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walk, you

If that


have not far; So much the nearer danger; go and speed; Havoc and spoil and ruin are my gain.

He ceas'd; and Satan stay'd not to reply,
But glad that now his sea should find a shore,
With fresh alacrity and force renew'd
Springs upward like a pyramid of fire



1009. Hayoc and Spoil and ruin fitus, the sea being so narrow there

are my gain.] This is very a that cattle are said to have swum greeable to that character of Chaos cross it. Betwixt the juftling rocks, by Lucan, Phar. VI. 696.

two rocks at the entrance into the

Euxin or Black Sea, called in Et Chaos innumeros avidum con Greek Symplegades, and by Juvenal fundere mundos.

concurrentia Jaxa, Sat. XV. 19.

which Milton very well translates 1011. But glad that now his feathe juftling rocks, because they were

jould find a shore,] A meta- so near, °that at a distance they phor to express his joy that now seemed to open and fhut again, his travel and voyage should end, and justle one another, as the ship somewhat like that of one of the varied its course this way and that Ancients, who reading a tedious as usual. In Ponto duæ Cyaneæ, book and coming near to the end ab aliis Symplegades appellatæ, cry'd I see land, Terram video. traditæque fabulis inter le con

10174-than-wben Argo pass’d&c.] curriffe: quoniam parvo discrete The first long ship ever seen in intervallo, cx adverso intrantibus Greece, in which Jason and his geminæ cernebantur, paulumque companions failed to Colchis to deflexa acie, coeuntium speciem fetch the golden Fleece. Through præbebant. Plin. Nat. Hist. L. 4. Bosporus, the Thracian Bosporus, Cap. 13. The reader may see a or the straits of Constantinople, or farther account of these rocks, and the Channel of the Black Sea. It the passage betwixt them in Apolis sometimes writ Bosphorus, as in lonius, Argonaut. II. 317, &c. In Mr. Fenton's edition, from B45 thort Satan's voyage through the and Pegw : but Milton is more exact fighting elements was more diffiand accurate, and writes Bosporus cult and dangerous than that of according to the beft Greek au the Argonauts through narrow seas thers, from Bes open, bovis tran- betwixt justling rocks.

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1019. Or


Into the wild expanse, and through the shock
Of fighting elements, on all sides round
Environ'd wins his


harder beset And more indanger'd, than when Argo pass’d Through Bosporus betwixt the juftling rocks: Or when Ulysses on the larbord shunn'd Charybdis, and by th' other whirpool steer’d. IQ20


1019. Or when Ulyfjes on the lar. Charybdis situated on the larbord bord sounn'd

of his fhip as he was failing; but Charybdis, and by tb' other whirl- that Ulysjes failing on the larbord

pool feer'd.] These two (to the left hand where Scylla was) verses Dr. Bentley would throw did thereby fhun Charybdis; which quite away. Larbord (he says) is was the truth of the case. The abominable in heroic poetry ; but Doctor's other objection is, that Dryden (as the Doctor owns) Scylla was no whirpool, which thought it not unfit to be employd yei she is here fuppoled to have there : and Milton in other places been: But Virgil (whom Milton has used nautical terms, without follow's oftner than he does Homer) being censur’d for it by the Doctor. describes Scylla as naves in Jaxa So in IX. 513. he speaks of work- trahentem, Ån. III. 425. and what ing a fhip, of veering and shifting; is that less than calling it a whirland in I. 207. of mooring under the pool ? And Athan. Kircher, who lee. So Virgil's legere littus is ob- has written a particular account ferv'd to be a term borrow'd from of Scylla and Charybdis upon his mariners, by Servius in his notes own view of them, does not on Georg. II. 44. and Æn. III. scruple to call them both wbirlBut the Doctor has two pools

. The truth is, that Scylla very formidable objections againft is a rock fituated in a small bay the sense of these verses. First he on the Italian coait, into which says that larbord or left-hand is a bay the tide runs with a very mistake here for fiarbord or right ftrong current, so as to draw in hand, Charybdis being to the flar- the ships which are within the bord of Ulysses when he failed compass of its force, and either thro' these étraits. This is very dash them against the rock, or true, but it does not affect what swallow them in the eddies : for Milton here says ; for the sense when the streams have thus viomay be, not that Ulyfies hunnid lently rush'd into the bay, they



So he with difficulty and labor hard
Mov'd on, with difficulty and labor he;
But he once past, soon after when man fell,
Strange alteration ! Sin and Death amain
Following his track, such was the will of Heaven,
Pay'd after him a broad and beaten


1026 Over the dark abyss, whose boiling gulf Tamely indur'd a bridge of wondrous length From Hell continued reaching th’utmost orb Of this frail world; by which the Spi'rits perverse With easy intercourse pass to and fro

1031 To temptor punish mortals, except whom God and good Angels guard by special grace.


meet with the rock Scylla at the interpolation : but the foregoing farther end, and being beat back words, containing a repetition of muft therefore form an eddy or what went before them, with difwhirpool. This account is gather'd ficulty and labor he, have no force partly from Sandy's travels, and nor propriety, unless it be added partly from Historia orbis terræ, (as it is in these verses) that some &c. where it is said, Ejus natura others afterwards went this way est ut ingenti ultro citroque com- with more ease.

