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and thunder the tempesto take what I

The Arcadian youth has nothing that leaps, whose dire Hanni. bal,

160 Every sixth day, fills my miserable head : Whatever it be concerning which he deliberates, whether he should

go to the city - From Cannæ, or after showers and thunder cautious, He should wheel about his troops wet with the tempest. Bargain for as much as you please, and immediately take what I give,

165 That his father should hear him as often. But six other Sophists, and more, cry together with one mouth, And agitate real causes, the ravisher being left: The mixed poisons are silent, the bad and ungrateful husband, And what medicines now heal old blind men.

170 Therefore he will discharge himself, if my counsels will Move; and he will enter upon a different walk in life,

167. Cry together with one mouth.] i.e. All agree with one consent to take this step-viz. to have done with teaching school, and to go to the bar.

168. The ravisher being left.] i.e. Leaving the fictitious subjects of declamation, such as some supposed ravisher, or perhaps the rape of Helen, Proserpine, &c.

169. The mixed poisons are silent.] Nothing more is said about the poisons of Medea. Fusa-poured and mixed together.

Ungrateful husband.] Jason, who having married Medea, left her, and married another.

170. What medicines now heal, &c.] Mortaria-mortars. Per met. medicines brayed in a mortar.-What medicines recovered old Æson to his youth, and sight again. Ov. Met. lib. vii. 1. 287–93.

Grangius thinks that this alludes to a story of a son, who made up some medicines to cure his father's eyes, and who was accused by his mother-in-law of having mixed up poison, which the father bé. lieving, disinherited him. So Farnaby.

171. Therefore.] Ergo.-9. d. As the profession of teaching school is so miserable, and without profit, I would therefore advise those, who have left the shadowy declamation of the school for the real contention of the bar, to follow a new course of life, and never think of returning to teaching rhetoric again, lest they should have nothing left to buy bread with--this seems to be the sense of the passage.

Discharge himself.] Sibi dabit ipse rudem literally, he will give himself the wand.

The rudis was a rod, or wand, given to sword-players, in token of a discharge, or release, from that exercise. Hence the phrase-dare rudem, to give a discharge-to dismiss

See Hor. ep. i. l. 2. donatum jam rude-dismissed. Francis. Jur. sat. vi. I, 113, and note. He will discharge himself from keeping school. VOL. I.

RR

175

180

Ad pugnam qui rhetoricâ descendit ab umbrâ,
Summula ne pereat, quâ vilis tessera venit
Frumenti : quippe hæc merces lautissima. Tentą
Chrysogonus quanti doceat, vel Pollio quanti
Lautorum pueros, artem scindens Theodori,
Balnea sexcentis, et pluris porticus, in quâ
Gestetur dominus quoties pluit ; anne serenum
Exspectet, spargatve luto jumenta recenti ?
Hic potius : .pamque hic mundæ nitet ungula mulæ.

Parte aliâ longis Numidarum fulța columnis
Surgat, et algentem rapiat cænatio solem.
Quanticunque domus, veniet qui fercula docte
Componit, veniet qui pulmentaria condit.
Hos inter sumptus sestertia Quintiliano,
Ut multum, duo sufficient; res nulla minoris
Constabit patri, quam filius. Unde igitur tot
Quintilianus habet saltus ? exempla novorum

185

173. The rhetorical shadow, &c. From the poor empty declama, tions in the schools, which at best are but a shadow of reality, and are but shadows in point of profit.

- Real engagement.] To engage in pleading causes at the bar, which have reality for their subject, and which, he hopes, will pro

duce real profit. Descendit ad pugnam-a military phrase, :: 174-5. A vile wheat-ticket.] In any dole made by the emperor,

or by one of the city-magistrates, for distributing corn, the poor citizens had each à tally, or ticket, given them, which they first shewe ed, and then received their proportion, according to the money they brought to buy wheat from the public magazines, at a lower than the market price. This tally, or ticket, was called tessera, it being foursquare : it was made of a piece of wood, or of lead-hence Juvenal calls it yilis.

