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“ old man " and a new man," an "inner man a living soul or being. There is the same double and another. And where the fervour of the re- use of words in Hebrew as there is in other ligious imagination produced creations like these, languages, the word for breath and spirit being it may easily be conceived to have spoken of the same, a thing which must be due, as has two aspects of the one substance mind, as if been said, to a confusion of the sign of life with they were two substances.
the source of life. Elsewhere this breath or These passages raise only one of the two ques- spirit which God breathed into man is said to be tions over which the obscurity hangs. The other the cause of intelligence in man: The breath or question--namely, that of the relation of man's inspiration of the Almighty giveth them underspirit to God's spirit-is raised almost as soon as standing that is, is the source or subject of intelwe open the Old Testament. In the more specific ligence. And we must conclude that the author history of the creation of man, given in the intended to teach in this passage of Genesis, second chapter of Genesis, it is said that “God that God breathed spirit into man, and man beformed man of the dust of the earth, and breathed came a living soul. into his nostrils the breath of life, and he became But what relation to God had this spirit which a living soul.” There are three stages in this he breathed into man? Was it his own spirit ! process : first, God formed man of the dust, the On the one side we might strictly adhere to most immaterial form of the material element of the figure and say : No man breathes bis own earth. Contrasting man's formation with that spirit, that essence whereby his own existence is of the beasts, we find it to be the result of special continued, but only that whereby his existence purpose on God's part, and a particular indepen-manifests itself-namely, breath. And thus what
, dent act. The earth and waters, at the com- God breathed into man must have stood related mand of God, brought forth the other creatures ; to himself as a man's breath is related to bim. but mau's formation was a piece of distinct work- But, on the other hand, it is evident from the manship of God's own hand. Second, his body use of words that this distinction between breath being formed, God breathed into his nostrils the and spirit was not sharply drawn; and a passage breath of life. The word breath does not seem just cited says that the inspiration of the Alused, if one disputed passage be excepted, of the mighty is that in man which is intelligent. We
, life-breath of other creatures besides men ; but are here, no doubt, to some extent dealing with it is no easy matter to say what the language figurative language ; but it is very remarkable here employed means. The words breath of life that this cardinal passage in Genesis does not must mean more than “ breath which is the sign speak of man's spirit as created, but as breathed or expression of life,” although, probably, no very into him out of God's own mouth. God drew sharp distinction was drawn between the source man's being, so to speak, out of the depths of of life and the sign of it. Third, this having his own; man's spirit is that ethereal perfumed
; been done to man, man became a living soul. fire which is the breath of God. The soul lives, it is the bearer of life, within it It is hoped that the relevancy of these stateall the functions of life go on, and all the ments to the subject of death and immortality, if phenomena of life are realized, and so Paul says : it be not seen now, will appear by-and-by. It Man was made a living soul. But the breath or
in the meantime be enough to say that what spirit does not live; it is the breath or spirit of is called the “soul" seems considered in Scripture life, what bestows life—“it is the spirit that the seat of life and of personality in man, and giveth life.”
that, having been endowed with personality, it It would be altogether absurd to suppose that never loses this possession; for death, as it puts the author of this passage intended nothing more an end to the existence of no soul, puts an end as by the expression “ breathed into bis nostrils little to the existence of any person. When a the breath of life" than that the Creator set in man dies the soul departs from the body; if he motion Adam's lungs, and caused him to begin be restored to life the soul returns to the body; to breathe atmospheric air, and thus be visibly | if one be rescued from death his soul is said not to
be left or given over to sheol—that is, the place of ! and opened her mouth without measure ;” and the dead, in such passages personified by the Agur, the son of Jakeh, one of the Wise, saith : strong imagination of terror or love of life; but “There are three things that are never satisfied, the disembodied persons in this place of the dead yea four things say not, It is enough : the do not seem named in the Old Testament either 'grave;' and the barren womb; and the earth that souls or spirits. They are called by other names is not filled with water; and the fire that saith which describe the thinness, and flaccidity, and not, It is enough.” But such a derivation of the unsubstantial nature of their existence, but they word is more sentimental than solid. Most proare the same persons as they were above, however bably the term is connected with a root that sadly “weak” they have now become. Again, means to be hollow,or to gape, yawn, and hence has that which is named “spirit" seems considered itself the meaning of hollow, abyss, like ourown word the source of life in man; it returns to God who hell that is, hollow. In the English version the gave it; its withdrawal causes death, and its word is sometimes rendered grave and sometimes partial withdrawal a diminution of the powers of hell, both unfortunate renderings; for, perhaps,
