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from the hands of the diligent girl, what will come of alternating the singing of responsive hymns with the that?" "Large, fine cows." “ Yes ; and these fill the reading of Scripture. The children always sang at dairy with milk, and butter, and cheese, on which the work, often the songs of Falk's own composition. He farmer's children grow strong and rosy; while the flocks gave them the history of Lnther in excellent rhyme in and herds frolic on the green meadows, and rejoice in the style of Hans Sachs, interspersed with spirited the goodness of God, who made them and us, and who songs.

He often conducted his young flock to the sees fit to use the active, dutiful servant as his instru- Thuringian mountains, to afford them an opportunity ment in nourishing them. What, boy! You refuse to of learning the gospel of the flowers of the field and drive home these noble animals, to whom we all owe so the stars of heaven, and of hearing God's voice in the much. My town-boys here know better about farmer's rushing wind and waving forest. work than you seem to do. Stand up, boys, and sing Falk's personal and domestic interests were comour fine old song in praise of the country. That will pletely merged in his work of love. Every event in his probably make our friend feel ashamed of his foolish own family was to him a fresh incentive to devote hinpride!” The children then sang Falk's song: “Oh, a self to the redemption of destitute children. In March shepherd's life for me!” “Well, did you understand 1819, it pleased God to take away Falk's son Edward, a that? Who was Moses ?" "A man of God.” “Yes ; promising youth of nineteen, who had just completed and so was David, who wrote the psalms that you learn his studies preparatory to entering the university. The by heart. You do not seem to me likely to become a parents, overwhelmed with grief, were sitting by the David, and compose psalms and hynıns; and yet you are corpse, when, about an hour after the death of their beashamed of useful work that holy men of God did as a loved child, a knock was heard at the door. “Oh, if matter of course. Away with you! You are such a thou wouldest but once more appear to us! - if thou simpleton as not to know the worth of a good servant wouldest but once more enter by this door!” cried the and of an earthly flock ; so, how could Christ, the Lord distracted mother, her eyes fixed on the body. Here a of heaven, trust his sheep to you, or make you one of poor boy of about fourteen entered, saying, “Since you his servants !”

have had pity on so many children from our country, do It is worthy of notice, that this reception, cutting as it not reject me. My parents died when I was seven years was, did not repel the boy.

of age.” The afflicted mother rose up, lifted her tearThe liberty accorded by Falk to his young people stained face to heaven, and exclaimed, “O God, thou proved a strong bond of union between them. “We art ever sending us strange children, whom we receive forge,” said he “all our fetters from within, and utterly gladly; whilst our own thon takest away from us !" scorn those of outward application. It is written : ‘If The poor boy's petition was not refused. Christ make you free, ye shall be free indeed.' Might The bereaved parents, especially the mother, felt this it not be said: “If Christ bind you, ye shall never go new wound so severely that the physicians deemed astray'? Do parents lock their doors to prevent their change of scene indispensable. Falk took up his abode children from running away? If that is not done at at the foot of the Wartburg, near Eisenach. The exhome, why should it be indispensable here? Is human quisite scenery, and still more the strengthening meDature divided against itself? Nay, verily. Christ and mories clinging around the ancient fortress overhanging the Bible are right. Love alone triumphs over every their dwelling, acted beneficially on the mind of Falk obstacle,-over gates and bars, locks and drawbridges; and his wife. Being restored to health, they returned yea, even over wicked men.”

home in the autumn, after visiting Frankfort. For two With this confidence in the power of love, he could years God saw fit to grant them a respite from domestic say to a pupil who had repeatedly run away, after re- affliction, when, at Easter 1821, it broke forth anew ; proving him for his folly, “Even God, though almighty, their daughter Angelica, a girl of sixteen, being taken forces no one to be saved. Now, I may as well inform from them. Well-practised in the petition, “ Thy will you, in case you should take a roundabout way the next be done,” they did not grow weary in the work given time you leave us -since you seem bent upon doing so— them to do. At this period they greatly needed fresli that there are two doors to this house. Moreover, if supplies of strength. you want to go to Frankfort, your nearest way is by The owner of the house where Falk had hitherto carLuther Street ; but if bound for Leipzig, you had better ried on his labour of love, unexpectedly gave him notice go by the opposite gate. The city-gates are opened to leave, and he looked around him in vain for a snitevery morning at six, and shut for the night at ten; so able abode. A report was circulated in Weimar that inake your arrangements accordingly.” Once more the Falk was about to remove to the ancient mansion of the boy ran away, but only to return with tears, never again Counts of Orlamünde, a deserted and dilapidated buildto forsake the right way.

