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or observances of a religious character should be national education in Prussia :-“ Prussia, if forbidden. When they can be introduced in an judged by her institutions and laws, must be edifying and inoffensive way, they should not be regarded as the most thoroughly Christian nation objected to; but the true theory of civil govern- in the world. As the Prussian system secures ment forbids the use of State money or State that every man shall be a soldier, so it secures authority in any way that contravenes individual that every man shall be a Christian, so far as rights of conscience. The whole controversy knowledge and profession are concerned. No about the use of the Bible in public schools is child, although barefooted, of twelve years of age, greatly to be deprecated. It is damaging to the can be found in Berlin or Halle who cannot read interests of both education and religion. The and write, and who is not familiar with Scripture time will come when a great deal of moral and history. The experiment has been often made. religious truth will be taught in the public schools, The children are all required to go to school. not theologically, but educationally. There is a The pastors are required to devote so many religious common law accepted by everybody, hours a week to their religious instruction. The which will yet be embodied in text-books, and hymnology of Germany is probably richer than taught in every school without offence. It is not that of any other Christian people, if not than dogmatic religion in any full sense, but it comprises that of all other nations combined. The Germans cardinal religious doctrines, and a complete code of are a musical people, and these hymns are sung the highest and purest morality; and men of all not only in the churches, but in the homes of the creeds and characters in our land acknowledge in poor all over the land. Hence, while the French some form the authority of this religious common soldiers are roused by the Marseillaise,' the
The existence and government of God con- Germans nerve themselves by singing the grand stitutes its great controlling feature, and from that old hymn of Luther, “A sure defence is our God, is developed the whole code of moral duties. The a trusty shield and weapon.' The churches power of these higher obligations in forming the throughout Prussia, as a general thing, are character of the young, and in controlling men crowded with worshippers. The rich and titled through life, has been recognized in every age and may or may not be there in curtained stalls, but nation. The fact that Mr. Huxley, a distin- the body of the church is thronged by the comguished sceptic, is now endeavouring to compel mon people. While, therefore, in Prussia, as the reading of the Bible in the public schools of elsewhere, many of the educated, and especially England, furnishes only another addition to the of the scientific class, have given themselves up multitudes of cases in which persons without a to scepticism, the nation, as a nation, is eminently religious faith have testified to the disciplinary Christian.” value of the teachings of Scripture.”
I believe that Dr. Hodge here reveals the true In further confirmation of this point, the Report source of that mighty power which has raised contains an extract from an article in the Prince- Prussia to the first rank among the nations of the ton Review, written by Dr. Hodge, regarding world.
ON PRAYER.* [The great work from which we take the following paper is now complete. The third and concluding volume has just issued from the press. The whole constitutes a grand summary of revealed truth, presented in those forms of thought
and expression that are familiar to our own generation. The work will be the witness of this age to the next of the whole counsel of God in the gospel.]
RAYER takes a great deal for granted. It , hend and answer, can love and be loved, or hold converse
assumes, in the first place, the personality with other persons. If God, therefore, be only a name of God. Only a person can say I, or be for an unknown force, or for the moral order of the
addressed as Thou; only a person can be universe, prayer becomes irrational and impossible. the subject and object of intelligent action, can appre- Secondly, God, however, although a person, may dwell
far off in immensity, and have no intercourse with his * From “Systematic Theology, by Charles Hodge, D.D., Professor in the Theological University, Princeton, New Jersey.
creatures on earth. Prayer, therefore, assumes not only Volume III," London: T. Nelson and Sons.
the personality of God, but also that he is near us; that
he is not only able but also willing to hold intercourse control them within the narrow range of our efficiency. with us, to hear and answer; that he knows our According to this theory, it is not irrational that we thoughts afar off; and that unuttered aspirations are should pray for rain or fair weather, for prosperous intelligible to him. Thirdly, it assumes that he has the voyages or healthful seasons; or that we should feel personal control of all nature-that is, of all things out gratitude for the innumerable blessings which we reof bimself; that he governs all his creatures and all ceive from this ever present, ever operating, and ever their actions. It assumes that he has not only created watchful benefactor and Father. Any theory of the all things, and endowed matter and mind with forces universe which makes religion, or prayer, irrational, is and powers, but that he is everywhere present, control- self-evidently false, because it contradicts the nature, ling the operation of such forces and powers, so that the consciousness, and the irrepressible convictions of nothing occurs without his direction or permission. men. As this control of God extends over the minds of When it rains, it is because he wills it, and controls men, it is no less rational that we should pray, as all the laws of nature to produce that effect. When the men instinctively do pray, that he would influence our earth produces fruit in abundance, or when the hopes of own hearts, and the hearts of others, for good, than that the husbandman are disappointed, these effects are not to we should pray for health. be referred to the blind operation of natural laws, but to It is also involved in the assumptions already referred God's intelligent and personal control. There is no such to, that the sequence of events in the physical and reign of law as makes God a subject. It is he who moral world is not determined by any inexorable fate. reigns, and orders all the operations of nature so as to A fatalist cannot consistently pray. It is only on the accomplish his own purposes.
