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these were all transferred to the company. Of | proved, they may be induced to subject the still these, forty-three are continued under the new open branches of the trade to the same wholesome system, and eighteen have been suppressed. The restrictions. details of the management are too complicated It remains for us to consider whether, and how and minute to be inserted here. It is sufficient far, the main principle of this Swedish reformato indicate in general terms some of the main tion could be introduced among ourselves. It is features of the system. The number of licensed new; it would certainly be an innovation ; but houses is greatly reduced. The houses are not it is eminently worthy of earnest and unprejudiced thickly planted in poor confined localities, where consideration. the inhabitants, lacking home comforts, lack also In the first place, most people will readily self-control, and so are easily enticed into attrac- admit that we are not at present in a good or tive dram-shops. They are placed, without re- safe position in relation to the spirit traffic. As gard to profit, in situations most convenient for a nation, we are free traders ; yet none but a few the population, and causing the least possible theorists would propose free trade in intoxicants. nuisance. The houses are large, well ventilated, If the trade were made free, in a few years, and clean. There are no boxes, where experienced we believe, the community, in terror and rage, wickedness may prey unseen upon inexperienced would rebound with a demand for its extinction. folly: drinking is done in large halls—each group No large or influential party in this country, seated round its own small table, but in sight of however, will propose to open the trade as other all who enter. Those who do drink are assured trades are open. The reason of this distinction that the liquor is pure and unadulterated; and lies deep and broad in the nature and effects of the community on that account are probably pre- the commodity. It is right that the fact of the served from many outrages of exceptional ferocity distinction, and its grounds, should be kept beto which criminals in our country are incited by fore the public mind. the poisons which they imbibe. One rule, which The trade in beef and bread, in broadcloth and is a self-acting machinery in favour of temper- shoes, is free, and ought to be free. It is, indeed, ance, gives the manager of a public-house a profit the interest of the dealers in these articles to from the food that he sells; while he derives not push their sales. But to push the sale of these a penny from the sale of strong drink,
articles does no harm either to the individual purThe result of the system has been a marvellous chaser or to the community at large. As a rule, reformation in the habits of the people, and a the more cloth and shoes and bread and beef any large revenue accruing to the community, in family purchase, the better for the family; aldiminution of their rates.
Prisons and poor
ways provided that they pay the dealer—and the houses, having fewer inmates, are more easily dealer may be trusted to look after that matter maintained ; and there is plenty in the public for himself. Again, there is no specific power purse wherewith to maintain them. The pay- the nature of these articles, or in their use, to ments made by the company to the city treasury stimulate those who use them to demand more, have averaged more than ten thousand pounds or to break the heads of their neighbours. When annually during the last three years. This would a man has eaten one good piece of beefsteak, the give thirty-seven thousand a year for a city like operation has rather a sedative effect. He is not Edinburgh. The managers of the scheme believe inclined, in consequence of that meal, to scream that the results would be much more favourable, out incontinent for more beef, or to fight his if the whole of the trade in spirits were placed in nearest neighbour. The purchaser, therefore, their hands. As it is, there are a number of though he be not personally a wise man, may be privileged licenses over which they have no con- trusted to take care of his own interests. Introl; and the retail shops-corresponding to the stinct will guide him, if he happen not to possess grocers' license with us—remain, as formerly, in much mother wit. Thus we allow any man to dependent. There is ground to hope that when open a shop for the sale of any of these articles the legislature has seen the system sufficiently wherever he pleases, and to sell as many of them
as he can. The process is, on all sides, safe and bene- If they do, the success of their trade is ruin to ficent. Hence we adopt and maintain freedom in the community. buying and selling; and we know the reason why. If they do not, then from year to year, and day
