« PredošláPokračovať »
mitted to linger on till the year 1802, when it was sup- hastened to extend a hand to those same Catholics with pressed by a Papal Legate, in virtue of a special mandate whom they had been at war. James Fazy, the Radical from the Holy See. This suppression, says M. Pronier, leader, leaned upon them; by their support the Radical was confirmed by Napoleon the First, and the Catholics government maintained itself for several years at Geof the departments of Mont Blanc and Leman were These years of Radical government were, thereplaced under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Cham-fore, times of prosperity for the Catholics of Geneva. It bery. This state of things did not last beyond the year was then that there began that enormous influx of Sa1819. Certain parishes of Saroy having been incorpo- voyards and French into the dismantled city of Calvin rated at the peace of Vienna with the Canton of Geneva, which encouraged the curé of Geneva to form the fairest which was then united to the Swiss Confederation, a expectations. In the name of toleration and liberty, the general desire was expressed that the Catholics of that treaties which regulated the existence of the Catholics canton should be placed under the jurisdiction of a at Geneva were allowed to fall into oblivion. Even Swiss bishop. Negotiations with this end in view were after the fall of Fazy the same policy was adhered to. opened in 1817, and went on for more than two years. One day, for example, the government made a grant to At length, by a Brief of 1819, the Pope agreed to extend the Geneva Catholics of a large piece of ground for the as far as Genesa the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Lau- erection of a cathedral in the Gothic style ; at another sanne, who resided at Strasburg. Since the year 1821 time the Protestant population, by their solemn vote, that bishop has also been authorized honoris causa to admitted the Savoyard Communes, which had been anassume the title of Bishop of Lausanne and of Geneva. nexed in 1815, to a share of the millions of money which Under this arrangement the Catholic inhabitants of the up to that moment had been the exclusive property of latter city have lived from that year down to the present the Evangelical Church ; and later on, a maguificent time, their immediate spiritual head being simply a curé site was sold for a few francs with a view to the conor parish priest, elected by the common consent of the struction of a third Catholic church. At the same time, diocesan and civil authorities.
various religious corporations went on establishing themThe Catholics have not had the slightest reason to selves quietly upon Genevese territory ; the salary of the complain of this system. Faithful to its pledges, and curé of Geneva was doubled, as well as the number of firmly maintaining its rights, the Conservative govern- his assistant priests. In short, among the devotees of ment which was in power after the restoration resisted the Papacy in France and Savoy, nothing was so freall the usurpations of the clergy, and took its stand on quently talked about as the conquests of Catholicism in the letter and spirit of the treaties. The ambition of Geneva, and its approaching and inevitable triumph. the clergy would have wished a very different course of Everything was going full sail before the breeze, when action. The most unfounded complaints were repeat- suddenly the wind changed. The old spirit of Protesedly uttered by their party ; they declared that the tantism and of liberty woke up little by little at the Church had no freedom--that the Catholic worship en- sight of the audacity and astuteness of the priest of countered incessant obstacles—that persecution had Notre Dame of Geneva. “By virtue of what right," it cómn ced. They managed to fill the whole of Europe was asked, “ha
all these friars and nuns come to with their piteous cries, and the curé Vuarin, a man of settle among us? Perhaps our canton is destined to daring but intolerant and despotic spirit, carried his become a second edition of Belgium ?” By the nomicomplaints to the foot of the thrones of princes, and nation of a State Council, with M. Carteret at its head, displayed the greatest dexterity in pulling all the strings the Genevese declared in the most emphatic manner of worldly politics, in order to interest the Great Powers their resolution to set limits to the inroads of the Ultrain the fate of the pretended martyrs of Geneva. It was montanes. Interpreting in its more rigorous sense the impossible for him to make a great impression. The law relating to religious corporations, the new Council plan which he had secretly cherished of reconstituting the of State shortly afterwards compelled those which had Episcopal See of Geneva, for his own greater glory and been established within the territory of the canton to that of the Holy See, was completely upset, in conse- apply for authorization, a thing which up to that moment quence of Monsignor Henry, then Bishop of Lausanne, they had never so much as thought of. That authorizahaving refused to denude himself of the smallest particle tion was granted only to a few ; all the rest were obliged of his authority. The curé Vuarin died without hav- to break up or emigrate. The government went still ing succeeded in the accomplishment of his purpose, further. By the public rumour of both Switzerland and esteemed as a saint by the Catholics, but by the Protes- France, it had been for some time asserted that the tants regarded as an intriguer.