assumption that there is a God, who does his pleasure If the world is full of the evidences of spontaneous in the army of heaven and among the inhabitants of the action on the part of man, nature is full of evidence of earth, that we can rationally address him as the hearer such action on the part of God. The evidence is of the
of prayer. same kind, and just as palpable and irresistible in In like manner, it is assumed that there is no such the one case as in the other. It is admitted of necessity foreordination of events as is inconsistent with God's actby those who deny it. Darwin's books, for example, ing according to the good pleasure of his will. When a are full of such expressions as “wonderful contrivance," man enters upon any great enterprise, he lays down "ingenious device," "marvellous arrangements.” These beforehand the plan of his operations; selects and expressions reveal the perception of spontaneous action. determines his means, and assigns to each subordinate They have no meaning except on the assumption of such the part he is to act: he may require each to apply action. “Contrivance," "device," imply design, and continually for guidance and directions; and may assure would not be used if the perception of intention did not him that his requests for assistance and guidance shall suggest and necessitate them. Some twenty times be answered. Were it possible that every instance of already, in the course of this work, it has been shown such application or request could be foreseen and the that, in many cases, those who begin with denying any answer predetermined, this would not be inconsistent spontaneous action in nature, end with asserting that with the duty or propriety of such requests being made, there is no other kind of action anywhere; that all or with the liberty of action on the part of the controller. force is mind-force, and therefore spontaneous as well This illustration may amount to little ; but it is certain as intelligent.
that the Scriptures teach both foreordination and the Spontaneous action cannot be got rid of. If denied efficacy of prayer. The two, therefore, cannot be inconin the present, it must be admitted in the past. If, as sistent. God has not determined to accomplish his even Professor Huxley teaches, “ Organization is not purposes without the use of means; and among those the cause of life ; but life is the cause of organization,” means, the prayers of his people have their appropriate the question is, Whence comes life? Not out of nothing, place. If the objection to prayer, founded on the foresurely. It must have its origin in the spontaneous, ordination of events, be valid, it is valid against the use voluntary act of the ever and the necessarily Living of means in any case. If it be unreasonable to say, "If One.
it be foreordained that I should live, it is not necessary The theory of the universe which underlies the Bible, for me to eat," it is no less unreasonable for me to say, which is everywhere assumed or asserted in the sacred “ If it be foreordained that I should receive any good, volume, which accords with our moral and religious it is not necessary for me to ask for it.” If God has forenature, and which, therefore, is the foundation of ordained to bless us, he has foreordained that we should natural as well as of revealed religion, is that God seek his blessing. Prayer has the same causal relation created all things by the word of his power; that he to the good bestowed, as any other means has to the endowed his creatures with their properties or forces ; end with which it is connected. that he is everywhere present in the universe, co-operat- The God of the Bible, who has revealed himself as ing with and controlling the operation of second causes the hearer of prayer, is not mere intelligence and power. on a scale commensurate with his omnipresence and on
He is love. He feels as well as thinks. Like as a nipotence, as we, in our measure, co-operate with, and father pitieth his children, so the Lord pitieth them.
that fear him. He is full of tenderness, compassion, , addressing prayer to God, that it is inconsistent with long-suffering, and benevolence. This is not anthropo- his dignity as an infinite Being to suppose that he morphism. These declarations of Scripture are not concerns himself with the trifling affairs of men. This mere “regulative truths.” They reveal what God objection arises from a forgetfulness that God is infinite. really is. If man was made in his image, God is like It assumes that his knowledge, power, or presence, is man. All the excellences of our nature as spirits limited; that he would be distracted if his attention belong to him without limitation, and to an infinite were directed to all the minute changes constantly degree. There is mystery here, as there is everywhere. occurring throughout the universe. This supposes that But we are all used to mysteries, the naturalist as well God is a creature like ourselves; that bounds can be as the theologian. Both have been taught the folly of set to his intelligence or efficiency. When a man looks denying that a thing is, because we cannot tell how it is. out on an extended landscape, the objects to which his It is enough for us to know that God loves us and cares attention is simultaneously directed are too numerous to for us; that a sparrow does not fall to the ground be counted. What is man to God? The absolute inwithout his notice, and that we are, in his sight, of more telligence must know all things ; absolute power must value than many sparrows. All this for the believer is be able to direct all things. In the sight of God, the literal truth, having in its support the highest kind of evi- distinction between few and many, great and small, disdence. The “how” he is content to leave unexplained. appears. In him all creatures live, and move, and have
It is an objection often urged against the propriety of their being.