Pearce. meantium aquarum perturbatione agitetur: quando affluxu agitatur, It is evident that these lines are tanta est ejus violentia, ut navis Milton's, and cannot be an intereò delapfa, omni evadendi fpe polation of the editor. But yet I fublata, montium parietibus illida- am afraid we cannot so easily get tur. Vide Hoffman Lexicon.

over the Doctor's other objection Pearce.

that this fame bridge is describ'd

in Book X. for several lines to1023. Bict he once paft, &c.] gether poetically and pompously, Dr. Bentley would throw out here as a thing untouch'd before and eleven verses, as if they were an an incident to furprise the reader ;


But now at last the sacred influence
Of light appears, and from the walls of Heaven
Shoots far into the bosom of dim Night 1036
A glimmering dawn; here Nature first begins
Her farthest verge, and Chaos to retire
As from her outmost works a broken foe
With tumult less and with less hostile din, 1040
That Satan with less toil, and now with ease
Wafts on the calmer wave by dubious light,
And like a weather-beaten vessel holds
Gladly the port, though shrouds and tackle torn;
Or in the emptier waste, resembling air, 1045
Weighs his spread wings, at leisure to behold


riz'd poet.

and therefore the poet Mould not moft works of Nature mentioned have anticipated it here. Let the before. lines themfelves be approv'd; yet it must be allow'd, it is wrong conduct and want of oeconomy for this line and in the preceding de

by dubious light,] In

1042. the whole poem. And we cannot scription of the glimmering dawn recollect a parallel instance in that Satan first meets with, Milton Homer or Virgil, or any autho

very probably alludes to Seneca's elegant account of Hercules's paf

sage out of Hell: Herc, Fur. 668. 1025

- such was the will of Heaven,] Δι@- δ ετελείετο

Non crca tenebris incipit prima Soan. Hom. Iliad. I.

via: 5.

Tenuis reli&te lucis a tergo nitor, 1039. As from her outmost works] Fulgorque dubius folis aillieti caDr. Bentley reads his instead of her: dit. Thyer. but the meaning is not that Chaos retires as from his own outmost 1046. Weighs his spread wings,] works, but retires as from the out In like manner Tailo defcribing VOL. I.



Far off th’empyreal Heav'n, extended wide
In circuit, undetermin’d square or round,
With opal tow'rs and battlements adorn'd
Of living saphir, once his native feat;
And fast by hanging in a golden chain
This pendent world, in bigness as a star



the Angel Gabriel's fight, Cant. 1. mensely bigger than the Earth, a

mcre point in comparison. This is

sure from what Chaos had lately E fi librò fu l'adeguate penne. said, ver. 1004:

St. 14.

But I think notwithstanding the na Now lately Heav'n and Earth, tural partiality one has for one's another world, countryman, the preference must

Hung o'er my realm, link'd in a be given to the Italian. The fame

golden chain. stanza suggests another imitation. Tallo calls

Gabriel's wings, Infaticabilmente, agili, e preste.

Resides, Satan did not see the Earth

yet; he was afterwards turpris'd at And Milton, ver. 408,

the sudden view of all this world at
III. and wander'd long

542, Upborne with indefatigable wings on the outside of it; till at laft he

Thyer. faw our fun, and learned there of 1049. With opal to'rs) With Earth and Paradise were.

the Arch-Angel Uriel, where the

See IIT. towers of precious stones. Opal is a stone of diverse colors, partaking must mean the whole world, the

722. This pendent world therefore of the carbuncles faint fire, the

new created universe, and beheld amethifts bright purple, and the emeraids cheering green.

far off it appear'd in comparison Hume and Richardson.

with the empyreal Heaven no bigger than a jar of Imallest magri

tude; nay not fo large, it appear'd 1952. Tbis pendent world, in big- no bigger than such a star appears ness as a star

to be when it is clefe by the moon, Of smallest magnitude close by the the superior light whereof makes

moon.] By this pendent world any ítar that happens to be near is not meant the Earth; but the her disk, to seem exceedingly small new crcation, Heaven and Earth, and almost disappear. Dr. Bentley the whole orb of fix'd stars im. has ftrangely mistaken the sense of

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