Episcopal See of Geneva had been reconstituted in The government of 1815 fell in the year 1845, and, favour of M. Gaspar Mermillod. The backstairs intrigues strange to say, its fall was brought about by its policy of the curé Vuarin had therefore been renewed. The of supporting the right of the Jesuits to establish them- State Council did everything in its power to bring the selves in Switzerland. Radicalism came into power truth to light. Finally, on the 20th of September 1872, by making capital of the religious question ; but, as soon after a lengthened correspondence, and discussions, and as the war of the Sonderbund was over, the Radicals / negotiations of every description, in the course of which
the dignitaries of Rome did little else than evade all sent to them as usual. He referred the Council of direct questiuns, and pass from one equivocation to State to Monsignor Mermillod as solely charged with another, the Council of State, by two simultaneous the affairs of Geneva, but without giving a copy, as decrees, declared that it ceased to recognize M. Mer- he was asked, of the legal act by which the Holy See millod as Catholic curé of Geneva, and that in conse- charged the curé of Geneva with this administration. quence of this it deprived him of the stipend belonging On that point Monsignor Marilley was altogether silent. to that office. It further prohibited him from perform- | It became necessary to have recourse to Monsignor ing either personally or by power of attorney any act Agnozzi, Chargé d' Affaires of the Holy See in Switzerwhich might belong to the jurisdiction of the ordinary. land. Then came the letter of the Council of State to MonThus ceased to exist, in point of fact, the hitherto legal signor Mermillod ordering him to confine himself hencestatus of the Catholic administration.
forth to his duties as curé of Geneva, since they alone The Catholics wanted to give out that the Genevese could be recognized by the law. Next followed the received the publication of these decrees with the live- refusal of Monsignor Mermillod, who appealed to his liest indignation. We must say that their approbation ecclesiastical superiors, declaring that he would persist in of them was, on the contrary, quite universal. In vain exercising all the powers which had been committed to did the Ultramontane party try to raise a disturbance. him seven years before by the Holy See and the bishops. Their proclamations and the virulent articles in their On the other hand, Monsignor Marilley asserted that he newspapers made no difference either one way or another ; had neither desired nor favoured the division of the and shortly after, on the occasion of the general elections ecclesiastical administration, but that he submitted to for the Grand Council, the people of Geneva gave their decisions the announcement of which could not be long full sanction to the policy of M. Carteret. The clergy delayed. In these circumstances, the Council of State, alone persisted in making an uproar, and of their perceiving that they were being trified with by these lamentations Pius IX. has too willingly made himself ecclesiastical personages, and that their authority was disthe echo. But the most profound tranquillity has not tinctly repudiated by Monsignor Mermillod, summarily ceased to reign in the city of Geneva and throughout deprived the latter of the office of curé, and of the the whole cantou ; nay, more, there prevails the most emoluments and privileges thereto attached. intense satisfaction at seeing Ultramontanism held in The tortuous policy pursued by these high dignitaries check.
