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[Durandus, Rationale. Book iv, Preface 13, 14.]

The Temple of old was divided into two parts by a veil hung in the middle thereof. The first part was called the Holy Place but the inner part the Holy of Holies. Whatever part then of the Office of the Mass cometh before the Secret? is performed as it were in the outer place : but the Secret itself within the Holy of Holies. There were in the Holy of Holies the Altar of incense, the Ark of the Testimony, the Mercy-seat above the Ark, and over this two cherubims of glory with their faces looking towards each other. Herein the High Priest entered alone once in the year having the names of the Patriarchs written upon the breastplate of judgement and the shoulderplates, and bearing a censer of burning coals and blood, and incense, which with prayer he placed in the thurible until the cloud of incense covered him. Afterwards he sprinkled the Mercy seat and the Altar with blood, and then he went out to the people, and washed his vestments in the evening. These were types of old, but they have ceased since the things signified thereby have come. But thus the former Temple doth denote the present Church; the Holy of Holies, heaven; the High Priest, Christ; the blood, His Passion; the Coals, His Love; the thurible, His Flesh; the burning incense, prayers of sweet savour; the Altar, the Hosts of Heaven; the Ark, Christ in His Humanity; the Mercy-seat, God the Father; the two cherubims, the twain Testaments, the which do look towards each other because the two do agree; the vestments which be washed, mankind. Wherefore consider what things were done of old, and what things CHRIST hath done, and then see how the Minister of the Church doth represent the same in the Office of the Mass. By the Ark also is signified the Humility of CHRIST, from which through His mercy all good hath come unto us."

1 After the Sanctus which, as we shall find, was performed with the full choir and the accompaniment of organs, came the Secret, which embraced the whole Canon of the Mass, performed by the Celebrant alone, and the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. “ It is called the Secret because these things be hidden from us, since the nature of man can in no wise fully comprehend so great a mystery: for the denoting of which it is rightly performed secretly. To signify the same also, the Priest when entering upon the Secret is veiled as it were with the side curtains." See other mystical reasons adduced in the remainder of this passage, Book IV, Chapter 35, and in Chapter 39 an account of the side curtains. Upon the use of these see also the Dublin Review, vol. x, p. 339.

In the next section the same subject is further illustrated, though without reference to the immediate subject of this Appendix, the necessity of the division of every church into a Chancel and Nave.

The reader may consult a most interesting series of chapters in Hugo de Sancto Victore, (Tituli ii-viii. Ex. Misc. II, Lib. IV.) upon this subject: the passages are far too long for insertion here.

The absolute necessity of this twofold division is a point which it is more than painful at this time to have to prove. It is only within the last two centuries, that our own or any branch of the Church Catholick has dared to depart from an usage which, if any, has universality, antiquity, and consent on its side, and of whose authority was never any doubt in the Church. For some of the arguments which

2 See LEVITICUS Xvi, Exodus xxviii, xxxix, and xl.

have been adduced in the present controversy we must refer to the publications of the Cambridge Camden Society, and particularly the Ecclesiologist. There is nothing more wanted than a careful treatise on the subject which shall in a compendious form put this and several points depending upon it, such as Orientation itself, and praying towards the East, in a clear light.

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[DURANDUS V. II, 57.] “ FURTHERMORE albeit God is every where, yet ought the Priest at the Altar and in the Offices to pray towards the East: according to the constitutions of Vigilius, Pope. Whence in churches which have the doors at the West, he that celebrateth turneth in the salutations to the people : but in churches which have the entrance at the East, I as at Rome, there is no need in the Salutations for turning round, because the Priest always turneth to the people. The Temple also of Solomon, and the Tabernacle of Moses had their entrance from the East. Pray we therefore towards the East, being mindful, firstly, that He, Who is the splendour of eternal light, hath illuminated THEM THAT SIT IN DARKNESS AND THE SHADOW OF DEATH, RISING WITH HEALING IN HIS WINGS:8 of whom it is said, BEHOLD THE MAN, WHOSE NAME IS THE EAST. 4 For the which cause he saith in the Book of Wisdom,* WE

1 S. John Lateran is an instance. We may observe that the reasons for the orientation of churches must have been very strong to have caused an universal disregard of an example thus set at the centre of Western Christendom. 2 S. LUKE i, 79.

8 MALACHI iv, 2. 4 ZECHARIAH vi, 12. * WISDOM xvi, 28.

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