175. A most splendid reward.] Though they should get only a wheat-ticket for a fee, yet this is noble, in comparison of what they get by teaching rhetoric,

176. Chrysogonus--Pollio.] Rhetoric-masters, who read to their pupils the works of Theodorus Gadareus, an excellent orator, born at Gadara, a city of Syria, not far from Ascalon.

177. The quality.] The nobility, the rich fathers of the poor rhetorician's pupils.

- Dividing.] Scindens--dividing, taking to pieces, and thus opening and explaining the several parts.

- Baths are at six hundred sestertia.] Which they built for themselves, and maintained at a great expense. See saţ. i. 1. 106, note.

- A portico at more.] They were still more expensive in their porticos, or covered ways, where they used to ride in rainy or dirty weather. . 179. Can he wait, &c.] Should these great people be forced to

when it caiele mit the clean. dian

Who has descended from the rhetorical shadow to real engagement,
Lest the small sum should perish, from which cometh a vile
Wheat-ticket : for this is a most splendid reward. Try 175
For how much Chrysogonus teaches, or Pollio the children
Of the quality, dividing the art of Theodorus.
Baths are at six hundred sestertia, and a portico at more, in which
The lord is carried when it rains : can he wait for
Fair weather, or dash his cattle with fresh mud?

180 Here rather, for here the hoof of the clean mule shines.

In another part, propp'd with tall Numidian pillars,
A supper-room arises, and will snatch the cool sun.
Whatever the house cost, one will' come who composes skilfully
Dishes of meat, and one who seasons soups.

185
Amidst these expenses, two sestertiums, as a great deal,
Will suffice for Quintilian. No thing will cost a father
Less than a son. Whence, therefore, hath
Quintilian so many forests ?—The examples of new fates

stay at home till fine weather came, or else go out and splash them. selves, and their fine horses, with dirt ?

181. Here rather, &c.] To be sure he will use the portico, where not only he, but his very mules, are protected from having their feet soiled.

182. Tall Numidian pillars.] The room raised high on pillars of marble from Numidia, which was very elegant and expensive.

183. A sunner.room.] A dining-room we should call it : but cæ. natio, among the Romans, signified a room to sup in, for their entertainments were always at supper.

-- Snatch the cool sun. The windows so contrived as to catch the sun in winter-time. The Romans were very curious in their contrivances of this sort. They had rooms toward the north-east, to avoid the summer sun; and toward the south-west, to receive the sun in winter.

184. Whatever the house cost.] They little regarded the expense they were at in building.

-- One will come, &c.] They'll be sure to have their tables sumptuously furnished by cooks, confectioners, &c. Pulmentaria seems used, here, for victuals in general. Ainsw.

186. Amidst these expenses, &c.] Which they squander away in buildings, eating, and drinking, they think two poor sestertiums (about 15l.) enough to pay Quintilian (the great rhetorician) for teaching their children.

187-8. Will cost a father less, &c.] They laid out their money with cheerfulness on their gluttony, &c. but grudged ever so little ex. pense for the education of their children : therefore nothing costs them so little.

188-9. Hath Quintilian, &c.] If these things be so, how comes

190

195

Fatorum transi : felix et pulcher et acer,
Felix et sapiens et nobilis et generosis,
Appositam nigræ lunam subtexit alutæ :
Felix, orator quoque maximus, et jaculator,
Et si perfrixit, cantat bene. Distat enim, quæ
Sidera te excipiant, modo primos incipientem
Edere vagitus, et adhuc a matre rubentem. .
Si Fortuna volet, fies de rhetore consul :
Si volet hæc eadem, fies de consule rhetor.
Ventidius quid enim ? quid Tullius ? anne aliud quam
Sidus, et occulti miranda potentia fati?
Servis regna dabunt, captivis fata triumphos. : .
Felix ille tament, corvo quoque rarior albo.
Pæniturit multos vanæ sterilisque cathedræ,
Sicut Thrasymachi probat exitus, atque Secundi
Carrinatis ; et hunc inopem vidistis, Athenæ,
Nil præter gelidas ausæ conferre cicutas.

