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in the country-having an aggregate attendance who have not the means of supporting themselves, of 4068 pupils. Every State in the Union, with and for all whose fathers are in the military or the exception of Florida, has a public institution naval service of the United States. To students of the kind.
from other States, who are not able to defray The project did not stop here. A number of necessary expenses, the Board of Directors men, who had given much thought to the matter, render assistance ; so that hitherto the requiretook the high ground that “deafness, though it ments of every worthy applicant have been met. be total and congenital, imposes no limits upon This fact is a noble testimony to the enlightened the intellectual development of its subjects, save educational policy of the Goverment of the United in the single direction of the appreciation of States. acoustic phenomena." The natural inference The course of study is almost identical with from this was, that it only required the necessary the Arts course in other American colleges. It appliances and training to place deaf-mutes on a extends over four years; and embraces Latin, par intellectually with those who had the full use Greek, French, German, Mathematics, Natural of their senses. Impressed with this idea, they Philosophy, Metapbysics, Logic, Moral Philosophy, persevered. The Honourable Amos Kendall was the Evidences of Christianity, Political Economy, the leading spirit in the movement; and in order Chemistry, Mineralogy, and Geology, with Drawto test it, he founded, and for a time supported, ing and Painting as optional studies. Candidates an institution at Washington for the higher for admission must pass a searching matriculation training of deaf-mutes. In 1857, he engaged as examination ; and the corporation is authorized his assistant Mr. E. M. Gallaudet of Hartford, by act of Congress to confer "such degrees in the himself the son of a mute mother, and of a father arts and sciences as are usually granted in colleges." whose life was spent in the education of mutes. In an official paper, published last year, and Mr. Gallaudet, we are told—and we can well kindly placed in my hands by President Porter, I believe it, considering his training and experience find the following most gratifying statement :-possessed keen insight into the workings of the “The experience of nearly five years in the prodeaf-mute mind, thorough belief in their capacity, gress of the college has fully satisfied those faand a warm desire for their intellectual, social, and miliar with its workings, that their assumption as spiritual elevation. He entered on his work with to the ability of deaf-mutes to master the arts and rare enthusiasm. He proved to the public what sciences was well-founded ; while at the same could be done. He pointed to the census returns, time the expressions of interest the enterprise has which made the startling revelation that there called forth from instructors of youth, from deafwere nearly twenty thousand deaf-mutes in the mutes and their friends, and from the public United States. He showed statesmen the great journals, are taken as evidence that the community advantages that must accrue to the country from approve the undertaking.” Mr. Gallaudet’s Report placing these on a par with their fellow-citizens in for 1870 shows the wonderful success which from regard to education. He at length succeeded in the very first attended the students who graduated : convincing the Senate that the Central Govern- -“Our first three graduates were at once called to ment was the only proper authority to undertake fill honourable and useful positions : one in the such a work. A college for deaf-mutes, he rightly service of the Patent Office; one to instruct his argued, would be national in its scope and in fellow-mutes in Illinois ; and the third to supply a the benefits it would confer ; for it would develop professor's place, as tutor, in the college from the hitherto dormant talents and energies of a
which he had just graduated. large class of men.
“The young men of our second graduating Accordingly, on the 28th of June 1864, the class have also given gratifying evidence that National College for Deaf-mutes was publicly in their collegiate training has been to good purpose. augurated at Washington, and liberally endowed One has been called to teach in the Tennessee by Congress. Provision was inade for the free Institution for Deaf-mutes ; another has been emadmission of residents in the district of Columbia ployed in a similar manner in ihe ūnio Institution; a third has taken an eligible position as teacher | their talents. They, as it were, liberate, in the in the new Institution for the Deaf and Dumb in persons of speaking teachers, a great amount of Belleville, Canada ; the fourth is a valued clerk intellect fitted for other spheres of labour. It was in the Census Bureau ; and the fifth is continuing with a true appreciation of this fact, that Mr. his studies here with the view of becoming a Secretary Cox said to the graduating class on a librarian, while he fills temporarily the position recent occasion : “It is not so essential that you of private secretary in the office of the president rise in the outside world as that you become misof the institution. The aggregate annual income sionaries among your brethren in misfortune. to-day of the nine young men who have graduated You should devote yourselves to the task of elefrom our college is 9600 dollars ; giving an aver- vating them with a zeal as assiduous, with a age of more than 1000 dollars (£200) each.” fidelity as enduring, as the Jesuit displays for his
And to this the Report adds: “The disability vows.” of deafness interposes no obstacle to success in The first thing that struck me on entering the literary and scientific pursuits. The silent voice grounds was the all-pervading silence. It was of the editor and the author may reach a larger almost painful. Youths were moving to and fro audience and be more potent for good than the with every outward sign of animation; but not a silvery tongue of the orator. The calm eye and voice was heard. Reacbing the doors, I asked for steady hand of the astronomer and the chemist | the president. A young man whom I addressed may gather as much that is valuable to humanity regarded me with a look of intelligence, which as the quick ear of the doctor or the musician. showed that, though deaf, he perfectly understood The legal lore of the closet is often of more value my question ; and motioning me to follow, he in the court-room than the noisy appeal of the led the way to the head-master. I was welcomed advocate.”