ing in Luther Street. On first hearing this rumour, Falk's lessons were never dry. The love of God was Falk remarked that he would not choose even to be always illustrated by facts from every-day life ; so that buried there. However, when no other shelter could be the pupils were never wearied by abstract teaching. found, a bright thought struck Falk; and he resolved He first invented the plan-so often adopted since-of to go to Luther Street, and, with the aid of his pupils,

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restore the ruined mansion. The house was purchased. pressed by the grandeur of Nature, he received the folFive thousand thalers had to be paid by a certain tine, lowing answer :- “My faithful Elisha (2 Kings xii.), and Falk was without a farthing to meet the demand; While I tarry here on Mount Carmel, looking up to besides which, the expenses of building had to be con- God, you have travelled as far as Rügen, and have sidered.

listened to the waves of the Baltic. God keep you “Trust in God, my friends!” cried Falk ; “ trust in healthy and happy, and cause, through your endeavours, God. Let the work be planned and begun in his name, the hearts of others to beat as warmly as our own for and he will send us the means wherewith to carry it on.” the cause of humanity......If, when the Lord shall call He then set to work with his usual energy, dispatching me hence, whether by the whirlwind or by the still small messengers with printed circulars announcing his new voice, I can leave you a fragment of my mantle, I will undertaking. These travelled through Germany and do so with all my heart. Smite the waters therewith, Holland, and sent home the gifts of Christian friends. and go dryshod over the seas of trouble which await all Falk's own contribution, the result of literary labour, mortals here below. You write that you have to tell amounted to three thousand thalers.

learned men for hours about our institution. Only be Meanwhile the boys worked diligently at the new strong and very courageous : your simplicity and straighthouse. The old building was pulled down and the forwardness will convince them that we are in earnest foundation-stone of the new house laid in 1823. Every here about the education of the people; and are neither tile on the roof, every lock, every table and chair within, hypocritical knaves nor conceited fools, but honest men, was the boys' own work. When the structure was com- sending out others equally single-minded, whose errand plete, there was placed over the front door a marble is to speak the truth and do good as they have opportablet bearing the inscription : “After the battles of tunity. Now, my beloved Denner, the Lord bless your Jena, Lützen, and Leipzig, the Society of Friends in going out and coming in. May he spread the light of Need' erected this house as a perpetual thank-offering his grace even though your humble agency, and make to God."

you and me, and all of us, a blessing to many. He who The outward framework complete, Falk set to work was so gracious to shepherds and fishermen, can aswith renewed vigour at the internal economy of the suredly advance his kingdom, even through poor boys establishment. He was now able to keep a larger num- from Luther Street, if such be his holy will. What ber of children than before under his own care, and ex- though the ungodly hiss and open their mouth wide ercised more vigilance than ever over their mental and against is; the Lord will never let us be put to spiritual development. He had much satisfaction in his shame." pupils. Many a worthy tradesman, many an able teacher When Denner was on his second journey to the Rhine and pious pastor, bad to thank Falk for saving him and the Netherlands, Falk mentions his own declining from destitution and making him a useful member of health. “Pray for your sick father," he writes, “ who society.