In the matter of intoxicating drink, we have in by day, they conduct their business, not as other point of fact adopted an opposite rule; and here, merchants, for their own pecuniary interests, but too, we should know the reason why. The ground restrict their trade, and sacrifice the conforts of of the difference lies in the inherent character and their own families, in benevolent efforts to shield ordinary effects of the commodities. When a the intemperate from the consequences of their man drinks freely for a while, his bodily organs,
own vice. more or less gradually, or suddenly, fall into such Thus this class of dealers must be, either a a condition, that the immediate physical effect of great deal more mischievous, or a great deal more one glass is a burning thirst for another, and virtuous, than any other. The duty of the coinanother, until he fall senseless on the ground. monwealth in the circumstances is manifest. We This effect is not produced in all who taste. should not, on the one hand, permit this class of Many, partly from moral strength, and partly dealers to inflict the misery on the community from physical constitution, escape the morbid which is implied in the one alternative ; and we appetite, and use intoxicants moderately all their should not leave them exposed to the exceptional days. If this were the case with all-or even and crushing self-denial and self-sacrifice which with all but a few—there would be no necessity is implied in the other. The result is, that in for legislative restraint. The traffic in spirits any case we should take the traffic in this danmight be flung open, like the traffic in other gerous and exceptional article altogether out of things. But a very great multitude do not private bands. escape. By thousands, and tens of thousands, the There are indeed many difficulties in the way. people fall into the snare. With these, one glass If a great and well-appointed army should make means the passionate, unreasoning, mad demand a landing on our coast, intent on subjecting us to for another. And such is our system, that it is a foreign power, there would be many serious the interest of the seller to supply this mad difficulties in the way of meeting the enemy, and demand, although he perceive clearly its madness. driving them into the sea. But these difficulties Nay, it is his interest to create and promote the
we would overcome. The thing would be done. craving, that he may sell more of his article, and The other battle will be fought too, and won, obtain more profit. I abstain carefully from whenever the nation awakens to the dread fact saying or even thinking of individual sellers that that an alien army squats on our soil, reducing they do so act. I judge no man. I merely the people to slavery. announce the notorious fact, that the more they One of the difficulties lies in the vastness of sell, the more profit they have to maintain their the sum that would be claimed as compensation. families; and the more they sell of their wares,
In Scotland, perhaps, an easy escape may be the more wretched becomes the community. If found on that side ; for every license bears that the seller in point of fact refuse to sell when it is given for one year and no more. Any landlord the customer is eager to buy, and willing to pay, who lets a shop in these terms, would certainly then an amount and kind of beneficent self-denial have the right, after due warning, to eject his is exercised by that class of dealers, which, by tenant at the end of the year
compensathe nature of the case, is never exacted of any tion; and it would be hard if the community other class.
should be found to have sold itself to the publiThe case stand thus, and there is no escape cans, when it had guarded itself against that very from its inexorable logic :
danger by the use of the clearest terms which the Either the sellers of drink, like the sellers of skill of lawyers could invent. other articles, stimulate and promote their sales, But the difficulties are not all on one side. By and sell to customers up to their demand and our present law and practice, of six or seven conability to pay, or they do not.
tiguous shops in a new street, probably only one
will obtain a public-house license. The moment profit for success in sales, and suffering no loss by that it gains this privilege its own rent is doubled, failure to effect chem, he is under no temptation and the rent of the others diminished, through to encourage the consumption of his wares. the nuisance caused by the public house in the Whatever of humanity may lie in the seller's neighbourhood. Of the six proprietors so situated, heart gets free scope, not impeded by concern for who shall be the favoured one? There is no his own bread; he is free to act on the impulse rule. Here a system of private canvassing goes of humanity, and endeavour to dissuade the taster on, which is disgraceful to our civilization, and from excess. degrading to all the parties concerned. Granting The great foul stream of drunkenness that that the licensing magistrates, one and all, close overflows and desolates our country is generated, their ears against private solicitation, the fact like the Nile in Egypt, by the confluence of two that private solicitation is systematically applied constituent streams, meeting each other from is a shame and a nuisance.