with the utmost courtesy, conducted over the My visit to the deaf-mute college impressed me entire building ; everything was explained, and more than anything I saw in America. It seems all official documents connected with the origin to me to be one of the noblest examples of Chris- and progress of the college were placed in my tian work ever undertaken by a Christian nation. hands. In one room we found a little group enIt displays at once deep and far-seeing political gaged in experimental chemistry, and a pupilsagacity, and genuine humanity. There may be teacher was explaining in sign-language a complia great deal of sentiment in leaving such work to cated process of analysis. In another room three be carried on by the voluntary liberality of Chris- students were working out on black-boards protian men. It may be said that charity is thus positions in the higher branches of mathematics, evoked where it would otherwise lie dormant. - I —for which, the professor told me, many of them maintain, however, that there is ample field for show extraordinary aptitude. I was introduced the outgoing of charity without trenching on the to one of them who had left a lucrative employprovince of the State. It is a false policy, and
It is a false policy, and ment in an engineering establishment, in order to short-sighted besides, to leave to the uncertainty, return to college and complete his mathematical and as a general consequence the inadequacy, of training, so as to be qualified for the higher deindividual effort, any enterprise fitted to confer partments of his profession. In another room I general and permanent benefits upon the country. found two classes in which I felt special interest ; There is true statesmanship manifested in the they were engaged in the study of Greek-readability to see the beneficial results to the public ing, parsing, translating, and yet silent. The difof raising a large class of persons, who must other ficulties connected with pronunciation are, of wise be a burden, to such a position as renders course, to them unknown; but in all other respects them an advantage to the commonwealth. As a they show as great facility in acquiring a knowrule, properly trained deaf-mutes form the best ledge of ancient classics as those who possess the instructors of their fellows; and were this the sense of hearing. I saw a group discussing, I only field open to them, it would be of great im- was told, some of those questions which now portance to the country to be able thus to utilize separate, or are supposed to separate, science and his paper.
theology. The features of each speaker's face, | “the school committee shall require the daily and the attitude he assumed, were so expressive, reading of some portion of the Bible.” One of that an observer could almost follow the course America's greatest statesmen has said: “Moral of the argument.
habits cannot be safely trusted on any other In the lecture and examination rooms, writing foundation than religious principle, nor any governand gesture are the sole modes of communication. ment be secure which is not supported by moral The student commits his lessons by placing one habits.” In carrying out their plans of national band under the table—under, in order to avoid education, American statesmen have all along disturbing his fellows—and spelling out each drawn a clear distinction between sectarianism word rapidly by means of the manual alphabet. and religion. They exclude creeds, formularies, The motions of his hand resemble those of an and catechisms from their schools, because they expert telegraph operator. Sometimes, in the heat proceed from and represent sects; but they steadof an examination, one is seen suddenly to cease fastly and consistently deny that the Bible is a writing, ply his fingers until he has caught up the sectarian book. It is, say they, the common prothread of an argument, and then proceed with perty and the common standard of Christendom.
It belongs alike to Protestant and Catholic, to all Probably the most impressive of all the college sects and to all men. They thus strike a wise exercises are those of the chapel. No sound of mean between what has been called ecclesiastical bell is heard ; yet at the appointed hour the bigotry on the one hand, and secular bigotry on students assemble and take their places. There the other. They hold that the fundamental prinis no hymn of praise ; there is no audible reading; ciples of religion and morality can be taught apart there is no voice of prayer. A silence as of death from catechisms; and they also hold that a thoreigns in that chapel; and yet God's Word is rough education can never be given where the there conveyed to attentive minds, and prayer, in principles of religion and morality are ignored. which all join, is offered up in that mysterious "No one of all our citizens, we think,” says sign-language. Nowhere in the world, perhaps, recent Report, “would wish that there should be can one witness a more touching illustration of the inculcation of denominational sentiments, or that grand truth, “God is a Spirit ;" and of the anything that would give the least bias in that lesson it teaches, that spiritual worship, in what-direction; but there are great principles, both of ever form offered, is the true, and the only true, morals and of religion, which are common to all, worship
which are easy both of apprehension and of appli
cation, and which our statute law makes obligatory RELIGION AND EDUCATION.
