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The Rationale was the first work, from the pen of an uninspired writer, ever printed. The editio princeps appeared at the press of Fust, in 1459; being preceded only by the Psalters of 1457 and 1459. It is, of course, of the most extreme rarity: the beauty of the typography has seldom been exceeded. Chalmers mentions, besides this, thirteen editions in the fifteenth, and thirteen in the sixteenth century : all of them are very rare.

The editions with which we are acquainted, are those of Rome, 1473; Lyons, 1503, 1512, 1534, 1584; Antwerp, 1570; Venice, 1599, 1609. The Translation has been made from the editions of 1473, and 1599. The former is a magnificent specimen of typography: the words are excessively contracted ; and there are double columns to each page. Our copy is partially illuminated; and the binding is ornamented with a border of the Evangelistick Symbols. The latter contains also the first edition of the work of Beleth, and is a reprint of Doard's Lyons edition of 1565. Doard dedicated it to his brother, Bishop of Marseilles; and prefixed a Preface, in which he bestows a well-merited eulogium on Durandus, and mentions the care taken in correcting and revising the work. He also added some notes, of little worth. The Venice reprint is so vicious a specimen of typography, that from it alone the sense could in many places hardly be explained. Our copy belonged to Bishop White Kennett, who appears to have studied it diligently.

We must now say a few words as on our own share in the work. With respect to the Introduction, fully convinced as we are of the truth and importance of the general principle maintained in it, we do not wish to press, as matter of certainty, all or any of the minor details into which that theory is carried. We believe, indeed, that the more the subject has been studied, the more truthful our views will appear to be: but we wish the reader to bear in mind, that the weakness of any portion of them is no argument against their reception, as a whole. At the same time, none can be more aware than ourselves how much more ably such views might have been advocated: we have not, however, spared time or pains in the study of the subject; " and if we have done meanly, it is that we could attain “unto.”

In the Translation, we have endeavoured, too often unsuccessfully, to retain the beautiful simplicity of the original. In the obscure passages, of which there are not a few, we have mentioned the difficulty in the notes, lest the reader, by our mistake, should be led into error himself.

The quotations from Holy Scripture, which are distinguished by small capitals, are given in the authorised version, except where, to bring out the Author's full meaning, it was necessary to have recourse to the Vulgate; and we have then translated literally from that.

We have felt no small pleasure in thus enabling this excellent Prelate, though at so far distant a land from his own, and after a silence of nearly six hundred years, being dead, yet to speak : and if the following pages are at all useful in pointing out the sacramental character of Catholick art, we shall be abundantly rewarded, as being fellowworkers with him in the setting forth of one, now too much forgotten, Church principle.

J. M. N.

B. W.

Michaelmas, 1842.

ANALYSIS OF THE INTRODUCTORY ESSAY.

INTRODUCTION.

1. Spread of the study of Church Architecture.
2. Obvious, but indefinable, difference between old and new

churches.
Wherein this consists.
Not in association,
Nor in correctness of details,
Nor in the Picturesque,
Nor in Mechanical advantages,
But in Reality

considered, in an enlarged view, as Sacramentality.
3. This probable,

from examples, and

promises in Holy Scripture.
Catholick consent,
examples to the contrary,

philosophical reasons.
4. Enunciation of the subject.
5. Writers on the subject,

Pugin, Poole, Lewis, Coddington, the writers of the

Cambridge Camden Society.
A. ARGUMENTS FOR SYMBOLISM.
I. A PRIORI.

Symbolising spirit of Catholic Antiquity,

in (a) Interpretation of Holy Scriptures.

(b) Analogy of the Jewish Ceremonies.
(c) Private manners.
(d) Emblems in Catacombs, &c.

(e) Symbolical interpretation of Heathen writers.
II. ANALOGICAL.
i. Examples of other nations.
(a) Jews.

[1] Temple rites.
[2] Legal observances.

[3] Sacred books.
(b) Turks.
(c) Infidels.

[1] Hindu and Egyptian Mythology.

[2] Persian poetry. (d) Hereticks.

ii. From Nature.

(a) Trinity.
(b) Resurrection.

(c) Self-sacrifice.
iii. From Art.

(a) Sculpture.
(b) Painting.
(c) Musick.

(d) Language of Flowers.
iv. Parabolical teaching.
IV. PHILOSOPHICAL.

Objective answering to Subjective.
All effect sacramental of the efficient.
Sacramentality of all Religion.
Ritualism peculiarly and necessarily sacramental.
Church Architecture, a condition of Ritualism.
Necessities induce accidents : and these material expressions.
Example :
Necessities of Ritualism, and their expressions in earlier

and later ages.
Hence Symbolism.

Essential.
Intended.

Conventional, which again becomes intended.
IV. ANALYTICAL.

1. Cruciformity.
2. Ascent to Altar.
3. Orientation.

4. Verticality.
V. INDUCTIVE.

Express and continuous testimony.
(a) Apostolical Constitutions.
(b) Eusebius.

(c) Symbolical writers.
Actual examples.
VI. RECAPITULATION.
B. EXAMPLES OF SYMBOLISM.

i. Doctrines.
(a) The Holy Trinity, set forth in

i. Nave and Two Aisles.
ii. Chancel, Nave and Apse.
iii. Clerestory, Triforium, and Pier Arches.
iv. Triple windows.
v. Altar steps.
vi. Triplicity of mouldings.
vii. Minor details.

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