Di majorum umbris tepuem, et sine pondere terram,

205

Quintilian to have so large an estate, and to be the owner of such a tract of country?

189. Examples of new fates, &c.] There is nothing to be said of men, whose fortunes are so new and singular as this : they must not be mentioned as examples for others. Az if he had said Who but Quintilian ever grew rich by the cultivation of the liberal arts ? It is quite a novelty. The Romans called an unusual good fortune--nova fata.

190. The fortunate is handsome, &c.] In these lines the poet is saying, that “ luck is all ;"_let a man be but fortunate, and he will be reckoned every thing else.

Witty. 7 Acer-sharp, as we say-acer ingenio. 192. The moon, &c.] The hundred patricians, first established by Romulus, were distinguished by the numeral letter C fixed on their shoes, which, from its resemblance to an half moon, was called lu. na. This was continued down to later times, as a mark of distincti. on among the patricians : they wore a sort of buskin made of black leather. Hor. lib. i. sat. vi. I. 27. By this line the poet means to say, that the fortunate may become senators and nobles. Alutam lit. tanned leather : by meton. any thing made thereof-hence a leather shoe, or buskin.

193. A dart-thrower.] This is the literal sense of jaculator ; but we must here suppose it to mean, one skilful in throwing out, or darting, arguments--i. e. a great disputant-l. 156.

194. There is a difference, &c.] The Romans were very superstitious, and thought that the fortune of their future life mainly depend. ed on the stars, or constellations, which presided over their natal hour. See sat. ix. I. 32–4, et al. .

196. Red from your mother.] i. e. Just born. Before the blood contracted from the birth is washed away.

Pass over: the fortunate is handsome, and witty,
The fortunate is wise, and noble, and generous,
And subjoins the moon set upon his black shoe.
The fortunate is also a great orator, a dart-thrower,
And, if he be hoarse, sings well: for there is a difference what
Stars receive you, when you first begin

195
To send forth crying, and are yet red from your mother. .
If Fortune please, you will from a rhetorician become a consul :
If this same please, you will from a consul become a rhetorician.
For what was Ventidius ? what Tullius ? was it other than
A star, and the wonderful power of hidden fate?

200 The fates will give kingdoms to slaves, triumphs to captives. . Yet that fortunate person is also more rare than a white crow. Many have repented the vain and barren chair, As the exit of Thrasymachus provés, and of Secundus Carrinas, and him whom poor you saw, O Athens,

205 Daring to bestow nothing but cold hemlock. Grant, ye gods, to the shades of our ancestors thin earth, and

without weight,

198. This same.] Fortune,

199. Ventidius.] Bassus, son of a bondwoman at Ascalon. He was first a carman, then a muleteer; afterwards, in one year, he was created prætor and consul.

- Tullius.] The sixth king of Rome, born of a captive. 1994-200. Other than a star.] 1. e. To what did these men owe their greatness, but to the stars which presided at the birth, and to the mysterious power of destiny ?

202. More rare, &C.] However, that same fortunate and happy man is rare to be met with. Comp. sat. vi. 164.

203. Many have repented, &c.] Of the barren and beggarly em. ployment of teaching rhetoric-which they did, sitting in a chair, desk, or pulpit.

204. Thrasymachus.] Who hanged himself. He was a rhetorician of Athens, born at Carthage.

204-5. Secundus Carrinas ] He came from Athens to Rome, and, declaiming against tyrants, was banished by Caligula.

205. Him whom poor you saw, &c.] Socrates, whom you saw, ungrateful Athenians ! almost starving, and paid him nothing for his lectures, but the barbarous reward of cold hemlock, with which he was poisoned by the sentence of his judges. Hemlock has such a refrige. rating quality over the blood and juices, as to cause them to stagnate, and thus occasion death ; it is therefore reckoned among the cold poisons. The word ausæ, here, is very significant, to intimate the daring insolence and cruelty of the Athenians, who, to their own eternal in. famy, could reward such a man in such a manner.

207. Grant, &c.] This sentence is elliptical, and must be supplied with some verb to precede umbris, as give, grant, or the like.

--Thin earth, &c.] It was usual with the Romans to express

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