the word never means the grave, and that addiThe remainder of this paper may be occupied tional idea of torment or misery which we assowith bringing forward from the Old Testament ciate with the expression “hell" forms no part of some general views about death and the state of the meaning of this word. the dead. It might be surmised, from the strong The Old Testament represents sheol as in every expressions used many times of death in the Old way the opposite of this upper sphere of light Testament, that it was believed that in death and life. It is "deep sheol :” “Thou hast depersonal existence came to an end. In Psalm livered my soul from the lowest bell ;' it lies cxlvi. 4, it is said: “His breath goeth forth, he deep down within the earth : “Those that seek returneth to his earth; in that very day his my soul to destroy it shall go down into the lower thoughts perish.” In another psalm, the thirty- parts of the earth.” Corresponding to this, it is ninth, the suppliant prays: “Oh spare me, that I the region of darkness, as Job, looking forward to may recover strength, before I go hence and be it, mournfully describes it : "A land of darkness no more." And in Job such expressions reach as darkness itself, and of the shadow of death, their climax : “And why dost thou not pardon my without any order, and where the light is as darktransgression? for now shall I sleep in the dust, ness.” Of course no formal or exact topography and thou shalt seek me but I shall not be." “For is to be sought for sheol. It is deep down under a tree hath hope, if it be cut down, it will sprout the earth, even under the waters, and dark, and again...... But man dieth and wasteth away; man all within it chaos. It is in great measure the giveth up the ghost, and where is he ?...... man creation of the imagination. Hence it is often lieth down, and riseth not; till the heavens be no decked out in the horrors of the grave. The more, they shall not awake nor be raised out of prophet Isaiah represents the King of Babylon their sleep." But these are only the strong entering sheol, and occasioning no small stir expressions of despondency and of regret over a among the shadowy persons there : "Sheol from life mournfully soon ended, and that never returns beneath is moved for thee meet thee at thy to be lived on this busy earth again. The very coming....... Thy pomp is brought down to sheol, name and conception of sheol is sufficient to and the noise of thy viols : the worm is spread remove the first impressions they produce. under thee, and the worms cover thee." And a
The term sheol is the Old Testament name for later prophet says: “The strong among the the place of the dead. The derivation of the mighty shall speak to bim out of sheol. Asshur word is uncertain. At first sight it seems con- is there and all her company : bis graves are nected with the word to ask, and it has been sup- about him: all of them slain, fallen by the sword: posed that the name was conferred on account of whose graves are set in the sides of the pit.”the insatiable craving of the grave; as a prophet Ezek. xxxii. 22, 23. According to this represensays : “Therefore 'hell' hath enlarged herself tation, sheol is a vast underground vault. with
cells all around like graves. But though sheol distinguished arrival. It is the shadow of earth is sometimes painted in colours borrowed from and its activities--wavering shades of the present the grave, it may be asserted that nowhere is the life. One can perceive that there is no knowledge
, name used for the place of the body in death. among the writers of Scripture concerning it. Sheol is the place of departed personalities; it is It is the creation of imagination almost entirely. the place appointed for all living, the great rendez- They shudder at the thought of dying, and vous of disembodied persons. The generations imagination paints the place of the dead as like of one's forefathers are all there, and he who dies the grave, dark as darkness itself. The sleep of is gathered unto his fathers. The tribes of one's death causes them to deem it a land of stillness race are there, and the dead is gathered unto his and silence. The flaccid corpse makes them think people. Separated here, he is united with them of the person as feeble, with no energy or power. there. And if even his own descendants had All seems due in some way or other to the cirdied before him, they are there, and he goes
down cumstances of death, and none of it can be taken to them, as Jacob thought to go down to his son as deliberate expression of opinion. Only this mourning. None can hope to escape passing may be considered assumed under it all, and part down into that universal gathering of those that of the deliberate belief of the writers,—that dehave lived and are dead: What man is he that parted persons had not ceased to exist, but conketh and shall not see death, that shall deliver tinued to live, although the life had not the light his scrl from the hand of sheol ?