opposite directions. One of the forces which The two extremes are, absolute freedom, and goes to constitute the body and the momentum absolute prohibition, of the traffic. The public of our aggregate intemperance, is the appetite of opinion of the nation has been conclusively pro- the drunkard; and the other is the money gain of nounced against the first alternative, and the the seller. These two not only meet and flow country is certainly not at present ripe for the together, like two confluent rivers ; they are mulsecond. Some middle point must be found. The tiplied into each other at the point of contact, and middle point which we now occupy is erroneous the product in sin and misery is inconceivably in theory, and mischievous in practice. The con- great. The zeal of the seller to dispose of his dition of the trade satisfies no party. It is an goods would not produce so great an amount of open sore on the body politic. It is undermining mischief, if there were not a morbid appetite to the health and the morals of the people. We meet it; and even the morbid appetite would not cannot remain much longer where we are. A so often obtain its dangerous supply, if the desire new middle point must be found; a new principle of profit did not multiply and spread so many must be discovered and adopted. Such is the attractive enticements in the way of the unwary. nature and effect of the traffic, that the com- One of these two affluents is unhappily beyond munity refuses to make it free. But we have not our reach ; but it is in our power to cut off the yet discovered any rational, or fair, or safe rule other. The one that is left will be less producfor selecting the favoured individuals to whom the tive if it miss its marrow. When we arise in our monopoly of the dangerous drugs should be enmight as a nation, and absolutely quench all trusted. It remains that we should retain it in motive for selling drink, then shall we have the our own hands. We are not able to devise any satisfaction of thinking we have done what we means whereby its dangers and its profits should could to dry up the vicious thirst that craves for be handed over to private parties, and there- stimulants. fore we are bound in our corporate capacity, and The principle of the Swedish plan is further as represented by our magistrates, to assume the commended by the consideration that upon it the responsibilities on our own shoulders, and retain several sections of temperance reformers amongst the profits in our own pockets. Of late years,
the us may cordially unite. Those who practise total principle that communities should retain their abstinence, or advocate prohibition, may well water supply in their own hands has been ad- join heart and hand with fellow-citizens of less vancing with a rush, and many a profitable mono- energetic aim in endeavouring to secure one great
gone down before it. There are stronger step in the right direction. And those who, reasons why communities should retain the con- although lamenting the intemperance of the age, trol of the whisky supply.
have not been able to accomplish any practical The main principle
, we repeat, of the Gothen- amendment, because they could not agree to what burgh plan is the absolute removal of motive from they considered extreme measures, may combine the seller to promote his sales. Obtaining no their influence with their more advanced neigh
bours to achieve a reasonable and just ameliora God's cause and man's springing up in the comtion.
munity. The only thing that is to our minds Finally, we take the liberty of urging that altogether intolerable, is to fold hands and sit something must be done. We may well say at still, content with things as they are. this crisis,
By not interfering, we do a cruel wrong to many Soldiers of Christ, arise,
thousands of innocent victims—the wives and And gird your artaour on.
children of drunkards. These helpless beings are None who wait fur the coming of the Lord can murdered by inches in our sight, and we are be content with the social condition of the silent. At the meeting lately held with Mr. Carcountry. Many of the evils under which we negie in Edinburgh, a magistrate informed us, labour might be removed, or greatly diminished, from his own bitter experience, that while the if all who“ sigh and cry for the abominations that law enabled him to punish, by fine or imprisonare done in the land” could unite on some common ment, a carter who should drink his wages and ground. We have offered our humble suggestions send his horse to the street without shoes, a as a contribution to the cause, and invite fellow- father may drink all he wins, and send his childisciples of Christ to throw in their contribution dren to the streets barefoot, the streaming blood whenever they find an opportunity. We could dyeing the snow as they struggle through, and yield much of our own preferences as to methods the magistrate has no power to touch him. “ Fie in favour of others, if we could see a true zeal for l on't! oh, fie; it smells rank.”
MARCH WAKE, O mother Earth! Awake, O The fountains of the deep, the mighty ocean's roar mother Earth!