throughout the whole course of the transaction is suffiBut it may be here naturally asked, What grounds ciently manifest. People wanted to know if the sepahal the civil authorities for treating their curé in this rate diocese of Geneva had been actually re-established; high-handed way? The circumstances which led to Mon- in other words, if the Pope, disregarding the rights of signor Mermillod being extruded from his office may be the State and the solemn covenants formed between the very shortly stated. Whilst the aggressive practices of Holy See and the Canton of Geneva, had completely the Ultramontanes had been gradually stirring up modified the state of things which existed since the jealousy and indignation in the public mind to inaugurate / year 1819. What do these bishops and legates do ? and carry out a policy of repression, another train of They act as if Geneva were in fact a distinct diocese events had been proceeding side by side with this newly (Monsignor Marilley refusing to present to vacant awakened popular feeling. In the year 1865, the Bishop parishes, and Monsignor Mermillod wishing to do so in of Lausanne and Geneva, spontaneously or otherwise, his own name and on his own responsibility, like a had appointed the curé of Geneva, who was Bishop of legally constituted bishop), but they say not a word as Hebron in partibus, his Vicar-General, in so far as to its being reconstituted. Monsignor Mermillod refers regarded the Catholic interests of the canton. The the State to his superiors ; Monsignor Marilley sends it Council of State then in power was weak enough to give to Monsignor Agnozzi ; Monsignor Agnozzi feigns its consent to this modification of the state of affairs ignorance, and refers it to Rome. Better still : Rome, which had prevailed until then : all that it specified which has never made a positive declaration, speaks at was that the Vicar-General should not act except in last on the 23rd of December. This time, perhaps, the the name and on the responsibility of the ordinary. It light will appear : it cannot fail to issue from that founfurther reserved the right of direct application to the tain of light called Pius IX. A mistake : read the latter as often as it should be deemed expedient. In allocution of the Pope at the consistory of the 23rd the beginning of 1872, popular rumour, seconded by a December, and what do you find there ? Declamation, public journal, having announced that the Episcopal See recriminations, and nothing else. On the question of Geneva had been reconstituted, with Monsignor Mer- whether or not the Episcopal See of Geneva had been millod at its head, the existing Council of State, which, reconstituted, absolute silence along the whole line as we have already seen, had begun a reaction against from Rome to. Berne. The single point which it the Ultramontane intrigues, suddenly seized the oppor- was of importance to make clear was precisely the one tunity afforded by two parishes in the canton falling on which silend was obstinately maintained. But the vacant, to demand directly of Monsignor Marilley, Genevese authorities were not to be hoodwinked or Bishop of Lausanne and Genera, that he should pre- | driven from their purpose by this policy of evasion and delay. No longer knowing with whom it had to deal Council at the same time sent a copy of this letter to the when it treated with Monsignor Mermillod, and not State Council of Geneva, and instructed that body to being able to obtain the slightest explanation of a situa- convey it to the knowledge of Monsignor Mermillod, in tion full of intrigues, equivocations, and Jesuitical order that he might make known, within a given time, reserves, the Council of State took the only course by whom he intended to obey. This communication of the which it was possible to save the rights intrusted to its government was received with the highest gratification, keeping. It ceased to recognize Monsignor Mermillod and gave rise, when it was read, to no little excitement as curé of Geneva, and deprived him of the stipend among the members of the Council. They immediately belonging to that office.
despatched their ultimatum to Monsignor Mermillod, Such is the plain, unvarnished account of the so-called intimating that if within three days he did not resign persecutions of the Catholics of Geneva down to the end the dignity of Vicar-Apostolic, he would be expelled from of last year, when, thanks to the firniness of the Council Switzerland. The answer was such as might have been of State, all that Monsignor Mermillod had made by expected-namely, that he would not cease to discharge his intrigues was the loss of his former legal position as the functions of Vicar-Apostolic, even in opposition to the curé, without the recompense of obtaining a higher orders of the civil authorities. This explicit declaration dignity in its stead. It is important to remember here, having been communicated to the Federal Council, a in view of what immediately follows, that Monsignor decree was immediately issued for the arrest of Monsig. Mermillod at the beginning of the present year no longer nor Mermillod, and on Monday, the 17th of February, occupied any ecclesiastical position recognized by the law a commissary of police waited on him at his house, and of the land, being neither a regular bishop of any diocese conducted him there and then across the Swiss frontier
was a Swiss citizen, amenable to Swiss law, and nothing The painful impression produced by these violent
more. His episcopal title of Monsignor, derived from measures has been, to a certain extent, counterbalanced a bishopric which existed only on parchment, was purely by the direct practical benefits which a portion of the honorary, and conferred no real civil status.