and joy of the present one. The state of those in sheol. -As death consists There does not seem any distinction of good in the withdrawal by God of the spirit of life, and evil in sheol. As all must die and pass into and as this spirit is the source in general of energy sheol, all are represented as being there. Sheol is and vital force, the personality in death is left no place of punishment itself, nor of reward. feeble and flaccid. All that belongs to life ceases Neither does it seem divided into such compartexcept existence. Hence sheol is called Abaddon ments. The state there is neither blessedness nor _"perishing;” it is called “cessation.” The misery; it is existence." There the wicked cease personalities crowding there are powerless, and from troubling (that is, from unquietness), and the
) drowsy, and still, and silent, like those in sleep. weary are at rest. The small and great are there The state is called dumah, "silence”: “Unless the same, and the servant is free from his master." the Lord had been my help, my soul had almost “To-morrow," said Samuel to the king whom dwelt in silence.” It is the “land of forgetful. God had rejected, “shalt thou and thy sons he ness ”_“The living know that they must die, but with me...... Then Saul fell straightway all along the dead know not anything; also their love, and upon the earth, and was sore afraid, because of their hatred, and their envy, is now perished.” the words of Samuel.” The dead know not anyTo the Preacher this present life did not seem thing, "says the Preacher, neither have they any very charming ; but it had at least one superiority more a reward. There are a few passages from to the state of the dead—"the living know that which it has been by some surmised, that there they must die, the dead know not anything." Yet existed among Old Testament believers a belief other passages leave those in sheol in possession of a deeper sheol than the ordinary; but probably of almost all that they had here, though in a much the passages bave been misunderstood or overimpoverished condition. Those who greet the pressed. In Isa, xiv., a passage so rich in conBabylonian king at his coming, though confessing tributions to our knowledge of Hebrew feeling themselves “weak,” yet know themselves and concerning the things of the dead, the Babylonian others, and have not quite lost their love, and king is threatened with a fate which looks like their hatred, and their envy. They seem to keep something more gloomy than that which befalls a kind of shadowy life of their own—a dreamy men in common—"thou shalt be thrust down to pomp and ceremonial, sitting with invisible forms the sides of the pit;” but this strong expression upon imperceptible thrones, from which they are is evidently used in antithesis to one which the stirred with some flicker of emotion to greet any monarch, in his towering ambition, had himself
employed, when he proposed to “set his throne and full of days, and be carried to his grave in a in the sides of the north, in the mount of God.” full age, as a shock of corn cometh in in his seaAnd though the passage did mean, that he who No doubt other thoughts began to arise presumed to seek to sit in the highest heaven towards the close of the Hebrew commonwealth, should be thrust down into the lowest hell, all and gradually acquired strength and consistency, that can certainly have been intended to be ex- and were in full currency by the time of our Lord; pressed is the most extreme opposition between but these may be alluded to afterwards. So far the arrogant hopes of the king and the actual as the canonical Scriptures of the Old Testament issue of his history. Neither can the fervent are concerned, sheol is represented as the comprayer of Balaam, “Let me die the death of the
mon rendezvous of all, the evil and the good righteous, and let my last end be like his,” have alike. been dictated by anything which he feared after There is a good deal more that needs to be death, or by any faith which he had in a distinc- added in order to present anything like a fair tion between the destinies of the righteous and view of the general impressions prevailing in Old the evil in sheol. The meaning of his prayer is Testament times on the state of the dead. But rather that he may live such a life as he sees this paper, besides being heavy, has attained its before Israel, rich in God's blessings, and there- legitimate length, and what more has to be said fore peaceful and long, so that he might die old must be reserved for another.
OUR FATHER'S LOVE: A STORY OF LONDON STREETS.
GETTING A LIVING.
FTER Mrs. Sanders was buried, people | Mrs. Sanders had been, she had always contrivel to go
seemed to forget all about Susie. The to church and take Susie with her, until she came to landlord called for his rent, and Susie paid Fisher's Lane, and was unable to go out on count of
hini, which was all he wanted, so he did illness. Elfie, however, had no other idea of Sunday not tronble himself to inquire whether she was living than of a day to play more and eat less ; for as there alone or had any one to take care of her; and Elfie had were no steps to clean or baskets to mind, and very told her not to say anything about it unless she was little refuse to be found about the market, she generally asked.
lay down to sleep feeling very hungry on Sunday night. Elfie was rather proud of her new mode of living- Susie always folded up her work and put it away having a roof to shelter her at night, a little spot she early on Saturday, that she might have time to clean could call home,--and-she honestly believed Susie could the room, just as her mother had done ; and so Elfie, not get on without her; and the feeling that she had finding her companion was not going to do any needlesome one to take care of, made her more careful of work on Sunday, persuaded her to come out to play, the things which were placed under her charge in the and for the sake of pleasing her Susie went. But the market.
rough noisy games of Elfie's companions Susie could not But in spite of her care, and the extra employment it enjoy, and she was glad to sit down in a quiet corner often brought her, the rent money could only be made and think of her mother, and the bright home she had up sometimes by Susie going without food the day gone to. Then she thought of their walks to church, before, for she could not eat the rubbish and refuse and what she heard there, and how grieved her mother Elfie seemed to enjoy. A breakfast or dinner of raw pould be if she could see her now playing with these pea-shells Susie could not eat above once or twice; and children, until she felt strongly inclined to run off to the stale fruit that Elfie bronght home for her often church now if only she knew her way. made her ill, so that if she could not afford to buy a She resolved not to go out to play again on Sunday; loaf, she often preferred being hungry to the chance of and when the next came round, she said, “Do you being ill and unable to work.
know your way to church, Elfie?"