Breaking on thy headlands and thy rocky shore; The winds that rush around thee in The spring-tides rushing on thee, filling all thy their boisterous mirth,
caves ; And all the groves of pine that these wild winds The murmur on thy sands of tiny rippling waves; do shake,
The shining stars above thee, with their radiant And bend, and rock above thee, call on thee to
Meekly smiling on thee from the midnight skies; And their deep-tangled roots, that vibrate through The soft round moon that poureth down her silver thy breast,
beams, Call on thee, mother Earth, to wake thee from All call thee to awaken from thy long night of thy rest.
dreams. The song of larks is o'er thee, and their melodies Awake, O mother Earth! The spring-time of thy Are floating in the air, high through the clear gladness cold skies.
Riseth in her joy over the winter's sadness; Awake, O mother Earth! The willow boughs mother Earth, awake! Odust and ashes,
sing With their long silken catkins, the waters rolling Easter songs triumphant to our risen King: deep,
Sing of the women coming ere the break of day, Call on thee with soft whispers, to wake thee And of the sealèd gravestone by the angel rolled from thy sleep
away, The voices of thy children singing in the woods, And of those in long white garments, sitting The sound of axes ringing in thy solitudes,
where He lay. The young men in their strength, all thy gentle O mother Earth, awake! O dust and ashes, daughters,
sing ! Call thee in their mirth, like the voice of many grave, where is thy victory ? O death, where waters.
is thy sting?
A. V. G.
S soon as Captain von Edelstein left, the time for doing so is past; I could not, even if
us, my father retired to rest, but I would.” He sighed deeply, and I longed to ask seemed little disposed to sleep. It what the message had been, but dared not.
was still early, and I sat beside him. Presently he spoke again : “Yes, Léonie, my two He was thoughtful and silent. He had remarked dearest were one in faith and hope. In life, and on the strangeness of the meeting, and dwelt still more in death. Those who had seen Conrad with wonder and pleasure on the nephew's extra- die told me of his calm, unruffled peace-his deep, ordinary likeness to the uncle. “ It is not looks unearthly joy. He bade them do so. merely,” he said, “nor only colour of hair and eyes, friend,' he had said, 'I find death no “ leap into and resemblance of figure—features-voice; it is the dark," but a step into the light. Tell him the "tout ensemble'—the tone of thought—the death is sweeter with Christ, than life without earnestness, and gentleness, and sweetness of Christ. Tell him my last earthly thoughts were spirit—the truth and tenderness of heart; and of him—my last prayer, that He who is the light strange, too,” he murmured, “also the same views may shine into his heart. Bid him seek that light —the same submission of mind, and heart, and at its Fountain-head; and he will find it to be the will, and life, to the same high ideal of religious “light of life.” I shall look for him in Heaven.” truth and principle. I could see it, even though “But I did not, Léonie. In Conrad's grave
I he did not directly speak of it.'
buried my last lingering remnants of belief in the “Léonie,” he said suddenly a short time after, God of revelation. You may think it strange, did you ever know that my lost Conrad held but how could I believe the Deity, whoo bad the same faith and hope as your mother ?” stricken down that young beautiful life in its
I started with surprise. “Papa ! oh no !--was freshness and promise, to be the God of perfect it really so? I should have thought !”—I hesi- grace, infinite love, unerring wisdom, full comtated.
prehension of and interest in the ways and lives “You would have thought one so closely linked of men, he believed him to be ? Would He not to me by the strongest ties of friendship, would rather have let that fervent spirit go forth, as he have shared my sentiments. But it was not so. would most surely have done-as in the brief space We were wholly opposed in our replies to the allotted him by fate he already had done—as a question, "What is truth ?' He, in spite of standard-bearer in the van to spread the truth, if his free brave spirit, and clear powerful mind, re- it were truth? The strong bright faith that ceived with the simple faith of a child the teach- burned so steadily in his soul, in spite of every ings and revelations of what he unhesitatingly adverse wind, had till then cast a faint reflection believed to be the inspired Word of God. He of its own clear glow on mine. believed them, and he lived according to them. quenched it. I shut my heart to all but the voice And I know he died in them. I only reached of human reason. Munich in time to take a last look at what had been my friend. But he left a message. Perhaps thought and argument, I mean,” he added, seeing it had been as well had I heeded it then. Now my startled look; “for they are failing, Léonie”
od " But now that is failing me,–my