Light out of Darkness.
BY ANNIE LUCAS.
"Earth's watchword is, 'Farewell!'”– MONTGOMERY. HEN the gate had closed behind us, “So I had; but circumstances occurred to
and the high garden-wall rose be- necessitate an earlier return than I had expected. tween us and the public pathway, I Barbe told me you were in the garden; but only
drew a long breath of relief. Captain finding Blaise there, I inquired of him, and asro: Edelstein turned to me with his own peculiarly certained you had gone up the Colline Rouge. brilliant smile, in which I always thought the eye Fearing you might meet with some annoyance or took as much part as the lip, "Now you feel safe, fright, I ventured to follow you—little thinking do you not ?”
I should be the means of exposing you to what I “Yes; oh, Captain von Edelstein!"
wished to sbield you from." “Will you not rest here awhile before you go “You were very kind. Who do you think on? You do not fear now, and I want to speak fired that shot? Was it a franc-tireur ?" a little with you; may I?”
“I think not." “Oh yes; but ob, it was frightful !” I still " Who, then, could it have been ? It came shook with agitation, and sank gladly on the from that point of wood that runs almost up to seat in the sheltered arbour to which he led me. the path. Ah! I know; it must have been
“Poor child ! you have indeed been under old—” fire' this afternoon. I little thought to what “ Hush !” said my companion quickly; "do my presence would expose you when I sought not tell me who it was !” you on the hill.”
“Why?" "You sought me!” I exclaimed, surprised, “ You forget I am a German officer," he said, though a warm glow of pleasure filled my heart; smiling with a look that told me he was willing “how did you know I was there? I thought I should forget it, save in this ; “ did I know who you had ridden off with your band !”
fired that shot, you know what my duty would be ?"
you ? "
Yes, I did know; so was silent.
“Not exactly,” he replied, smiling a little ; But I do not think Captain von Edelstein had “ though they cause me pain."
old Jacques Lechere, the charcoal-burner, whose so unlike yourself as we came down the hill.” lonely cottage stood in that very belt of trees, and “ Did I?” Then, after a pause, “Mademoiselle whose two stalwart sons, the pride and stay of Léonie, I was thinking of you.” his failing years, had both fallen on the bloody “ Of me!” field of Wörth. Since the fatal day when the “ Yes; I have received orders. We leave crushing tidings reached him, the old man had Drécy to-morrow.” seemed to have but one thought—one feeling- “ To-morrow!" I faltered. bitter, revengeful, mortal hatred against the Ger- “ Yes; you noticed those columns of troops mans, by whose steel his brave boys bad died. marching through the valley from the top of the It was not hard, then, to guess whose dimmed hill ? ” sight and trembling hands had made that bullet “ Yes.” pass wide of its mark.
“ They were the reinforcements for which we Then I thought of the second report ; after have been waiting. We must be on the march being assured of my friend's safety, I had almost before daybreak to-morrow.” forgotten that.
It had come, then—the waking from my dream. “But I heard a second shot fired."
The pain was very sharp. What should I do “ Yes."
without the friend, the teacher, the companion, Something in the look and tone made me say
who in that eventful week had become so very quickly and apprehensively, “But it did not hurt dear to me—so necessary to my happiness.
Tears welled up to my eyes and fell—great burn“No," he replied ; " but God's angel was round ing drops, that bring no relief. about us, mademoiselle ; that first shot was close “Do you care so much ?” said Captain von to both of us—the second was closer still. Look Edelstein, in a low tone of deep emotion, taking bere !” He took off his cap and showed where my passive hand in a clasp of gentle tenderness. the bullet had singed the outer rim. My cheek I raised my tearful eyes to his.
