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Abhorred Styx, the flood of deadly hate;
577. Al borred Styx, &c.] The Laxvw fignifying to weep and la. Greeks reckon up five rivers in ment: as Phlegethon is from another Hell, and call them after the names Greek word Oremus fignifying to of the noxious springs and rivers burn; and therefore rightly dein their own country. Our poet Scribed here fierce Phlegerhon, whose follows their example both as to waves of torrent fire inflame with the number and the names of these rage, as it is by Virgil, En. VI. infernal rivers, and excellently de- 550. scribes their nature and properties, with the explanation of their names,
- sapidus flammis -- torrentibus Styx, so named of a Greek word
amnis OTUYEw that significs to bate and ab
Tartareus Phlegethon. bor, and therefore called here Aba We know not what to say as to barred oryx, the fiood of deadly hate, the fituation of these rivers. Hoand by Virgil palusinamabilis, Æn. VI. 438. Acheron has its name fents Cocytus as branching out of
mer, the most ancient poet, reprefrom @xos dolor and pew fluo, forw. Styx, and both Cocytus and Phleing with grief; and is represented according y Sad Acheron, the river gethon (or Pyriphlegethon) as flowsf, Jorrow as Styx was of hate, ing into Acheron, Odyff
. X. 513. black and deep, agrecable to Vir Ενθα μεν εις Αχεροντα Πυριφλεγεθων gil's character of it
Κωκυτο 9' ος δη Στυγος υδατος εσιν tenebrosa palus Acheronte
απιρρωξ. refuso. Æn. VI. 107.
and perhaps he describes their fiCocytus, nam'd of lamentation, be tuation as it really was in Greece: caule derived from a Greek word but Virgil and the other poets fre
Forthwith his former state and be'ing forgets; 5853
quently confound them, and men Quam juxta Lethes tacitus prælation their names and places with
bicur amnis.' out sufficient difference or distinction. Our poet therefore was at The river of oblivion is rightly liberty to draw (as I may fay) a plac'd far off from the rivers of new map of thele rivers; and he hatred, forrow, lamentation, and Supposes a burning lake agreeably to rage ; and divides the frozen conScripture that often mentions the tinent from the region of fire, and lake of fire ; and he makes these thereby completes the niap of Hell four rivers to Aow from four dif- · with its general divisions. ferent quarters and empty them. selves into this burning lake, which
589.-dire bail,) Hor. Od. I. gives us a much greater idea than any of the Heathen poets have Jam fatis terris civis atque dire done. Besides these there is a fifth
Grandinis &c. river called Lethe, 'which name in Greek fignifies forgetfulness, and its
592.- that Sorbonian bog] Serwaters are said to have occasion'd bonis was a lake 200 furlongs in that quality, En. VI. 714. length and 1000 in compass be
tween the ancient mountain Casius Lethæi ad Auminis undam and Damiata a city of Egypt on Securos latices, et longa oblivia one of the more eailern mouths of potant :
the Nile. It was surrounded on
all sides by hills of loose fand, and Milton attributes the same ef- which carried into the water by fect to it, and describes it as a for high winds so thicken'd the lake, and silent stream, as Lucan had done as not to be distinguishi’d from part before him, IX. 355.
of the continent, where whole arK 4
Betwixt Damiata and mount Cafius old,
mies have been swallowed up. riv'd from the Belgic halen or the Read Herodotus, L. 3. and Luc. French haler, and therefore should Phar. VIII. 539. &c.
be spelt as it is here, and not haild Perfida qua tellus Cafiis excurrit as in Milton's own editions. Spen
fer uses the word, Faery Queen, arenis, Et vada teftantur jun&as Ægyptia
B. 5. Cant. 2. St. 26.
Who rudely hal'd her forth with 595: Burns frore,] Frore an old out remorse : word for frosty. The parching air burns with frost. So we have in and we meet with it several times Virg. Georg. I. 93.
in Shakespear. - Borex penetrabile frigus adurat:
603-bence hurried back to fire.) and in Ecclus. XLIII. 20, 21. When This circumstance of the damned's the cold north-wind bloweth ---it de- suffering the extremes of heat and poureth the mountains, and burneth cold by turns is finely invented to she wilderness, and confumeth the aggravate the horror of the degrajs as fire. And is not the ex- fcription, and seems to be founded predion used by the Pfalmift of the upon Job XXIV. 19. but not as it Jame nature? I be fun shall not burn is in the English translation, but thee by day, nor the moon by night, in the vulgar Latin version, which Pfal. CXXI. 6. in the old tranlla. Milton frequently used. Ad nimium tion and the Septuagint?
calorem tranfeat ab aquis nivium ;
Let him pals to exceljive heat from 596--by larps fected furies bald waters of now. And fo Jerom and The word bald in this line is de other commentators understand it.
Immoveable, infix’d, and frozen round,
There is a fine passage likewise in vation of their misery, that tho' Shakespear, where the punishment they were so near the brink, fo near after death is supposed to confift in the brim and surface of the water, extreme heat or extreme cold ; but yet they could not taste one drop these extremes are not made alter- of it. But the reasons follow, fate nate, and to be suffer'd both in withstands, fata obstant, as it is in their turns, as Milton has describ’d Virgil Æn. IV. 440. and Medusa them and thereby has greatly re with Gorgonian terror guards the find and improv'd the thought. ford. Medusa was one of the GorMeasure for Measure, Act III. gon monsters, whose locks were
Terpents so terrible that they turn. Ay, but to die, and go we know ed the beholders into stone. Ulysses not where :
in Homer was desirous of seeing To lie in cold obstruction, and to more of the departed heroes, bue rot;
I was afraid, says he, Odyffy XI. This sensible warm motion to be. 633.
come A kneaded clod; and the delight- Mn por ropysumy krozam duivono of ed spirit
λωρα Το bache in hery foods, or to εξ Αϊδος σιμψειεν αγαύη Περσεφο
reside In thrilling regions of thick-ribbed ice, c.
Left Gorgon rising from th' infer
nal lakes, 609. —and fo near the brink ; ] With horrors arm'd, and curls of This is added as a farther aggra- :
Medusa with Gorgonian terror guards
Should fix ine, stiffen'd at the fage; and particularly in this rough inonstrous light
verie, which neceitarily takes up so A ftony image, in eternal night! much time and labor in pronoun
628. Gorgon's, and Hydra's, and So frightful a creature is very pro
Chimera's dire. Our author perly teign'd by our poet to guard fixes all these montters in Hell in tnis water. And bifides of itself initation of Virgil Æn. VI. 287. ike water flies their taste, and serves
bellua Lernæ only to tantalize them. This is a Horrendum ftridens, flammisque fine allegory to show that there is no forgetfulness in Hell. Memory
Gorgones c. makes a part of the punishment of
Quinquaginta atris immanis hiatithe damn'd, and reflection but in
bus Hydra. Creales their misery.
Taffo has likewise given them a €21. Rocks, caves, &c.] How ex- place in his description of Hell, or actly is the tedioulness and difficulty rather he copies Virgil's descripo their journey painted in this pai- tion, Cant. 4. St. 5.