citizens of Geneva seem likely to obtain from the transThe vigorous measures of the Genevese authorities action. The position of antagonism into which these immediately produced the most wholesome effects on events gradually forced the court of Rome and the civil the policy of the Curia Romana, and forced it, nolens authorities of the canton, made it quite plain, to men of volens, to take up the gauntlet. In pursuance of this the most opposite shades of political opinion, that a new change in the position of affairs, Rome replied to the modus vivendi between the two contending parties was challenge of the Swiss by ordering the publication, in all absolutely indispensable to the maintenance of peace and the churches of the canton, of a Pontifical Brief, by which order in the Genevese community. Two alternatives Geneva was detached from the bishopric of Lausanne, lay before the citizens. They had it in their power to and Monsignor Mermillod appointed Vicar-Apostolic of restore peace either by dissolving the existing connecthe new diocese. This Brief, dated the 13th January, tion of Church and State, or by granting to their was actually read in the various churches on Sunday the Catholic fellow-citizens the right of choosing their own 2nd of February, in direct violation of the law which pastors. The former course would certainly have set prohibits the promulgation of such things without the the matter most effectually at rest, but the great authorization of the government. After the first feeling majority of the State Council do not seem to have reof excitement, occasioned by this open defiance of their garded the proposal with favour, introduced as it was by anthority, had passed away, the local government, re- Fazy and the Radicals. Partly on account of its being cognizing the gravity of the crisis, wisely resolved to re- mixed up with the political schemes of the Opposition, fer the difficulty to the Federal Council, the supreme partly, perhaps, on other grounds, the Carteret section court of the Helvetic Republic. The question was no of the Council fought shy of this plan, and fell back on longer cantonal, but national, and as such could not be proposals of a milder type. A Bill, conferring on the competently dealt with except by the highest represen- Catholic parishioners the right of choosing their own tatives of the nation. To the Federal Council the case pastors, was immediately laid before the Council, and then went, and that body was not slow to indorse and rapidly passed, by overwhelming majorities, through the carry out the policy of the local government. An ener- various stages required by the constitution. A day or getic protest was immediately drawn up and sent to the two after Monsignor Mermillod's expulsion, it had rePapal Chargé d'Affaires, denying the right of the Vati- ceived, by an emphatic vote of seventy-six to eight, the can to dismember a legally constituted Swiss bishopric requisite legal sanction of the Grand Council. Before without the consent of the governing powers, and warn- these pages are published, it will have been submitted ing the Holy See that the Federal Council, in the exer- to the consideration of the assembled people, and, in cise of its constitutional authority, would take the neces- all probability, have received from them the final apsary steps to prevent any further encroachment on its proval which is necessary to constitute it the law of the rights, as guaranteed by the Brief of 1819. The Federal | land.
OUR FATHER'S LOVE: A STORY OF LONDON STREETS.
ALL ALONE IN LONDOY.
HERE are some places in London where , child, her only friend in the wide world had died that
King Dirt holds a carnival all the year morning, leaving her alone in the streets of London ! round-narrow back streets, where the It was the old, old story: a widow striving to work
tall houses, almost meeting at the top, shut for herself and her only child, and sinking at last beout every gleam of sunlight, except during the longest neath the stroke of disease, after giving up one by one and hottest days of summer, and then only a narrow every article of furniture, and moving from place to rist of golden glory lights up a strip in the centre, and place, until at last she was glad to find a refuge in the nakes the shady corners look more dark and desolate garret of one of these gaunt houses, where she had not than ever.
