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DECIMI

JUNII JUVENALIS

AQUINATIS

S A TIR Æ.

SATIRA X.

ARGUMENT.

The Poet's design in this Satire, which deservedly holds the first

rank among all performances of the kind, is to represent the various wishes and desires of mankind, and to shew the folly of them. He mentions riches, honours, eloquence, fame for martial achievements, long life, and beauty, and gives in

stances of their having proved ruinous to the possessors of OMNIBUS in terris, quæ sunt a Gadibus usque Auroram et Gangem, pauci dignoscere possunt Vera bona, atque illis inultum diversa, remota Erroris nebulâ : quid enim ratione timemus, Aut cupimus? quid tam dextro pede concipis, ut te

* This satire has been always ad Line 1. Gades.] An island without the mired; Bishop Burnet goes so far, as to Streights of Gibraltar in the south part: recommend it (together with Persius) to of Spain, divided from the continent by the serious perusal and practice of the a small creek. Now called Cadiz, by divines in his diocese, as the best com corruption Cales. inon places for their sermons, as the 2. The East.] Aurora, quasi aurea storehouses and magazines of moral bora, from the golden-coloured splendour virtues, from whence they may draw of day-break,, metonym, the East. out, as they have occasion, all manner -Gunges.] The greatest river in of assistance for the accomplishment of the East, dividing India into two parts. a virtuous life.

The tenth Satire (says 3-4. Cloud of error.] That veil of Crusius in his Lives of the Roman darkness and ignorance which is over Poets) is inimitable for the excellence the human mind, and hides from it, as of its morality, and sublime sentiments. it were, the faculty of perceiving our

THE

S A TIRES

OF

JUVENAL.

SATIRE X*.

them. He concludes, therefore, that we should leave it to the gods to make a choice for us, they knowing what is most for our good. All that we can safely ask is health of body und mind: possessed of these, we have enough to make us happy, and therefore it is not much malter what we want besides,

IN all lands, which are from Gades to
The East and the Ganges, few can distinguish
True good things, and those greatly different from them, the

cloud
Of error removed: for what, with reason do we fear,
Or desire? what do you contrive so prosperously, that you

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real and best interests, as distinguished - dexter-a-um, therefore, signifies lucky, from those which are deceitful and ima- favourable, fortunate, propitious as læginary.

Vus-a-um, unlucky, inconvenient, unsean 4. What, with reason, &c.] According sonable. to the rules of right and sober reason. Tam dextro pede is equivalent to tam

5. So prosperously, c.] Tam dextro fausto--secundo--prospero pede. pede-on so prosperous a footing with I pede fausto-go on and prosper. ever such hope and prospect of success, Hor. lib. ii. epist. ii. l. 37. So VIRG. that you may not repent your endeavour Æn. viii. l. 302. (conatus) and pains to accomplish it, Et nos et tua dexter adi pede sacra seand of your desires and wishes being cundo. fully completed and answered?—votique Approach us, and thy sacred rites, with peracti.

*thy favourable presence.' The right and left were ominous Pes—lit. a foot, that member of the

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Conatûs non pæniteat, votique peracti?
Evertêre domos totas optantibus ipsis
Di faciles. Nocitura toga, nocitura petuntur
Militia. Torrens dicendi copia multis,
Et sua mortifera est facundia. Viribus ille
Confisus periit, admirandisque lacertis.
Sed plures nimiâ congesta pecunia curâ
Strangulat, et cuncta exsuperans patrimonia census,
Quanto delphinis balæna Britannica major.
Temporibus diris igitur, jussuque Neronis,
Longinum, et magnos Senecæ prædivitis hortos
Clausit, et egregias Lateranorum obsidet ædes
Tota cohors: rarus venit in cænacula miles.
Pauca licet portes argenti vascula puri,
Nocte iter ingressus, gladium contumque timebis,
Et motæ ad lunam trepidabis arundinis umbram.
CANTABIT VACUUS CORAM LATRONE VIATOR.

Prima fere vota, et cunctis notissima templis,

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body on which we stand sometimes former driven, by the malice of his ene.
means the foundation of any thing a mies, to poison himself; the latter slain
plot for building ;--so, in a moral sense, by order of M. Antony. See KEYS-
those conceptions and contrivances of LER's Travels, vol. ii. p. 342, note.
the mind, which are the foundations of 10. To his strength, &c.] Alluding to
human action, on which men build for Milo, the famous wrestler, born at Cro.
profit or happiness:--this seems to be ton, in Italy, who, presuming too much
its meaning here.

on his great strength, would try whether
7. The easy gods, &c.] The gods, by he could not rend asunder a tree which
yielding to the prayers and wishes of was cleft as it grew in the foreşt; it
mankind, have often occasioned their yielded at first to his violence, but it
ruin, by granting such things as in the closed presently again, and, catching his
end proved burtful. So that, in truth, hands, held him till the wolves devoured
men, by wishing for what appeared to him.
them desirable, have, in effect, them 12. Destroys.] Lit. strangles. Met.
selves wished their own destruction. ruins, destroys

8. By the gown, &c.] Toga here being The poet is here shewing, that, of all opposed to militia, may allude to the things which prove ruinous to the posgown worn by the senators and magis- sessors, money, and especially an overtrates of Rome; and so, by meton. grown fortune, is one of the most fatal signify their civil offices in the govern- and yet, with what care is this heaped ment of the state.-9. d. Many have together! wished for a share in the government and 13. Exceeding, fc.] is e. Beyond the administration of civil affairs, others for rate of a common fortune. high rank and post of command in the 14. A British whale.] A whale found army, each of which have been attended in the British seas. with damage to those who have eagerly 16. Longinus.] Cassius Longinus, put sought after them.

to death by Nero: his pretended crime 9. A fluent copiousness, fc.) Many was, that he had, in his chamber, an covet a great degree of eloquence; but image of Cassius, one of Julius Cæsar's how fatal has this proved to possessors murderers; but that which really made of it! Witness Demosthenes and Cicero, him a delinquent was his great wealth, who both came to violent deaths;—the which the emperor seized.

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