lies awake many an hour, and never fails to commend One of Falk's pupils, Johannes Denner, tells us in his you to the Divine protection.” A week later: "I can autobiography how he, a poor boy from the district be- neither walk, nor stand, nor sit, nor get a moment's rest tween the mountains of the Rhône and the forests of at night. My appetite is gone, and at the slightest Thuringia, went, impelled by a strong thirst for know- movement a thousand knives seem to stab me. They ledge, to Falk in 1822. He was admitted to the Refuge, call this terrible complaint-worse by far than deathand very soon employed as Falk's amanuensis. He was sciatica. It wastes a man to a shadow, and often bows afterwards sent out to collect for the institution, and him down till both hands touch the ground. May God, finally attained the summit of his ambition-a pastoral who has laid on me this heavy cross, help me to bear it charge in the kingdom of Würtemberg. From his auto- with patience and calmness, to his own glory!” Then biography we learn something of Falk's latter years. he tells, in moving language, of the comfort derived, Nothing could be more amiable than the manner in amid his bodily anguish, from the fact that the instituwhich the ripe scholar, the friend of Göthe-the man of tion was well provided for by the exertions of his young the world and distinguished savant-corresponded with friends, whom he earnestly exhorts to prayer. this youth. His letters to his protege abound in playful has granted your request, my dear son,” he writes, a humour, as well as deep earnestness. “When you reach month later. “The fiery trial is over ; the agonizing the shores of the Baltic, and hear the murmuring of its pains in my bones have ceased. We shall see one waves,” he writes, "greet them from me, and tell them another once more.” that poor Johannes, who so often listened to their voice, But never again did the young disciple behold his dear has wiped away many a mourner's tear and stilled many master on earth. The disease returned with aggravated a sigh since then; but has likewise wept and sighed symptoms. An abscess in his side burst, after which he abundantly himself.”

felt better, till the other side became affected in the When Denner informed Falk of his visit to the island

“If you would know my state for the of Rügen, where he had been much refreshed by the last two months,” he writes, “read Psalm cii.” Neverkindness of Christian friends, as well as deeply im- | theless, his spirit continued strong in the power of faith

6 God

same manner.

“Look around, my son," he continues, taking up his The day before his death, he wrote the preface to the parable; "we live in a great hospital, where there is no little work on Luther already alluded to. He then made end of sighing and dying, -of leave-taking and heart- his will, and desired his daughter to read it to the breaking. But to all this the children of this world give notary. When she came to the epitaph which he had little heed. They resemble the thoughtless French com- written for his tombstone, she burst into tears, wheremissaries, who, while the ground-floor echoes with the upon he encouraged her to proceed with her painful shrieks of their wounded and dying comrades, are en- task, saying, “Go on, my daughter; be my own brave gaged in preparations for a ball in the rooms above. girl!” After the sealing of the will, he was seized with Yes, dance and sing; the more riotously the better, lest violent spasms in the chest, accompanied by great diffthose piercing cries should distract your fine nerves, ex- culty in breathing. alted to the third heaven by the voluptuous dance and On the 14th of February he expressed a desire to reintoxicating draught! There, my good Denner, you ceive the sacrament. It was administered to him by have a picture of the world and its unspeakable frivolity. one of his most decided opponents, who ever after deeply It is to counteract this tendency that God has called revered his memory. The same day Falk was called to us to labour, and seen fit to make me a spectacle of pass through the last conflict. His speech was now misery. Blessed are they whom he conducts to glory, almost inarticulate, but occasionally a few disjointed even through great tribulation.” Falk was indeed hon- words were audible: “God-for the people-faithoured to bear a noble testimony by his sublime fortitude, Christ—the end." The victory was gained, and Carl nay, even his triumphant joy, in the midst of unspeak- Reinthaler, who had hastened from Erfurt, and now able suffering. He shared, as he tells us, the experience stood at the death-bed with the widow and four children, of Job. But he withstood the tempter, and occupied closed the eyes of his friend in silent prayer. every season of temporary relief in praising God and Three days later, the boys of the Refuge carried the working for the children. His pupils assembled daily body to the family burying-place, where, on a plain monuaronnd his couch for instruction, and to the last he gave ment, may still be read a brief and touching epitaph all needful orders himself. He dictated to one of the composed by Falk for himself, in which he rests his boys a poem which he had composed on the destruction hope of salvation solely on the merits of the Reof the “Invincible Armada”-an event in which he had deemer, always loved to trace the finger of God.