lived many weeks before God called her to the mansion In one of the shadowed nooks of such a street sat a he had prepared for her. little girl, her head leaning against the brick wall for a She had talked to Susie of this, and tried to prepare pillow; and you might have thought her fast asleep, but the child's mind for the coming of the sad trial; but the for an occasional sob. She had cried so long that her little girl had hoped that her mother would get better eres were swollen and heavy; and even the faint light“ by-and-by." And so, when at last she woke up that of Fisher's Land made them ache so much that she was morning and leaned over her mother, and found that glad to close them.
she could not speak, or even return the caresses lavished No one noticed her for some time, but at length a on her cold lips and brow, she grew frightened at the girl about her own age stopped and looked at her, and unwonted stillness, but yet could not think her mother at last spoke. “What's the matter ?” she said, touching was dead, until some of the neighbours came in and her shoulder.
told her so. With a sob and a start the girl opened her eyes. "O Mrs. Sanders had not made friends with her neighElfie, is it you?" she said, and then her tears broke out bours, and they had thought her proud, because she did afresh.
not talk to them of her affairs; and so, beyond telling “What is it? Haven't you got anything to eat ?" she Susie to go to the overseer of the parish, and ask him asked.
to send some one to bury her mother, they did not “I shall never want to eat anything again,” sobbed the trouble themselves. other. “O Elfie, mother's dead !”
Susie had just been on this errand, and wandered out “Dead, is she ?" said Elfie, but looking as though she again into the street to cry there, when Elfie saw her. could not understand why that should cause anyone to They had spoken to each other before, but there had cry.
not been much acquaintance, for Mrs. Sanders kept her “I shall never be happy again, Elfie.-0 mother, little girl in-doors as much as possible. But Elfie had mother, why didn't you take me with you ?" wailed the taken a fancy to Susie, and resolved to befriend her poor little orphan.
now; so instead of moving away when she was repulsed, “ Just because she didn't want you, I
she put her bare grimy arms round Susie's neck, and Elfie, but at the same time sitting down to soothe the said, “Tell us all about it, Susie ; the boys shan't hit grief she could not understand. "There, don't cry," you while I'm here." she went on in a matter-of-fact tone. “My mother's To tell "all about it” was just what Susie wanted. gone away, but I don't cry after her ; not a bit of it; I No one else had asked about her mother, except the know better than that, Susie Sanders.”
few hard questions put by the overseer, and so she Susie sbrank from her companion's touch as she said gladly nestled close up to Elfie and told of her waking this, and thought of what her mother had said about that morning to find her mother cold and dead. making companions of the children in the street, and A grief like Susie's was quite beyond Elfie's comprehalf regretted having spoken to Elfie. There was a hension. Her mother had left her six months beforegreat difference in the two girls, anyone could see, though gone off no one knew where, and no one cared-at both might be equally poor. Elfie was unmistakably a least, Elfie did not. No one beat her now, she said ; and street child, ragged, dirty, sharp-looking, with bright if she was hungry sometimes, it was better to be hungry cunning eyes shining out of a good-tempered looking than bruised, and no one dared to do that now, so that face ; while Susie, in her patched black frock and tidy she was rather glad to be left free to do as she pleased. pinafore, and timid shrinking ways, showed unmis- But Susie shook her head very sadly when told she takably that, poor as she might be, there had been some ought to be glad. “I can't,” she said, “though mother one to love and take care of her. Alas ! for her, poor told me God would take care of me when she was
gone. I wanted to go with her, and be happy in heaven and made her sit down on the stairs, while she listened now."
to the conversation going on just above them. “And why diln't she take you ?” said Elfie, whose When they reached the garret, and Elfie had shut ideas about lieaven were not at all clear.
the door and glanced round the room, she said, “ Look “She said I must stay here a bit longer, and do the here, Susie, which will you like best,—to stop here and work God meant me to do."
work for yourself, and go out when you like; or hare “ What work's that ?" asked Elfie.