to be taught in all our schools.” “We suppose Wherever I went, in the United States, I found that our Roman Catholic friends, who were opin each school, college, and seminary for educa-posed to the reading of the Bible in school, mistion, that the existence of a God is openly ackow understood it as requiring their children to read ledged, his Word is read, and the obligation to the Protestant Bible. But this is not so. The worship him is admitted and acted upon. Each law guarantees them perfect liberty, if they have State in the Union has its own distinct Board of any conscientious scrup es against the Protestant Education, and its own laws, with which the su- version, to read their own Bible, in whatever preme legislature cannot interfere. The laws differ version their own Church has approved. We to some extent in different States ; but, so far as mean to defend them in this liberty. Their chilI have been able to ascertain, they all agree in dren shall have the same right to read their Bible laying down as the basis of education the prin- as our children have to read ours. But as to the ciples of religion and morality. “Without these,” Bible, whether read in a Protestant or Romislı says the Massachussett's Report,“ life is a failure." version, being excluded or abused, trampled on The same Report affirms that the Bible is the or destroyed—no, not while this remains a land of standard of religion and morality, and conse- right and liberty! The Bible is too good a book, quently one of the general statues declares that too vital, too universal-it belongs too much to the world's history, and literature, and morality, , men must be very careful, at the same time, not and jurisprudence—it is too thoroughly inter- to suffer the entrance of those fundamental facts woven with our national traditions, our morality and principles to be made an excuse for the introand our legislation, to have any contempt or insult duction of creeds. The Times, it seems to me, put upon it that we can remedy or prevent. In has set this aspect of the question in its true this land of light and freedom, no man shall put light. In a recent acute and eloquent article, it out its light; while every man shall be protected says:- “ The child is to be taught—that is to say, in reading it in any version he may choose, and its faculties are to be trained so as to apprehend interpreting it according to the dictates of his own facts, and its mind opened so as to understand conscience.”
their relation to itself and to one another. There It seems to me, that if British statesmen would is not a single branch of knowledge opened before only show a little of that firmness and consistency the child which does not run away into the depths; which American statesmen have shown, in legis- and by avoiding as much as by dwelling on these lating on national education, the religious difficulty depths the child is educated. By silence as much which is now agitating the three kingdoms would as by speech, by gesture as much as by word, it very soon be solved. Designing men are playing is taught. An object-lesson is one of the simplest with the weakness and vacillation of our rulers. exercises of the opening mind. May the teacher They are agitating and threatening, that they may lead the child to think of design in the adaptagain their own ends. But let our statesmen boldly | tion of parts of the object to its uses and ends ? affirm that this is a Christian country, and that Gross superstition,' cries the objector. Is the Christian principle lies, and must ever lie, at the teacher to be silent on such topics ? “Dark foundation of its constitution. Let them assert atheism,' answers another. Every lesson upon in practice, as they admit in theory, that the the natural world involves similar difficulties. morality of civilized nations is not based upon The history of mankind, the distribution of man Confucius, Zoroaster, the Koran, or Church as men exist now, the points on which they agree Councils, but upon the Bible. Let them affirmand differ, involve new difficulties. The difficulty that perfect freedom from sectarianism does not is everywhere. Teaching without any recognition exclude the cultivation of the heart and conscience. of religion is an offence as much as teaching with Let them affirm, too, on the other hand, what it; and if every nice offence is to be a stumblingevery thoughtful man must admit, that any at- block, we must undo what we have done, and tempt to train our youth intellectually and morally, give up national education altogether.” But so as to make them enlightened and useful mem- there is no need to give it up. The thought of bers of society, while altogether ignoring the doing so is a confession of cowardice. Our religious element, is an impossibility. The facts statesmen only need to be honest, consistent, and principles of Christianity must of necessity determined ; and agitation, generated by weakenter largely into every scheme of education ness, and fomented by vacillation, will speedily which is at all complete or efficient. But states- disappear.
Majestic most when tempests fiercely blow. When corn and mingled flowers to- Show me the rock, like fortitude, that stands gether grow.
Serene in sunshine and sublime in gloom, Like living gems, they vibrate in the rays Unmoved, unshaken to the day of doom. That spread through earth and heaven, one ardent Ob, had we but true faith in God's commands, glow.
So strong were we; so through all change could But ah! the scene no constancy displays ;
say, One wasting storm can lay its beauty low : “He doth uphold. Amen, come what come may.”