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HE future chronicler of the history of coincidence, it seems impossible for the devout

the Church will doubtless regard it mind to escape the conclusion that the guardian as a somewhat remarkable fact, that Eye, which has watched over the Church through

the same epoch which has called all the vicissitudes of her chequered career, bas forth some of the most vehement onslaughts of shown equal vigilance in the preservation of the the negative school of criticism on the veracity great charter of her hopes and liberties. Deeply, of the sacred writings, should have likewise con- however, as this lesson is stamped on the history tributed some of the most solid additions that of contemporary literature, its point and cogency have, for many years, been made to the external are apt to be lost sight of amid the multiplicity evidences of the truth of Scripture. It can of extraneous details with which it is almost hardly be a matter of accident, that the genera necessarily surrounded in scientific exposition.

a tion which is accustomed to hear the Mosaic It cannot, therefore, be an altogether superfluous record superciliously alluded to by its men of task for the Christian student to endeavour to science as a "grand old legend,” should be pro- gather up some of the great results which have vided with the exquisite and effective anecdote been achieved in the department of Oriental rewhich the researches of Rossellini and Wilkinson, search, and present them to the general reader in Layard and Rawlinson, have been the means of a clear and compact form. To concentrate into a supplying. In the presence of so startling a focus the bright rays of light thrown upon the

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sacred page by the disinterment of the great , hands of the Babylonians, whose empire, springempires of the East, will be the aim of the present ing from the ancient Chaldæan centre, at once and subsequent papers.

included the primitive kingdom, and extended far

beyond it. The first great field of antiquity from which Long, however, before the Babylonian monwe propose to draw our illustrations of the truth

archs rose to power in the land, the distinctive of the Old Testament narrative, is that interesting national peculiarities of the early Chaldæans and ancient region which, by the successful de had been almost entirely obliterated. The recipherment of one of its most venerable legends, peated conquest of the country by alien races has recently called to itself the attention of all gradually swept away the Ethiopic form of speech, classes of intelligent men.

The Chaldæan mon- wbich had been spoken by the primitive colonists; archy was founded by the genius and prowess of and under the Assyrian rule the old language fell Nimrod, and raised by him and his successors to so completely into disuse, that it came in course the first rank among the great powers of the early of time to be studied by the learned simply as a world. Situated in the lower portion of the literary curiosity. The Chaldæan legends which Mesopotamian valley, it extended, speaking gener- were embodied in this extinct tongue, replete as ally, from about the 34th parallel of latitude on they were with the lore of a primeval civilization, the north, to the head of the Persian Gulf on the were sought out and studied by the literati of south, and from the Euphrates to the Tigris on Nineveh ; and when the victorious monarchs the east and west. The district is supposed to brought away portions of them from their original have been formed by the alluvial deposits of the resting-place to the Assyrian capital, they were two great rivers which girdle it on both sides ; first copied and translated by scholars, and then and everything connected with the natural features deposited in the archives of the royal palace, of the country bears out the received account of where the kindly dust of twenty-five centuries its origin. To the eye of the traveller, the land has preserved them substantially intact down to scape presents a vast, bare, unbroken plain, with the present time. This, at least, is the actual little to relieve its dull monotony. The soil was, history of the monumental fragment recently disand still is, characterized by a degree of fertility covered in the Assyrian department of the Britishı which, but for the concurrent testimony of botlı Museum. A considerable number of clay tablets, ancient and modern writers, must appear almost covered with inscriptions, had been discovered in incredible. The exuberance of the wheat-plant the course of excavations made some fifteen years in olden times, we are told, was such, that on a ago in the ruins of the palace at Nineveh ; and well cultivated farm the average yield of the crop among them was a series of legends, one of which was a hundred and fifty fold ; whilst in special was found, when carefully sorted and examined, circumstances it even ranged as high as two to furnish a full account of the Deluge. The hundred fold. It was in the choicest portion of original text of the inscription was brought, acthis productive region that “the mighty hunter" cording to the statement of the tablets, from the laid, in the form of a tetrarchy, the foundations city of Erech, but has long since perished. Transof a kingdom which Aourished from the twenty- lations of it, bowever, had been made from time third to about the close of the sixteenth century to time by Assyrian scholars; and it is fragments before the Christian era. About the period of of three of these, belonging to the comparatively the exodus of Israel from Egypt, the Chaldæan recent period of King Assurbanipal, who fourmonarchy, after an existence of seven centuries, ished somewhere about 660 B.C., that have now fell before the hordes of Arabs who swarmed in been recovered. from the desert on its western frontier. By them The legend consists of twelve cantos, or tablets, the country was held for a shorter period, until each of which contains a portion of the story of it was finally absorbed by Assyria ; and when, in a monarch called Izdubar, who is supposed to the course of ages, this latter power crumbled to have belonged to the mythical period of Chalpieces in its turn, the sceptre passed into the dæan history. Izdubar, after reaching the highest