somebody come and shut you up in a big horrible place, Susie shook her head. “I don't know, unless it's with high walls like a prison, and make you work sewing shirts like mother did," she said.
there?” • Sewing shirts,” repeated Elfie; “people starve at Susie shivered. “Nobody would do that to me," she that, and have to sit still too. I'd rather go about and said, looking across at the bed where her mother lay see places, and starve that way, than the other," she covered with the sheet, and thinking what she had said added, shrugging her shoulders.
of God caring for her. “ You don't like sewing then,” said Susie. “What “But they will, though, if you don't look sharp, fur I do you do, Elfie, to earn money ?"
heard the woman say you'd better go to the work-house," Elfie laughed. “Oh, it ain't much money I earns; reptied Elfe. but I manage to get something to eat somehow, and She had heard the work-house spoken of very often, that's what you've got to do now, I suppose.”
but did not know what it was like, or that the life of Again the tears came into Susie's eyes. “I don't children there was far less hard than hers. She only know what I'm going to do," she said ; “mother told knew they were not allowed to run about the streets, me to read last night abont the ravens taking food to and the idea of being shut up in any place was dreadful Elijah, and she said God would send his angels here to to Elfie, and must be to everybody else, she thought. take care of me."
She succeeded in making Susie dread being taken “ Then that shows she knew nothing about this place,” | there. “But what shall I do to pay the rent here?" she said Elfie, in her hard matter-of-fact tone. “Angels | asked. don't come down Fisher's Lane-at least, I never see “Well, it would be nice to stop here,” said Elfie; “ but 'em. and I'm out pretty near all hours, night and day I manage without paying rent anywhere, and that's a too."
saving of money." Susie sighed. “I don't think it was quite an angel “But where do you go to bed ?" asked Susie. with white wings mother meant, but somebody who “Well, I ain't been to bed in that sort of bed for would be kind and take care of me-a lady or gentleman nearly six months,” she said, pointing towards the corner. perhaps," she said.
“ I sleep under a cart, or on a heap of straw, or anyElfie laughed. “Catch a lady or gentleman coming where I can find a nice place ; it don't matter much down here,” she said; and the idea of such a thing when you're asleep where you are, so long as you're out seemed so ridiculous that she burst into a second peal of of the way of the rats.” langhter, until Susie looked offended, and then she said Susie shook her head. “I shouldn't like that," she more gravely, “ It's all a mistake, Susie, about the said. angels or anybody else caring for you. I know all about “Well, no, I suppose you wouldn't,” said Elfie, again
I it, for I've lived in Fisher's Lane ever since I was born, looking round the room. “People that's always been and people have got to take care of themselves, I can used to tables and chairs, and them sort of things, like tell you."
you've got here, wouldn't like to sleep out under a “ But how shall I take care of myself ?” asked Susie. waggon, I guess.” “I know there's some money to pay the rent next week, How can people do without tables and chairs ?" but when that's gone what am I to do ?”
said Susie. “How can they live ?” “Get some more,” said Elfie shortly. “I'll help you," “Oh, pretty well! Lots of us have to do without she added.
them, and other things besides,” said Elfie carelessly; “ Thank you ; will you come home with me and stay “but you couldn't, I suppose, and so we must try to to-night, I'm dull by myself ?” said Susie with a deep keep these.” sigh.
“ How shall we do it?" asked Susie. Iler companion joyfully assented, and went off to the “Well, you can sew shirts, and I can get a job now market in search of some stale fruit to share with Susie and then at the market, and sometimes I clean steps for at once. Then they went back together to Susie's home, people, and that all brings money., How much do you and, going up the stairs, overheard two of the women pay for this little room ?” she asked. talking to the man who had come to see about the “A shilling," answered Susie. “Mother's put the funeral.
shilling away for next week, and she paid the landlord Susie was too much overcome with grief to pay any yesterday.” attention to what was said ; but Elfie had had all her “All right. Have you got any shirts to sew ?" asked wits sharpened, and she laid her hand on Susie's arm Elfie.