“ How can I blanched, and I could not speak. One inch do otherwise ?” I said;" what have you not been nearer! The thought was terrible.
to me this week ?-protector, teacher, friend-no Neither of us spoke for some moments, then brother could be kinder, more sympathizing, more Captain von Edelstein said, “You must have helpful than you have been. You have shown thought me very rough, very cruel, mademoiselle, me the light-taught me the truth-led me to in the way I shook you off. There was no time Jesus ; and now you are going away into danger, for ceremony. I knew a second ball would almost perhaps to death—and I shall be alone. Oh! certainly come. I was the mark, but it might how shall I keep right with no one to belp me, no have taken you in its course. It was the only one to teach me. And I so ignorant and weak !” thing to be done."
The look of intense pain that passed over my “Oh! I did not think of it. I only thought companion's face as I spoke made me pause. For of your danger-it seemed so base to leave you an instant-less-his fingers closed convulsively alone. I could not bear to do it."
on mine, his lips parted as if to speak, then that He flashed a bright, sweet look upon meza stern, rigid look I had noticed on the hill-side look so infinitely glad and bright-I can see it returned. He covered his eyes with his hand for a now. O Conrad ! Conrad !
moment, and when he removed it, his face was After a time he said, “ This day is full of events, serene and calm, and not without a certain kind of Mademoiselle Léonie ; that bullet was not the brightness, though my eyes dropped before the only unwelcome reminder I have met in its look of love and sorrow that met mine. course.”
“Léonie, dear Léonie,” he said, "I may call " Is it not—why? Have you bad bad news ?" | you so—may I not? You have called me friend
" Ah yes
brother. You will let me live in your memory as “Yes; but oh, Captain von Edelstein, my
“And you," I said, after a time; "where are ! I will indeed. But oh! I shall be so
you going ?” lonely-I shall lose my way-get into dark- “To join Von Werder in the south,” he replied.
“Will your post be a dangerous one?" I asked. “No, dearest Léonie, no; you will not be alone He smiled. “A soldier does not think of that," --you will have One ever near, the Friend that he said; "and however it may be, mademoiselle, sticketh closer than a brother, who has said, “I remember a Christian bears a charmed life.” will never leave thee, nor forsake thee.' Trust “Do you mean that you are sure God will keep him; he will teach you, guide you, sustain you, you from being wounded, or”-I shuddered supply all your need—ALL.”
“ being killed." “But I shall have no light, not even a Bible !” “No," he answered gently, “I cannot say that.
“He can make even that loss up to you,” he I do not know whether bullet, or shell, or steel replied; “I would leave you mine, but it is my may not be the instrument my Father may choose dear mother's gift.”
to bear me his message, ‘Come up hither. But “Oh no, no ! you will need it too; no, I could I do know that no weapon can touch my true not have robbed you of it, even had it not been life, none wound me, that it is my Father's will your mother's gift, it is so precious and necessary to avert. And I trust he will let us meet again to you. I know you would miss it even more in happier times, even here. If not, we have than I."
the certainty of meeting above.” “Well, I will try and find means of procuring Then he uttered a short, but deeply earnest and sending you one.
Or, rather, I will ask the prayer. Every word lives in my memory still ; Lord to do so.
Meanwhile he will but it is too sacred-too solemn to be recorded keep you in the path, for he is the Way.' Rest
even here. on him. And now, Léonie, a few words before Silently, and with lingering steps, we walked we go in. You will remember I tried to induce up the path towards the house. What a change your father to let me procure a safe-conduct to since we last paced it in holy, happy talk that secure your travelling at once to Munich, where morning. Then the glad early sunshine beamed you would be in peace and safety till the war is brightly upon us and on the many-tinted leaves
I saw it was vain to urge it upon him, he and flowers. Now the shades of the gray stormy is evidently resolved not to leave his old home. evening fell thickly around; the drenched flowers But for you, Léonie, if you should need a pro- lay stained and prostrate on the earth ; the wind tector, if you should be left alone in the midst of swept wailing and moaning round the house, this strife—my poor child, I would not distress scattering the sere leaves from the creaking you—I trust it may not be ; but, if what we fear branches. A heavy shower had fallen as we sat should come to pass, will you seek refuge in in the arbour; the rain had ceased, but the damp Munich-you and Barbe—with my mother and chill struck to my very heart. Yet one live coal sister? They know of you. I have written to glowed in it. Conrad's words had not been in them of you; they will receive you gladly. By vain. Heavenly hope and trust gleamed sweetly way of Switzerland, you might reach them without over my soul's troubled waters : with two such much difficulty. I would have procured a safe stars the night could not be all darkness. conduct, but in the unsettled state of affairs it As we entered the house, Conrad asked me to would be useless to do so beforehand. Will you leave him a short time alone with my father that promise me this ? "
evening. He wished to speak with him of one or