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summit of earthly felicity, falls ill, and being calmed the storm, and all the tempest, which had stricken with the fear of death, resolves to go in destroyed like an earthquake, quieted. The sea quest of an ancient patriarch named Sisit, who, he caused to dry, and the wind and tempest having been made immortal by the gods, would ended. I was carried through the sea. The doer probably, he thinks, be able to show him the way of evil, and the whole of mankind that turned to to immortality without having to face the last sin, like reeds their corpses floated. I opened enemy. In reply to the questionings of Izdubar, the window and the light broke in, and over my Sisit, who corresponds to the Xisuthrus of the refuge it passed. I sat still, and over my refuge Greeks, and the Noah of the Hebrews, proceeds came peace. I was carried over the shore, at the to relate the story of the Flood in the eleventh boundary of the sea, for twelve measures it astablet of the series. The text of the inscription, cended over the land. To the country of Nizir divested, as far as a regard to the sense will per- went the ship : the mountain of Nizir stopped mit, of its mythical excrescences, runs thus :- the ship, and to pass over it, it was not able.

“I caused to go up into the ship all my male The first day and the second day, the mountain and female servants, the beasts of the field, of Nizir the same. The third day and the fourth the animals of the field, and the sons of the day, the mountain of Nizir the same. The fifth army—all of them I caused to go up. A flood and sixth, the mountain of Nizir the same. On Shamas made, and he spake saying in the the seventh day, in the course of it, I sent forth night, 'I will cause it to rain from heaven a dove, and it left. The dove went and searched, heavily : enter to the midst of the ship, and shut and a resting-place it did not find, and it returned.

: thy door.' In the day that I celebrated his fes- I sent forth a swallow, and it left. The swallow tival, the day which he had appointed, fear I had, went and searched, and a resting place it did not

I I entered to the midst of the ship and shut my find, and it returned. I sent a raven, and it left. door ; to guide the ship, to Buzursadirabi the The raven went, and the corpses on the waters it pilot, the palace I gave to his hand. The raging saw, and it did eat, it swam, it wandered away,

, , of the storm in the morning arose, from the and did not return. I sent the animals forth to horizon of heaven extending and wide; Vul in the the four winds, I poured out a libation, I built midst of it thundered......the spirits carried de- an altar on the peak of the mountain, by seven struction; in their glory they swept the earth; herbs I cut, at the bottom of them I placed reeds, of Vul the flood reached to heaven; the bright pines and simgar...... May the gods not come to earth to a waste was turned ; .....it destroyed all my altar; may Bel not come to my altar, for he life from the face of the earth......the strong did not consider, and had made a tempest, and my tempest over the people reached to heaven. people he had consigned to the deep from of old; Brother saw not his brother; it did not spare the also Bel in his course saw the ship, and went Bel people. In heaven the gods feared the tempest, filled with anger to the gods and spirits : let not and sought refuge; they ascended to the heaven any one come out alive, let not a man be saved from of Anu. The gods, like dogs with tails hidden, the deep. Ninip then opened his mouth and crouched down. Spake Ishtar a discourse, uttered said, 'Who then will be saved ? '...... Hea opened the great goddess her speech. The world to sin his mouth and said to the warrior Bel, Thou has turned, and then, in the presence of the gods, prince of the gods....... instead of thee making a I prophesied evil; when I prophesied in the pres- tempest, may lions increase and men be reduced; ence of the gods evil, to evil were devoted all my may a famine happen and the country be destroyed; people, and I prophesied thus : “I have begotten may pestilence increase and men be destroyed.' man, and let him not like the sons of the fishes ...... When his judgment was accomplished, Bel

The gods were weeping with her: went up to the midst of the ship, he took my the gods in seats, seated in lamentation; covered hand and brought me out, he caused me to bring Were their lips for the coming evil. Six days and my wife to my side, he purified the country, he nights passed, the wind tempest and storm over- established in a covenant and took the people in whelmed, on the seventh day in its course was the presence of Sisit and the people; when Sisit

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