the looking upon a Woman with the Eyes of the
Body, and confidering her with the Eye of the
Mind; for both of them may be to luft after her;
and when they are fo, no doubt they are both a
Debauching her in the Heart. The Lufting after
a particular Object when present and under our
Eye, is the looking on a Woman with our bodily
Eyes to luft after her; but the Lufting after an
Object that is abfent, and only reprefented to the
Memory, Fancy, or Imagination, is the Look-
ing on a Woman too, but with the Eye of the

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Mind, to Luft after her. And now that the luftful Look in both thefe Senfes is the Debauching her in the Heart, and is very defervedly by our Saviour brought under the Breach of the Seventh Commandment, is what I am to fhew in the next Place.

2. Our Saviour fays, Whosoever looketh on a Woman to luft after her, hath Debauched her already in his Heart, i. e. as to his part of the Sin: For it is the Confent of the Heart that makes the Sin before God, and nothing elfe. For if we will fuppose any Perfon invincibly chafte in Heart, overpowered with the mere Strength and Brutality of a Ravisher, and fo fuffering a part in the external grofs Act, there is no doubt in the Sight of God, fuch a Perfon would be cleared from the Sin of Whoredom. The Sin then being feated properly in the Heart, we are to confider which way the Heart is prevailed upon to affent to it; and we fhall find it is chiefly by this double Sort of Looking, with the Eye of the Body, and the Eye of the Mind. First, I fay, Looking with the Eye of the Body; this is the Way the Senfation and Idea of the Object Men luft after, comes to get Entrance into their Hearts, and is the common Original of all the finful Motions that follow. But because the bare bodily Looking is not always finful in itself, but according to the Aim or Defign of it, may be Good, Bad, or Indifferent; therefore to determine plainly what fort of Looking on a Woman is Sinful, our Saviour has decided it here in a Word, that it is the Looking on a Woman to Luft after her, that is, either in order to feed Luft; or at least till Luft is kindled; for it is poffible that the first Look might proceed from Chance,

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Chance, or Curiofity, which if continued, mignt end in Luft. And therefore we may define these finful Looks to be either when they are with an express Design to feed Luft; to excite or foment finful Defires, or when begun upon another Account, they determine in that, and are turned to that Use at laft. So it is reported in the Apocryphal History of (a) Susannah, that the two wicked Elders commanded to uncover Sufannah's Face, that they might be filled with her Beauty. This is commonly given as the first Occafion or Original of thefe forts of Sins. So it is faid, Gen. xxxix. 7. that his Master's Wife caft ber Eyes upon Jofeph, and then proceeded to tempt him to Adultery. Now it is certain she was guilty of the Sin so soon as she looked upon him with this Adulterous Eye. Nay, we find this Wantonness of the Eyes condemned, when they are only in general cafting their impure Glances, before they come to fix on any particular Object. Thus the Jewish Ladies are cenfured, I. iii. 16. As walking with ftretched forth Necks and wanton Eyes. And thus St Peter defcribes fome Seducers in his Days, 2 Pet. ii. 14. as having Eyes full of Adultery, and that cannot ceafe from Sin. But if unclean Thoughts and Defigns do first enter by the Eye, they do not commonly end there. The Adulterous Mind is commonly more guilty in this Respect, in that it not only receives and harbours all thefe external Ideas of Temptations, but infinitely diverfifies and multiplies them in an impure Imagination, and frequently turns to them and looks at them, to

(a) Suf. v. 32.

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