But the greatest trouble of all to Susie was the dif. "To church !” repeated Elfie; “ they won't let us
ferent way in which she spent Sunday. She missed her play there." mother more on that day than any other; for poor as “No, I don't want to play,” said Susie, looking down
at her shabby frock, and wondering whether that was "We pray and sing, and hear what the minister says," fit to go to church in. “I want to do as mother did, answered Susie. and she always went to church on Sundays."
“What does he say?" asked Elfie. Elfie looked puzzled. “ Church ain't for poor people Susie thought for a minute, and then answered, like us,” she said.
“Well, he reads out of the Bible, and says 'Our Fa“Oh yes, it is. Mother used to say she could never ther.' You know that, don't you?” bear the trouble at all, if she could not go to church and But Elfie shook her head. “Who is 'Our Father'?" get some help from God for it on Sundays.”
she asked. “Eh? it's all along of the tables and chairs, and “God, who lives up in heaven, where mother's gone," sleeping in beds, I suppose,” said Elfie, a little disdain- answered Susie. fully.
“He's your Father, then, I suppose,” said Elfie. “ Church has nothing to do with tables and chairs,” “Yes, and yours too,” said Susie quickly. said Susie. “We go there to hear about God and the “No, he ain't ; I don't know him," said Elfie, shakLord Jesus Christ."
ing her head with a little sigh. “ Well, there ain't no God for poor people that don't “But he knows you, Elfe-knows you, and loves you, bave tables and chairs,” said Elfie.
and wants you to love him.” “Oh, Elfie, don't say that; God loves you, and wants But Elfie shook her head persistently. “I don't you to know and love him.”
know nothing about him, and nobody ever loved me," “What! wants me to go to church ?" asked Elfie. she said ; and, to end the conversation, she ran away to
Susie nodded. “Come with me, will you ?” she said finish her game of buttons, while Susie walked quietly eagerly.
home. Elfie laughed. “ Catch me trying it, won't you; and She ate a slice of dry bread for her dinner, and saved there's a policeman walking up and down in front all one for Elfie ; and then took her mother's Bible out of the time.”
the little box, and sat down to read a chapter just as she “ But the policeman is not there to keep people from used to do before her mother died; but the sight of the going in,” said Susie.
familiar old book upset all her firniness, and she sat “What does he walk up and down there for, then?” down with it in her lap, and burst into tears. She was asked Elfic quickly.
still crying when Elfie came rushing in to ask if she Susie could not answer this question, but she said, would not come out and join their play. "Well, I know he don't keep people out.”
“ What's the matter?" she exclaimed when she saw “Not fine people that's got tables and chairs at home. Susie in tears. “Are you so hungry?" she asked-for God wants them in there perhaps, and so he gives the hunger seemed the only thing worth crying for to Elfiepolice orders to let 'em in. I know all about it, you and then, seeing the slice of bread on the table, and see,” she added triumphantly.
guessing it had been left for her, she put it on the Bible, But Susie shook her head. “No, you don't,” she saying, “ You eat it, Susie ; I've had some cold potasaid. “God wants us to know and love him-you and toes, and I ain't very hungry now."
But Susie put it back into her hands. “No, no, “I know them police that stands at the door, and Elfie ; you must eat that,” she said. “I'm not crying that's enough for me," said the girl. “You can go if because I'm hungry." you like. Church, and tables, and chairs, and eating off "What is it then ?" said Elfie. plates, and sleeping in beds, is all one, I guess; and them Susie looked down at the book lying in her lap. “I that gets used to it can't do without it. But I can, and was thinking about mother,” she said. I shan't run to the police for that.”
“Are you getting tired of living with me?" asked But although Elfie would not go with Susie, she Elfie quickly. willingly consented to show her the way; for she had not “Oh no ; you're very kind. I don't know what I been to a church in this neighbourhood, and only knew should do without you, Elfie ; but I do want my mother," the road to take the work backwards and forwards. So, said Susie through her tears. after carefully washing her face and brushing her hair, Elfie looked puzzled. She was beginning to underand making herself as tidy as possible, Susie went out, stand that all the mothers in the world were not like carrying her prayer-book in her pocket-handkerchief, and hers ; that Susie's was not; and she could not undertrying to fancy that her mother was with her still. stand why Mrs. Sanders had gone away and left her.
Elfie would not come near the church; but after point- “What made her go away?" she asked. ing it out, and watching Susie go in, she ran back to Susie left off crying to look at her companion in surplay with her companions, wondering all the time what prise. “Don't you know God took her to heaven?" she could be going on inside the church to make Susie so said. anxious to go there. This was her first question when “Yes, I know you said that before," austered Elfe she met her as she came home. “What do you look at- impatiently; “but what made him take her?" what do you do," she asked, " when you go to church ?” “Because he loved her,” said Susie.