JOHANNES FALK: THE PHILANTHROPIST OF WEIMAR.
ABRIDGED FROM THE GERMAN OF BAUR.
IN TWO PARTS.
by the divine example, which love inspired him with JALK'S first step was to organize the Society new strength to imitate.
of "Friends in Need," who solicited sub- The distinguished philanthropists of that period supscriptions in Jena, Eisenach, and other ported Falk all the more readily, as they were not re
cities, and devoted the funds thus collected pulsed by his religious views; yet, nevertheless, in Weimar to apprentice poor boys to honest tradesmen. He pre- he was accounted a mystic; and orthodox Christians ng ferred family to institution training, and placed hun- doubt acted rightly in freely according to him their synidreds of children in pious families in Weimar and its pathy and assistance. vicinity. Afterwards, however, he found an institution “Many and divers are the flowers in the garden of to be indispensable to the attainment of his object. He God!” exclaimed the pious Blochmann of Dresden, always kept a limited number of the children in his own heartily rejoicing in Falk's labour of love. And there house : new-comers, in order to learn their respective was indeed good reason for rejoicing : since Falk brought dispositions; and those who happened to be specially to his work, not only a heart glowing with love, but neglected or depraved, in order to have them under his likewise all the freshness and versatility of his poet's own eye. Boys receiving a higher culture, preparatory nature. to a university course, were considered as belonging to The experience of his youth, the sorrows of his manhis own family. Afterwards a large number of children hood,—his deep earnestness and rich vein of humour,resided with Falk in a house built for the purpose ; yet his acquaintance with the popular dialect and national he still preserved regular intercourse with those placed songs,—all lent their aid in attracting the attention and elsewhere. Every evening he instructed the boys des rivetting the affections of the children, and awakening tined for the ministry in Bible history and chorale-sing- their intellect; and thus subserved the grand end of ing. The girls of the institution were taught sewing restoring humanity from the ruins of the fall, and reand spinning, and all the children under the care of the deeming God's children from the power of the evil one. society were expected to attend the Sunday school. Falk lived with the children, giving them of his best,
Thus a delightful work of Christian charity sprang and labouring early and late on their behalf. Daily and from the distressing exigencies of the times. The love hourly he had to instruct, to reprove, to correct, or enwherewith, a century earlier, August Hermann Francke courage. He well knew how to sound, in conimon conof Halle espoused the cause of the young, had begun a versation, the inmost depths of the young heart. Once new career. In both cases the spring of action was the there arrived from a neighbouring village a youngster, same—the love of God as manifested in Jesus Christ ; who, fancying he had a call to the ministry, thought it and the object the same-to gain souls for the kingdom below his dignity to drive home his father's cows. Falk of heaven ; but the means employed were very different. asked him whether he came from a town or a village ? Falk's religious views, we may here state, cannot pos- “From a village,” replied the boy. “Oh, indeed; then sibly be judged by a strictly orthodox.standard. Side I wonder that you need to come to Weimar to learn fwy side with his intense hatred of sin, which forced itself what a cow is. Perhaps, however, you don't know how daily in a thousand forms on his view, there existed in much we owe to that valuable animal. Tell me, now: him a warm admiration of the goodness of the human when a faithful maid-servant rises early and
goes heart. He rejected the notion of education being in basket and sickle to the meadow to cut the long wet itself sufficient to regenerate mankind, and disliked the grass, it rustles, does it not ?"
“And when a rationalism then prevailing at Weimar under the aus- wealthy sluggard sleeps away the fine morning behind pices of its leading clergyman, whose ministry he would silk curtains, they rustle too?" "Yes.” “ And which siot suffer his pupils to attend. But, on the other hand, sound, my son, do you think God loves best to hearit is to be regretted that he failed to entertain the cor- the sickle in the wet grass, or the silk curtains of the rect scriptural view of the atonement. The anger of sluggard ?” “The sickle." “But why?” Here the God at sin, the necessity of a sacrifice, and the stupend- wits of the young peasant came to a stand-still. ous fact that the Son of God died for sinners, he never “I will tell you, ny son," continued Falk. “ If those duly realized. To him love was all in all—the Divinity curtains were to rustle for ten years, what good would it whom he worshipped; and in the Saviour lie beheld the du?” “None.” “But if the sickle gleam in the mornmost wonderful incarnation of divine love. When he ing sun for six or seven years, filling the basket with looked to the Cross—as he frequently and thankfully grass and clover for the cow-house, where the little did- he was less affected by the vicarious sacrifice than I calves and yearlings patiently await their fragrant fond